xt754746rf70 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt754746rf70/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1946 journals kaes_circulars_004_439 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 439 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 439 1946 2014 true xt754746rf70 section xt754746rf70   ; : i%;     igz    ~t It
Nia),   ..····   ....   ...-- · ---·   4....··   .....-4--   ....   ....   ` i
ur~uT vi  . _
wet- y _ "
*vcsl ia . J,}   ‘ I `Q t  
the %,       I "~~
- ·   »   % .‘ T/Egi _    wr 3 57* I
ying. , , `U `I
dust 4 ‘
h (3 . ` l
into `
Loscd I
tdlcd 5 n (I E
iying l l
1v0id `
~t usc
€XCl"· _'
11 thc 1:
rtw cm. 439 AUG 1   W  
Pl“'“ I   v' :¤+:mMENT STATIQI
rimal. . "T·*`:;'T;?*V ° i
  College oi AgricuH·ure arid Home Economics
  Agriculfural Exiension Division  
MAA? Thomas P. Cooper. Dean and Director  

 . Ul
' cl l.
Seven units are available to 4-H Club girls who wish to take the  
canning project. It is best to take the first 3 in the order given. Kecpa supply
record, using the 4-H Canning Record Book. ` they Hf
Unit I .................. Fruits and Fruit Juices Sugar 2
Unit II .................. Tomatoes and Tomato Juice
Unit III .................. Vegetables I L Ma
Unit IV .................. Meats (Use U. S. Dept. of Agriculture AW1.110) clu
. 2. Lal
In the meat unit can- W
5 quarts chicken nai
. `”. Cr
= 5 quarts pork 0 pg
5 quarts meat (other than pork or chicken) il I Q1
available 5* L)
6. Kn
30 quarts fruits and vegetables
Unit V .................. Relishes and Pickles
I Unit VI .................. Jellies, Jams, and Marmalades Q
Unit VII .................. Canning Budget git?
Help plan and can the budget for the family. color
_ Can at least a budget for one person (lllll  
jars). "
Use budget plan in Canning Record Book.
Use the above circulars for canning directions.
A 4-H Canning Record Book is available for keeping a record in  
any unit. asl]
I prin

 4-H Club Canning Project 5
_ By Dorothy Gentry and Edith Lacyi i , _
FRUIT SWEETS, such as jams, jellies, preserves, marmalades, conserves, lll __
and bntters serve various purposes in the menu. They can be used to _ t ·
akf lll tempt the appetite, give zest to bland foods, change left-over desserts, or _ . I
K€€pa supply the dessert for an emergency meal. As they contain much sugar “‘  
they are an excellent source of energy and should be used as part of the ._ .
sugar allowance for the day. _ j
_ l. Make 20 jars or glasses of jam, jel_ly, preserves, or marmalade, in-
' l-110) cluding at least 4· varieties.  
2. Label each jar or glass. Use regular club labels for county, district, ,
and state exhibits. For home storage use homemade labels, giving V
name of product and date when made. l
3. Can at least 35 quarts of fruits, vegetables, and meats and 5 pints of `
pickles or relish as a review of methods learned in other units.
glam) 3[ 4. Give a demonstration on making jelly, jam, preserves or marmalade.
5. Exhibit your products at community and county fairs, if held. I V
6. Keep a complete record in the 4-H Canning Record Book.
lelly is made by combining fruit juice and sugar in the right pro- I
portions and cooking until the mixture will jell when cooled. It should · ( .
· be clear, sparkling, and free from sediment or crystals, with the natural
famlll Calor and flavor of the fresh fruit. When turned from the glass it should
m (100 hold its shape and quiver. When cut, the edges should be sharp and the
V jelly should not cling to the knife. · i
wk' Selecting Fruit » A
I`€°ll°m' For jelly, select some slightly underripe and some well ripened fruit. _
Bcordjn , This assures both a supply of pectin and a good flavor t0 the jelly.
Pectin. a natural substance of green fruits, undergoes a chemical change
as the fruit ripens and sugar is formed; therefore the fruit for supplying
pectin should be selected before this stage is reached. On the other hand ·
some well-ripened fruit will give a delicious flavor and depth of color
_ llnstructions and recipes in this circular are based on Circular 302 (now out of
lvnnll. by Florence Imlay and Pearl .l. Hank. j
3 V.

 l 4
to the jelly. Club girls may use ML to 3% slightly underripe fruit and V
% to % well—ripened fruit.
Preparing the Fruit add an
Wash fruit and remove stems or blossom ends. Quarter apple; in Pm?
leaving skin and core. When using other hard fruits cut them in small is 0¤l>’
pieces. Crush soft, juicy fruits in a kettle and add 1 cup of waterll fvfm-
2 or 3 quarts of fruit. Cut the less juicy fruits into small pieces, leaving P1€€€5 `
skins, seeds, and cores. Put into a kettle and cover with water and a lid.
Bring the mixture slowly to boiling and cook until tender. Cook sob
fruits 2 or 3 minutes—no longer. A
Extracting the Juice W
Remove juice from the stove and drain it through a heavy muslin or Slice:
flannel bag or several layers of cheesecloth. Don’t squeeze it in straining, Smlul
To make a second extraction cover the fruit pulp with water, bring to will Y
boiling and drain as before. The juice from the first extraction will make mth Sl
a better quality jelly. However, a satisfactory product can be made by use l‘
mixing the first and second together.
‘ The fruit juice for jelly-making must contain pectin and acid in the
right proportions. Some fruits contain plenty of both while others lack B
one or the other, or both. Some of the common fruits are grouped below slowly
according to the amounts of pectin and acid they usually contain. pectin
Rich in acid Rich in pectin but Rich in acid but Low in both lest {O
and pectin low in acid low in pectin acid and pectin little ;
Sour apples Sweet apples Cherries Raspberries
· Crabapples Quinces Pineapples Elderberries `
Cranberries Pears Strawberries Peaches
Gooseberries Over-ripe fruits J
Grapes f
Loganberries ¤1'0II1
Sour blackberries fruit
Plums _
Currants fmlou
There is, however, some variation in pectin and acid content of tl1€ lmC€'
same kind of fruit juice and it is therefore well to test the juice for both
acid and pectin before attempting to make jelly. (
. Us 2
Test for Acid _ ju;
. e
If the fruit juice has a decided tart or acid taste, it usually contallli Of bc
enough acid to make it jell. But if you are not quite sure that it is wrt and 5
enough, make a solution by mixing l teaspoon of lemon juice, 3 table ‘
spoons of water and M2 teaspoon of sugar, and compare with the fum
`uice. If the fruit 'uice tastes about as sour as the lemon mixture, it c0u· _
tains enough acid to make jelly. If the juice is less acid to the taSl€, add with
an equal quantity of a tart fruit juice, or a few slices of lemon, OTE than
small quantity of lemon juice. clisso

 l j   j
. . E
mt all Pectin Test j
Pour 2 or 3 tablespoons of cooked fruit juice into a small glass and j " `
add an equal amount of alcohol (denatured). If the fruit juice is rich ··
apple;. in pectin a solid jelly-like mass or clot will quickly form. If the juice A .»
1 small is only moderately rich, several small particles of jelly-like material will · l "
Hmm form. If the juice contains little or no pectin, only a few tiny flaky yi y
lawn! pieces will form. · _ j  
Jka mj Homemade Pectin Concentrate j I
o sor ‘
A concentrated apple pectin solution may be made at home by l
following these directions. ` V A
Wash 4 pounds of firm, tart apples; remove the blossom end, and
lsjium slice. Add 2 quarts of water and juice of 2 lemons. Boil 20 minutes. t
-6iHm Strain mixture through jelly bag, without squeezing. Boil again rapidly I
ring jo until reduced to about 1% pints. Pour into hot sterilized jars and seal . I
jmake with sterilized tops. To make jelly from fruit juice lacking in pectin, t
ade by use l cup concentrated apple pectin to 3 to 4 cups of fruit juice. A
l in rlu Adding the Sugar
YS lad Boil the 'uice ra idl until it is reduced to about half and then t t
1 P Y
lb€l0ll slowly add the sugar. The amount of sugar to use is determined by the - .
pectin and acid content of the juice. lf a juice gives a satisfactory alcohol
test for pectin, add sugar equal to the amount of juice. If a juice contains .
in little acid, use %£ cup of sugar to every cup of juice.
Wlien to Add Sugar
it lelly has a better flavor and color if surplus water is evaporated _`
from the juice before the sugar is added. lf water was added to the
fruit to extract the juice, boil the juice rapidly until about the same
amount of water is evaporated. Then add the sugar slowly to the boiling ,
of the . lime- I
. I _`
N boil Amount to Cook
. W Cook not more than 3 or 4 cups at a time for jelly of best quality.
  a kettle which will hold at least 4 times as much as the amount of A j
ontaius ]UlC€ to be cooked. The juice can then be boiled rapidly without danger
is tart Oi boiling over. Slow cooking causes jelly to be strong flavored, dark, ~
l vumm r V
L table- Hm C l' '
ll? hull How Long to Cook _
ll Cog I Juice of the proper acid and pectin content should be ready to jell
`[€’ aa will   to 15 minutes eeeking after the sugar is added. If it l)OllS less ·
1*01. g lllilll TD mlnuteg after the sugar is added, the sugar may HOC lJ€ fully `
dl$$Ol\`€(l and erystalg may fgrrrr after the jelly has stood for 3 few W€€k$. _
‘ I

 l 6 j
On the other hand, if the sugar and juice cook together too long the n 2-
sugar tends to caramelize and the jelly is darkened and strong-flavored,
Simmerin the `uice causes a dark strong-flavored jelly.
g J
How to Tell When Jelly Is Done
7 _ , _ The “sheet test” for tell
  g »Z.  ing when jelly is done n
{is   ";”'   accurate and easy to make.
.Take a little juice in a spoon 4
cool it slightly, and pour it
0 6 from the side of the spoon 4_
When the drops run together i
and drop off the side ofthe
/¢§;;;§, A12 , spoon in a sheet, as in the ,
    ana. ~*" lower illustration, the jelly is 5i
\ ’ / done and should be taken
` ` " ' from the stove. lf a thermom-
= eter is used, the temperature ,
will be 217 to 221 degrees F. I 6
Filling the Glasses  °
After taking the jelly off the stove, strain and pour it into hot
sterilized glasses. Hold the pan only 1 or 2 inches above the glass when l
4 pouring, so that air will not be carried into the jelly. Air bubbles tend ‘ 1
to make the jelly cloudy and foggy.
Covering and Labeling  
When the jelly is thoroughly cooled, pour melted paraffin overtln A
top. Be sure that the entire surface is coated. Then wash the outside nl
the jelly glass thoroughly and cover. Write the date and kind of jellyon Or
the label and stick it on the glass ML inch from the bottom. Store the fr  
jar of jelly in a cool dry place. 3 stl;
V first
Causes of Some Common Difficulties in Making Jelly llélg
1. Soft jelly _ oft
Not enough pectin or acid due to use of the wrong kiltdfll test,
fruit or over-ripe fruit. _ par;
Too much sugar.
Too little cooking of juice. W
. . . the
_ Long, slow cooking of juice.

 0 l   ‘,C G
mg, the j 2. Tough, gummy jelly j l
lavomj Too little sugar. Q
Cooking too long. j ' ‘
3. Cloudy jelly I _
Wrong method of extracting the juice. - . 1
for {EH, Use of green fruit, such as apples, which contain starch. · V. Ii
dom E Pour1ng jelly into glasses from too great a distance above j  
.   glass- . . . . 1 i
H Spoon` Too much pect1n 1n the ]U1C€.. · · .
pom  · Allowing jelly to cool before filling glasses. K `
’ SP00n, 4. Dark, strong-flavored jelly l r
f°g‘*‘l‘°’ · Cooking juice too long. , .
F   F}? Cooking too much juice at a time. I
> E `
> jelly is 5. Crystals in jelly ' -·
~e taken Too much sugar.
h°fm"m` Not enough cooking after sugar is added. ‘
perature ,
zgreesf. j 6. Fermented jelly
_ Glasses not well sterilized. . · ·
 . Not enough cooking.
Glasses not well sealed.
UNO lwl Storing in a warm place.
ass when .
Jles tend ‘ 7· MOMY lBuY ·
Classes not well sterilized.
Y Paraffin not hot enough to sterilize top of jelly. ij ' C
over the C Jelly Recipes _
utsidcol ~
1 jejjym Apple jeZZy.—Wash and quarter crab or sour apples without paring »
Store the or removing the core. Put into a kettle and add half as much water as V
5 fruit. Cover, and cook slowly to extract as much of the juice as possible.
. Strain the juice and, if desired, make a second extraction and add to the 4
first. lf the juice makes a good pectin test use 3A cup sugar to a cup of »
» juice. Boil the juice 3 to 5 minutes to evaporate some of the water. Then
add the sugar gradually to the juice and boil rapidly until the temperature i
_ d { of the mixture reaches 2170 to 2210 F or until the juice meets the sheet `
i km 0 test. slum and pour into hot sterilized glasses. Cool; cover with melted .
. paraffin; label; and store in a cool dry place.
. Currant, plum, and gooseberry jellics may be made by following
the same general directions as for apple jelly. 4

 ~ 8
Blackberry jelly.—Select about M2 blackberries which are red or - Sel
slightly underripe and % fully ripe. Wash and put into a large kettle. in unif
Add about one cup of water to three quarts of berries, bring slowly to fruits i
boiling, and boil about 5 minutes. Strain through a wet flannel, lieoo » Cook li
muslin bag, or several layers of cheesecloth. Test the juice for peetiri. sirup n
Measure the number of cups of juice; this will determine how much sugar than 2
to add later. Pour juice into a kettle. Boil the juice rapidly 3 toi ll`:
minutes to evaporate some of the surplus water, then add M2 to % cup for bet
of sugar per cup of unevaporated juice, according to the pectin test. pan fo:
Boil rapidly until the temperature reaches 2170 to 2210 F, or until the sterilizt
juice meets the sheet test. Pour into hot, sterilized glasses. When cool, — the jar;
cover with melted paraffin, label, and store in a cool, dry place. before
» small x
Raspberry, loganberry, and rlewberry jelly can be made by using {ol- 30
the same general directions as for blackberry jelly. the jar
Grape jelly/.—Choose slightly-underripe grapes; take them from
stems, and wash. Put into a kettle and add 1 cup water to 2 quarts grapes.
_ Boil slowly about 8 minutes. Strain through a jelly bag, and test juice
‘ for pectin. Measure the number of cups of juice, pour into kettle, and C,
boil rapidly about 3 to 5 minutes to evaporate some of the surplus water. im, tj,
Add % to 1 cup sugar per cup of unevaporated juice, according to the pai, 3,
pectiu test. Boil rapidly until the temperature reaches 2170 to 2210l Ohm},
or until the mixture meets the sheet test. Strain, pour into hot, sterilized stm, ,
glasses, cool, cover with melted paraffin, label, and store in a cool, dry {mit ,
_ place- _ until ;
Crystals can be prevented from forming in grape jelly by using Cl¥€YYi·
about V2 apple juice and % grape juice. FJ 15
Mint ]€lly.—Wash and chop fine 2 cups of mint leaves. Add  P
cup water and % cup sugar and allow to stand several hours. Bring I0
boiling point and strain. Make apple jelly according to directions, arltl
green vegetable coloring to give a bright color and 1 to 2 tablespoons of S
the prepared mint juice to each quart of apple jelly a few minutes before Make
removing the jelly from the flame. Skim and pour into hot, sterilized pooch
glasses. Cool, cover with paraffin, label, and store in a dry, cool pl&€€4 sirup
pan. j
eral l
Preserves are made by cooking whole small fruits or small pi€€€F 3228
of large fruits in a sirup of water and sugar until the fruits or pieces of
fruits are clear and somewhat translucent and filled with a heavy si1‘t1P· A
(“Translucent" means that they let light shine through them.) Good
preserves hold the original color, shape, and size of the fruit.

 ( { I .
9 1
red or - Select fruit for preserving that is firm—ripe rather than soft-ripe. Cut 1
kettle. in uniform pieces for even cooking. Cook berries and soft and acid   .· ·
wlyu fruits in a thick sirup made by using V2 cup water to 2 cups sugar. _1
lteaut eCook heavier fruits such as peaches, pears, and watermelon in a thin
pectiti. sirup made with 1 cup water to every 1% cups sugar. Don’t make more _ `, .
tsugar than 2 quarts of preserves at a time. V _
3 tc5 When the fruit is tender, remove it from the stove and cool quickly ` "* .
% cup for better flavored preserves. Let the fruit stand in the sirup in a shallow ._ t
n test. pan for 7 to 12 hours. Remove the fruit from the sirup and pack in hot , ,
ttil the sterilized jars. Heat the sirup to boiling and pour over the fruit to fill ·
1 cool, — the jars. If the sirup is too thin boil it rapidly to the desired consistency . - · t _
before pouring over the fruit. Remove air bubbles from the jars with a
small wooden spoon or paddle. Put jars of preserves in water and simmer p
Usiati for 30 minutes. Upon removing the jars, seal with sterilized tops, label [
the jars, giving the date and kind of preserves. Store in a cool, dry place. il
t from .
¥I`€*P€$· Recipes for Preserves ·
t juice
f0= and Cherry preser·ves.——Wash the cherries. Remove stem: and pits, sav-
“'0l€l‘ ing the juice to use in making the sirup. Place cherries in a shallow ' "
golhlg pan and cover with medium thick sirup made with 1 cup sugar to 1 cup
  ` cherry juice or water. Boil slowly for 10 minutes; remove from the
wheel Store and let stand in the pan 7 to 12 hours. Drain the juice from the
01= 011 fruit and pack the cherries in clean, hot, sterilized jars. Boil the sirup
_ until it reaches 2180 to 2240 F, then pour the boiling sirup over the ’
using cherries to fill the jars. Partially seal and process in a water bath (2120 , j
li) 15 to 20 minutes. Seal and store in a cool, dry place. _ 1
kdd ig Peach preserves
Ying tv 2 lb peaches 4 c sugar ,
ls? ad.] 2 chot water =
mnscf Scald peaches, remove skins and seeds, and slice or cut in quarters. ·
b_0f0r€ Make a very thick sirup, using ¢1· cups sugar to 2 cups water. Cook the
mhzed Peaches in the sirup until they are clear. Remove the peaches from the _
place' Simp and boil sirup 5 to 10 minutes longer. Place peaches in a shallow
pan. pour the sirup over them and allow to stand over night or for sev-
Hral hours. Remove fruit and boil the sirup until it reaches 2180 to 2240
F, and pour over the peaches. Fill hot sterilized jars, partially seal, ‘
_ _ process in a water bath (2120 F) 15 to 20 minutes, completely seal, and
  $101** iu a cool. dry place; I
S11`UPi Pear preserves
COM 2111 pears 2 c sugar A
1 lemon 6 c water  

 I 10 l
Wash and peel pears, removing stems and blossom ends. Cut in _ fn
quarters and drop into`4 cups water to which 1 tablespoon salt has bm Ol? to.
added. Make a sirup by boiling the sugar and the two remaining cups of an S `
water together for 3 to 5 minutes. Add pears and sliced lemon to the
sirup and cook until the pears are clear and somewhat translucent. ‘
Remove the pears and place in a shallow pan. Cook the sirup until thick,
pour over fruit, and allow to stand for several hours. Remove fruit and Jai
boil sirup until it reaches 2180 to 2240 F, and pour over the fruit, fill mixture
hot, sterilized jars, partially seal, process in a water bath (2120 F) li color sl
to 20 minutes, completely seal, and store in a cool, dry place. in most
Damson plum preserves F;
3 qt plums 1 c sugar 1 c water tlirougl
Select plums which are slightly underripe. Wash, remove stems and gig;
pierce. Make a sirup of the sugar and water, add plums, and cook until
the fruit is tender and clear. Pour into shallow pans and let stand for
several hours. Reheat the sirup and boil until it reaches 2180 to 2240 F,
I and pour over the fruit. Fill hot, sterilized jars, partially seal, process V (j
A in a water bath (2120 F) 15 to 20 minutes, completely seal, and store meg
in a cool, dry place. pound
Strawberry preserves gg]; 
1% qt prepared berries 2% c sugar mm t
Cover the bottom of a pan with half the sugar. Pour in the berries h°l’ Sl
and cover with the remaining sugar. Let the mixture stand all night. and C
Place the pan over a slow fire and heat slowly until all the sugar is
dissolved, stirring carefully to prevent scorching. Boil rapidly 2 minutes,
stirring carefully to avoid crushing the berries. Remove from the lift. i A I
pour into a shallow pan, cover with a clean piece of glass, and set iii ppl
a sunny place for 2 or 3 days, or until the berries are plump and the sirup
thick. Stir frequently during these 2 or 3 days. Pack into hot, sterilized
jars, partially seal, and process 20 to 30 minutes in a water bath (2l2° e
F). Completely seal and store in a cool, dry place. ·
Watermelon rind preser·ve.s.——Using only the white part from tilt and;
I‘i`H0il lol with
about 1 hour. As sirup thickens, add lemon and spices, if desired- when 8 Sie
thick or at temperature of 2200 F remove from fire and let stand Otel Cool
, night. Pack pieces of fruit in sterilized jars, reheat sirup to boiling- PO"' steri

 . { I . I .
11 p   n
, _ I
but lll Oygr fruit, partially seal, and process 15 to 20 minutes, completely seal,
S be; and store in a cool place. I , ,
to the "
trick, ` I
ritrmd Jum is made from whole fruit so prepared as to make a smooth '·.I I_
Iit, fill mixture. The fruit is broken by stirring during cooking. The natural ‘,
F) li color should be preserved as nearly as possible, and seeds should be left 1 I
in most berries and small fruits. ]am should be jellied and tender. When I
placed in a dish it should not spread or flatten. p _
Fruit butter is smoother than jam and usually should be pressed A I p
through a sieve or colander. Seeds and skins should be taken out. A good
d fruit butter is jelly-like, firm enough to slice, but also soft enough to I `
Us all spread evenly.
k until ,
Ind lor l l
,240 F. . How to Make Jam and Butter I
IHOCBSS ‘ Cook the fruit until it begins to thicken or the surplus water evapo-
ll stm rates. Add slowly to the boiling mixture M2 to % pound of sugar to 1
pound of fruit, or % to 1 cup sugar per cup of fruit, depending on the _ ,
amount of pectin in the fruit. Stir until the sugar is entirely dissolved, p
and cook rapidly, stirring frequently. Test by cooling a little of the mix-
ture. lf it keeps its shape, it is done. Remove from the stove, pour into
heme, hot, sterilized jars, and seal with sterilized tops, or pour into hot glasses
I Highp and cover with hot paraffin when cool. Store in a cool, dark, dry place. V
trgar 15
¤i¤Ul€$I _ Butter and Jam Recipes `_ I I
he fire,
1 Set in Apple butter
ne sirup 7 lb good cooking apples 1 t ground allspice
ieriliztti 1(20 to 21 medium sized apples) 1% T groémpl cinnamon ‘ _
1 (2120 ` iéitqisgpagar l t groun c oves l
Wash and slice the apples leaving skins and seeds. Add the cider
mm the and cook until the apples are very tender. Remove the skins and seed by _
,8 Wap, Pressing the fruit through a sieve. Add the sugar and spices to the pulp
rindi, and cook until thick and clear, stirring frequently to prevent burning.
1 W,,,,,_ Ppur into sterilized jars, cool and cover with paraffin. Store in a cool
Q lemon p a°°· ` '
*6 flaw Plum butter.-—Wash the plums, put them into a kettle and cover I
boll for   lvalel`,                      
d· when 8 Slsvc and measure the pulp, Add 1/2 tc % cup of sugar per cup of pulp. _
md Om C<>0l< slowly until thick and clear. Remove from stove, pour into hot,
ng. PO"' $l€rilized jars,.and seal. V

 ‘ 12
Grape butter.-Wash the grapes, remove the stems and separate pulp GM
from skins. Place in pan, add only enough water to keep the grapes from
scorching, and heat to boiling. Cook until the grapes are soft. Rub through
a sieve. Add V2 cup of sugar per cup of pulp. Cook slowly for about 20
minutes, or until desired consistency is reached. Test by removing pan W a
from stove and cooling a sample. Pour into hot, sterilized jars and seal. the skit
One cup wild grape juice and pulp added to 1 to 1% quarts of cultivated Rub thr
grape juice and pulp gives a delightful flavor. tender.
Blackberry jam.—Wash the berries, place in pan and heat slowlv ASX mi;
. . . » . . ' S'
until some juice IS extracted. Cook until the berries are thoroughly soft. t msn;
ened. Measure the pulp and liquid together, and for every pint addl ,u;€ hoj
cup of sugar. Cook rapidly until thick, stirring to prevent burning. Pour ujaie i
into hot, sterilized jars, cool, cover with paraffin and store. P '
Marmalades are usually made__ with citrus fruit or in combination W,
’ with other fruits or vegetables and are similar to preserves. Conserves are lemon J
a combination of several fruits with nuts and raisins or both added to Orange
the mixture. The ingredients are cooked with sugar until the mixture is M) him
1€Uy-hk<=- Him
tops. a1
Orange-lemon marmalade
6 0l`Z1I`lgCS Sugar ` Or
2 lemons 1-1% qt water
Wash oranges and lemons and cut in thin slices. Cover with water
and let stand over night. Cook slowly until the fruit is tender. Measure.
add an equal amount of sugar, and cook. Test the marmalade by giving I So
it the jelly sheet test. Pour into hot, sterilized jars, seal with sterilittll md ll
tops, and store. €00l<, 2
rind is
Orange-carrot murmulade   Sli
r 11
3 carrots 4 c sugar
2 OI`&1'1g€S T C WVEIICT
Juice from 3 lemons VZ t salt
Wash and scrape the carrots and put through a food chopper, using
a medium blade. Steam until tender. Wasli and peel the oranges. Cut
orange peeling into small pieces and boil in water until tender. Add the
steamed carrots, sugar, lemon juice, and salt to the orange mixture and
cook until the fruit is clear and the sirup meets the jelly sheet test. Pont
into hot, sterilized jars, seal with sterilized tops, and store in a cool, dry
. place.

 E   . A
l l A
is pulp Grape conserve .
s from 2lb grapes {Q c raisins in V
hl-Gush 1 orange IA c nuts . ,
mm E0 2 e sugar 1 c water
ig pn Wash the grapes, remove from the stems, and separate the pulp from - ° `_
dseal. the skins. Cook the pulp slowly until some of the seeds are loosened. V., _
tivatcd Rub through a colander. Add 1 cup of water to the skins and cook until ‘l
tender. Squeeze the orange and put the rind through a food chopper. l
I _] Mir together the orange juice, rind of orange, raisins, cooked pulp, and · i
S Ollfl skins of grape. Boil until quite thick. Add the sugar and cook until mix- l
S . _ r
adm ture nearly meets the sheet test. Add nuts, remove from stove, and pour l
PON into hot, sterilized jars. Seal with sterilized tops, and store in cool, dry l
5. r
place. . l
Rhubarb conserve ‘
2 lb rhubarb 1 orange ~
5 c sugar 1 lemon (small) `
1 c seedless raisins M; c nuts i
mmol Wash and cut the rhubarb in small pieces. Squeeze the orange and
idesdm lemon and put the rind through the food chopper. Mix together rhubarb.
. E l0 orange and lemon rind, fruit juice, raisins, and sugar and allow to stand ` V
Iureb   hour. Place on stove and bring to boiling. Let simmer for about 45
minutes or until thick. Pour into hot, sterilized jars, seal with sterilized
tops. and store in a cool, dry place.
. Orangeapricot conserve I i
LQ lb dried apricots 1 c nuts ` l `
1 wglgf l orange 3% c sugar
easure l small van crushed pineapple
givin! Soak the a ricots over ni¤`ht and cook. S ueeze the orange. Put the l
U » _ P zz q . ra _
zrilized und through food chopper. Add orange juice and rind to apricots and ' ,
cook, stirring constantly, about 15 or 20 minutes, or until the orange .
und is tender. Cut nuts into medium-sized pieces. Add nuts, pineapple, ‘
and sugar to apricot-orange mixture. Cook until it meets the sheet test.
Pour into sterilized jars, seal with sterilized tops, and store in a cool place. -
·, using ·
es. Cut
rdd the ‘
are and
t. Pour ’
017 (lil I

 Cuopcmtivc Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics: Collcgc of Agriculture and Home
, Economics, University of Kentucky, and the Unitcd States Department of Agriculture, conpcmliugr
Thomas P. Cooper, Direclcr. Issued in furthcrnncc of thc Acts of May 8 und June 30,1914.
Lexington, Kentucky
June, 1947
. 1031-esi

 , { I . ,
I 1 • ,
I ·|
* `
A *4  
and Home ‘
` I
1031-+*7 L