GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY.
N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR.
OF A PART OF
GREENUP AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES
THE YEAR 1874
BY C. SCHENK.
PART 11. VOIL. V. SECOND SERIES.
5T3IREOTYEDPR THRU SRV- Y V.JORU )OHNSTON & RARRS, YCOR5N PRESS, FRANKFORT, KY.
I & 12
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TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF A PART OF
GREENUP AND LAWRENCE COUN-
TIES FOR THE YEAR 1874.
TOPOGRAPHY OF A PART OF GREENUP COUNTY.
On the 7th of May I received orders to prepare myself for
a journey to Springville, Greenup county, for the purpose of
surveying that part of the county the survey of which was
left incomplete by the Geological and Topographical Survey
under Prof. Owen in i86i. This territory lies close to the
Ohio river, between Tygart's and Indian creeks. I made
my arrangements as quickly as possible, reached the ground,
and was ready to work on the I 3th of May. Previous to
other work, I took a hasty reconnoitre of the country, that I
might reach a decision as to the best method of surveying to
I had hoped that, by the measurement of a small base, and
following a triangulation resting upon this base, I might at
any rate establish particular points by means of which I might
ascertain the exact position of each particular region which
was to be surveyed in detail. I did not succeed in establish-
ing to my satisfaction a sufficient number of prominent points
of reference. This could only have been done by cutting
off the timber on different mountain tops. There were not
funds sufficient to have the wood cut from these heights;
that is, there were not funds enough for executing work pre-
paratory to a triangulation. Nevertheless, the work was to
be completed as quickly as possible. Thus I decided, since
there was no other way, to master the survey of details with-
out previous triangulation, by means of polygonal lines drawn
through the whole country. For the measurement of angles I
had a theodolite, with a telemeter attachment, which latter I
TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF A PART OF GREENUP
applied to measure lengths by means of a graduated staff.
The measuring of distances by measuring-rods or by a chain
would have gone on but slowly, owing to the unevenness of
the ground, and the many obstacles to progress. My instruc-
tions were to begin work where Prof. Owen had left off. But
as, in my opinion, there were no desirable fixed points to be
got, I decided to begin at the Ohio itself.
The portion of Greenup county to be surveyed has a sur-
face of about fifty-five square miles, and, as previously said,
is so situated with respect to the Ohio that this river bounds
it on the north, while it is bounded on the east by Tygart's
creek, partly on the west by Indian creek, and, finally, on
the south by Brushy creek.
The principal part of the rain which falls on this surface
goes directly or indirectly to Tygart's creek, and thence to
the Ohio, while only a small part is brought to the Ohio by
Indian creek, and other still smaller rivulets. The principal
stream in this region is Schultz creek, with its affluents, Dry
Fork and Wingo, which both flow from north to south into
Schultz creek. The smaller afiluents have but little length,
and the mass of water which flows in them is inconsiderable.
Almost all the streams run in a more or less easterly direction
toward Tygart's creek. They come in order as follows, com-
mencing with the one most to the north: White Oak, Schultz
creek, Plum Fork, Beechy and Brushy Fork of Tygart. Indian
creek is the only one that runs northward. The amount of
water in all the above-mentioned creeks, except Tygart's
creek, was, during my stay in the country, small, so that their
water-power is not of much importance. On the other hand,
Tygart's creek offers a mass of water sufficient to obtain a
The whole country is hilly, and very much eroded. The
many deep valleys which cut through the country occur owing
to the proportionately soft material of the Waverly section,
which generally forms the main bulk of the hills.
Generally the hills are connected by high ridges. Lost
Hill alone, which stands near the junction of White Oak
AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES FOR THE YEAR 1874 5
and Tygart's creeks, is isolated from the surrounding country
by a deep gap. There is also a somewhat larger hill round
which Tygart's, Schultz, and White Oak creeks flow, and so
pretty much isolate it.
Springfield Hill is about six hundred and twenty-five feet
higher than the summer level of the Ohio river. The row of
hills that run for a certain distance parallel to the Ohio has an
extremely abrupt slope towards the north-i. e., towards the
Ohio-so abrupt that it is often impossible to scale these hills
on that side. On the other hand, the southern slope is much
more gentle, and is divided by long ravines that run off to-
wards White Oak creek. The valleys are generally very nar-
row; Schultz creek occupies the broadest; the area favorable
to cultivation is consequently very restricted. This, however,
is not true of Tygart's creek, where one finds very finely
situated farms. The ridges are generally narrow; still, small
plateaux very favorable to cultivation are found on the hills,
as, for example, close behind Springville and south of Schultz
creek. The land fit for cultivation by the plow is already
more or less cultivated. Fruit seems to thrive very well here.
I found a young vineyard three years old, belonging to Mr.
Nippert, whose grapes looked as sound and full as could be
wished. This vineyard is on the sunny side of Schultz creek.
Tlhe hills are mostly sandstone. Hence the earth fit for
cultivation is mostly sandy; and, as the weather is constantly
loosening debris of sandstone from the hills, and the rain
washes this debris down into the narrow valleys, the latter
are often covered over for quite a distance with a great mass
of detritus. This is especially the case with White Oak creek
and Wingo, an affluent of Schultz creek. The stream flows
often for a certain length under this debris. Water-course
and road often occupy here- the same ground. It was very
difficult to center the instruments here. The crest of the
ridges is still mostly covered with timber, which, when I
was there, was being cut down in many places to be con-
verted into charcoal and sent to the iron works of the neigh-
lboring town of Portsmouth. In the southeastern and western
6 TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF A PART OF GREENUP
portion of the territory that I surveyed the Hampshire Fur-
nace is, and Globe Furnace was, situated; the iron industry
was fairly active. Iron and even fire-clay is found in this
district, and the latter is quarried and shipped.
In this connection, the so-called Indian forts of the Ohio
valley should also be mentioned. There is one of the Indian
forts below Springville. The earthen walls, eight to ten feet
in height, which surround the fort, have a parapet of eight
feet, and several gates of issue. On the west side the traces
of a protected way are clearly perceptible. The fort has the
form of a square with rounded corners, and covers a surface
of twelve acres. A very small fort, in good preservation, with
only one issue, is found above Tygart's creek on a farm owned
by Mr. Wm. Biggs.
I began mapping out my results while I was still surveying.
I finished surveying by the beginning of July. I then went
home to work at the map. At the beginning of August I
received orders to proceed, with assistants, to Louisa, in Law-
rence county, and to begin the topographical survey of that
county. Accordingly I went thither with two assistants-C.
Jeancon and E. Wolff. By the 5th of August we had reached
the ground and were ready to work.
The same difficulties presented themselves here, with re-
spect to triangulation, as in Greenup county; and as it was
necessary to do the map of this district quickly, there was no
other way of going to work except the one already employed
in Greenup county-i. e., polygonal lines were drawn over the
district, the angles were measured with a theodolite, and the
distances with the telemeter.
Lawrence county is bounded on the north by Carter and
Boyd counties, on the east by Big Sandy river, which divides
it from the State of West Virginia, on the south by Johnson,
and on the west by Elliott and Morgan counties.
The principal stream of Lawrence county is Blaine creek.
Near it are Cat creek, with its three forks, Irish creek, Cher-
Figures of these forts have been prepared for the second volume of Memoirs of thq
AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES FOR THE YEAR 1874.
okee creek, Brushy creek, Little Blaine creek, Hood's Fork,
and Keaton Fork, the two Laurels, Rich, Elk, and Morgan
creeks, Twin Branches creek, etc.
At Louisa, county seat of Lawrence county, Tug Fork and
Louisa Fork unite to form the Big Sandy or Chatterawha
river, which flows thence into the Ohio, at Catlettsburg. Tug
Fork forms the boundary between Lawrence county, in the
State of Kentucky, and West Virginia. Louisa Fork runs
within the State of Kentucky, and divides Lawrence county.
Blaine creek rises on the border line of Lawrence county,
carries along in its bed a great part of the water-fall of this
county, and empties into Big Sandy river about seven miles
The principal affluents of Blaine creek come partly from a
greater distance than Lawrence county, as, for example, the
two Laurels, Hood's Fork, Brushy, and Keaton's Fork.
A fork of Blaine creek, Cat creek, has itself three branches
-Cooksey, Thompson, and Jordan forks. It rises in Law-
rence county at one fountain head. At this fountain head the
following streams also rise: Irish creek, Daniels' creek, Cane
Fork (a fork of Dry Fork, which is a fork of Little Sandy
creek), and Dry Fork, Bell's Trace of Dry Fork, and other
smaller streams. Blaine creek itself flows principally in a