xt759z909w6s https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt759z909w6s/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1946 journals kaes_circulars_004_428_02 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 428 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 428 1946 2014 true xt759z909w6s section xt759z909w6s ‘?  
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Apple Spray Program  I
lcd ass
lor Kentucky Fruit Growers I y
' is vcr; . III
H1 {ml By P. O. Ritcher and 4 I
IDT OI W. D. Armstrong
if mile
the us: I I
curculii This spray program is presented as the one
most apt to control apple insects and diseases
in Kentucky. It is based on recent research `
V carried on in the Midwest by the Federal Fruit ,
Insect Laboratory at Vincennes, Indiana, and
the Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations. ·
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Circular 428      
e i I" Q_.l¤#i`; I
  College of Agriculture and Home Economics I
§gr,}§“llg Agricultural Extension Division II
1e Actsi I
4M_2.4· Thomas P. Cooper, Dean and Director `

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E In orc
SUCCESSFUL SPRAYING involves correct timing, thorough appli-; SEYY that R
cation, and use of proper materials. It should also be rememberedl
that sanitary measures such as cleaning up trash, scraping and band; wh"' ;° °
` ing trees, screening packing sheds, and keeping picking crates free ell ey O
worms, are just as important as the spray program in controlling iirl HOOK
sects and diseases. _) To
In general, because of residue problems, no variety of apple shouldl °°'
be sprayed later than 30 days before harvest. This means that such? spl
varieties as Yellow Transparent should receive not more than 2 cover; Or
sprays. Also, the summer applications of lead arsenate sprays on late? _? To
apples to control second-brood codling moth may result in lead ant\§ (b.
arsenic residues above the legal tolerances. , gg
DDT is included in the spray schedule this year as it has giverii C0
the best codling moth control during the past 3 years. Howeveryl Some
where DDT has been used instead of the older control materials therci Oi]_ Thos,
have almost always been outbreaks of European red mites or other} spray Oi];
mites difficult to control and sometimes outbreaks of red-banded leull lignite Pit
roller and certain species of aphids. Growers who have been able tc; cial emu]
_ control apple pests satisfactorily with schedules not containing DDT.{
may increase their problems if they switch to DDT.  
¤ Emul
Spray service work, under the Special Horticulture Appropriation, Spray, M
is being carried on in the main fruit sections of Kentucky. For helpi with 2 ql
with your problems consult your spray letters, your County Agri. mixmmi
cultural Agent, or the Agricultural Experiment Station. p Sm., pun
If you have only a few trees or wish to use only a minimum sched* mm {gmk
ule, see Circular 353, "Sprays for the Home Fruit Garden? A commum
water ant
For a detailed discussion of fruit insects and diseases in Kentuck}.=
see Ky. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bulletin 393, "l·`rrrit Pests and Their Control."
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p of water
and 6 po
A shoot bat
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(This circular is a revision of Leaflet 10)   U Ol]
Fill tank
  1 Use
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ii Dormant Spray  
E In orchards where DDT was used last year, it is especially neces- _  
{ sary that a dormant spray be applied this year to control mites. I y v_ .
l When to a I : In earl s rin or late winter, before owth be ins, ` I r ;
, PP Y Y P g ST S y ,l L
  and on a day when the temperature is above 45°F. If possible   __;
i choose a bright clear day with little or no wind. {_ Q G
é To control scale and mites (by killing mite eggs) use a spray ` h   "  
U containing 3 gallons of dormant spray oil per 100 gallons of A ·~ { ·
  spray mixture. ~ ‘:
  Or I ~
  é To control scale, mites, rosy aphids and other apple aphids i _‘ i
li (by killing aphid eggs) use in 100 gallons of spray mixture "
I 3 gallons of a dormant spray oil containing one of the dinitro ·
H  compounds. _ ·
E l, I
  Some growers prefer to use commercial oil emulsion or miscible
CE oil. Those preferring to make tank-mix emulsions can emulsify bulk · ·‘
li spray oili in the spray tank using calcium caseinate, soybean Hour, I ·
lij li nite itch, concentrated bordeaux mixture, or one of the commer- I
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Oi cial emulsifiers. _
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; Emulsion with calcium c¤seinate.—— For mixing 200 gallons of .l
nj Spray: Make a paste of l pound of calcium caseinate in a bucket
lll with 2 quarts of water. Fill bucket gradually while stirring. Pour
‘1" mixture into spray tank with enough warm water to operate pump. i
r Start pump and allow discharge from open spray rod to shoot back (I
d.~ into tank under full pressure. Add slowly 6 gallons of spray oil, .
‘ continuing agitation, and pump for a few minutes. Fill tank with I
water and apply immediately. _
y Emulsion with borcleaux mixture.-Start agitator with 20 gallons y
y of water in 200—gallon tank. Add 6 pounds of powdered bluestone ·
and 6 pounds of hydrated lime. Allow discharge from spray rod to
I shoot back into tank under full pressure. Pour in slowly 6 gallons of Z
spray oil, continuing agitation, and pump until thoroughly mixed. X
Fill tank with water and apply spray immediately.  
  1 Use oil with thc following specifications: i
? Viscosity at 100° F ...................... 125 to 200 seconds saybolt  
Volatility at l05° C. (22l° F) ................ not above 2 percent ii

- Ground Spray for Scab Control [ rainy
_ T than
When to apply: As soon after _]anuary l as possible, and before any have
growth starts or any scab spores are discharged. y mm,
§ Use 2 quarts Elgetol (one of the dinitro compounds) per 100  
gallons of spray mixture. 300 to 500 gallons of spray mixture  
I needed per acre. g _ dose
,   quin
A ground spray of Elgetol, applied before growth starts or scab: Wim
spores begin to be discharged, has been found effective in reducingy JON
the amount of apple scab and making its control easier. VVhere much? Sum
ground spraying is to be done a special boom attached to the rear 0D fun
the sprayer is needed, with nozzles every foot. In this way, as the _ Conf
sprayer is driven between the rows of trees, the old apple leaves ony
the ground can be covered and the sporeproducing bodies killed.
p Prebloom Sprays Q
¤+ GREEN-TIP SPRAY: Ou Red Delicious in rainy seasons  
apply a spray when the green tips of the leaves are first ex- j
posed. Use 2% gallons of liquid lime sulfur in 100 gallons of 1
spray mixture. y
° l) PRE-PINK SPRAY: If wet weather prevailed during the  
green-tip stage this spray is needed on all varieties. Apply it .
just as the first leaves are unfolding around the blossom buds
and before the clusters separate. Use 2 gallons of liquid lime Jon
sulfur in 100 gallons of spray mixture. l
¤+ PINK SPRAY: This is usually the most important scab wh
spray and should never be omitted. Apply when the fruit _;
buds are pink and the clusters are separated. Use 2 gallons
of liquid lime sulfur in 100 gallons of spray mixture.
These prebloom sprays are primarily for the control of apple
scab, which often causes more loss than all other diseases and insects H
combined. Failure of unsprayed orchards to set fruit in a rainy spring Isl
is often due to apple scab. Scab also attacks the leaves and may {O]
defoliate trees by early May. Red Delicious, Winesap, Rome Beauty.  
Stayman, and Golden Delicious are especially susceptible to scab. ;u_
The number of prebloom sprays required to give protectiorl MH
against scab varies with the season and the variety. In wet, cool ihfl
springs more sprays are required because scab spores are released afttf All
rain and because spores germinate in wet weather. During prolongtd Do

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L rainy periods one spray application will not protect fruit for longer ll
T than 6 or 7 days. At such times, when the ground is soft, growers who ·  
`C ani have power dusters may find it advantageous to use sulfur dusts i A
  instead of the sprays. ,   A
l , · ? Y
§ Qumce- and cedar—rust control.- Orchards surrounded by or i ~, t A
  . close to red cedar trees may lose considerable fruit and foliage from i   —
r Scabi quince and cedar rust. The disease-producing fungi live on cedars in ‘ 2 ,
ludmy winter and transfer to apples by spores in early spring. Rome, York, i =,  
mud? ]0nathan, Winter Banana, Red Delicious, and Stayman are _quite A   (
Bar Oy susceptible; Golden Delicious and Grimes less so. Fermate, a new · ~
as the; fungicide, gives good control of these two diseases and also helps ‘ y
es Oni ‘ control scab. , ll V L
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d. T ~
t + Growers needing to controlrust should use a mixture of LQ ,
l pound Fermate and 3 pounds wettable sulfur per 100 gallons , ‘
of spray mixtme in all sprays from Pink to Calyx, instead of I'. v~
L the other fungicides listed for those sprays. Also, in the iirst
{ cover spray, substitute 1 pound Fermate for the wettable n 4 ,·
Q sulfur, especially if the season is wet. _ _
  Full-Bloom Spray  
To control blossom blight. Needed on Transparent, Polly Eades, "
y jonathan, Wealthy, King David, and Grimes.
When to apply: Apply when one-third of the blossoms are open. .
¤) Use 2-4-100 bordeaux mixture. (2 pounds copper sulfate, 4 _‘ ·
pounds chemical hydrated llme made especially for spraying,
in 100 gallons of water.) _
E apple A ,
insects How to mix bordeaux sprays.- In any bordeaux formula the
, Spring first figure refers to pounds of copper sulfate (bluestone), the second = ,
ld may to pounds of hydrated lime, and the third to gallons of water. The ·
Beauty, €€iS1@St way to prepare good bordeaux mixture is to wash COpp€1‘ i
sCab_ Sulfate powder thYOUgh the SCreen into the spray tank as the tank is ·
being Hlled with water and while the agitator is operating. WVhen the ;
>tect10u tank is two-thirds full wash the required amount of hydrated lime A  
at, cool through the screen into the tank while adding the rest of the water.  
ad after Always use fresh, chemical hydrated lime made especially for spraying.  
alongcd Do not carry spray lime over from year to year.  

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l 6 QQ
, Calyx Spray  iff
To control codling moth and apple scab all orchards should   It
have the calyx spray.   sprays
When to apply: When three-fourths of the petals are oif. And in   howlil
r orchards where codling moth has caused severe losses it will pay   Il lm
to repeat this spray immediately (the same day if possible), spray-  i DDT
ing only the upper third of each tree.   B
1} Use 3 pounds of lead arsenate, 3 pmmds of hydrated spray  ii
lime, and»6 pounds of wettable sulfur in 100 gallons of water.  _`
To control quince and cedar rust substitute % pound Fermate  
and 3 pounds wettable sulfur for the 3 pounds of lime and 6  
pounds of wettable sulfur in the formula. Y 
DDT - Lead Arsenate - Nicotine Spray Q 
Schedule for Problem Orchards  i}
é FIRST COVER SPRAY: For curculio, codling moth, and  fi %
scab. Apply 7 to 10 days after the calyx spray. Use 3 pounds  ij
of lead arsenate, 3 pounds of hydrated spray lime, and 6  l g
pounds of wettable sulfur per 100 gallons of water. For quince  
and cedar rust, especially if the season is wet, substitute 1  
pound Fermate for the lime and wettable sulfur.  F y
l ré SECOND COVER SPRAY: A very important spray for cod-  Q OY in
ling moth control. Apply just before the iirst hatch of codling  I bccor
moth worms (usually 7 to 10 days after first cover spray).  
Check with Spray Service reports. Use 2 pounds lead arsen- ji
ate, 8 ounces DDT (actual amount of DDT; not the amount _.r. I L
of compound containing the DDT), and 3 pounds lime in _ (
100 gallons of water. (For example, if the DDT material is   ~l—6-l(
40-percent DDT, 20 ounces of it would give 8 ounces of actual _ spray
DDT.) On blotch-susceptible varieties add 1 pound Fermate   appli
and leave out the lime.   {O1. Cl
¤» THIRD COVER SPRAY: Apply 10 days after second cover.   lem (
Use 2 pounds of lead arsenate, 8 ounces (actual amount) of   In CC
DDT, and 2 quarts of summer oil in 100 gallons of 1-2-100 gr spray
bordeaux mixture.   the O
Q FOURTH COVER SPRAY: Apply 10 to 12 days after third |
cover and use same materials. If bitter rot has been a prob- imms
lem, increase the bordeaux to 4-6-100 (See discussion on i remo
page 7).   [wig}
s+ FIFTH COVER SPRAY: Apply 10 to 14 days after fourth mmd
cover and use same materials as in third cover spray.   abO‘“
# .

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  7 . * l .
ould  if In some orchards it may be possible to omit some or all of the i   .
 t s ra is for second-brood codlin moth. Where DDT has been used, . _;
  P 5 S .
d in `Z  however, sprays for mite control may be necessary in july and August. · .   -
Pay   lf bitter rot has been a problem it will not be wise to shift to a _ T ·" "
)my_   DDT-fixed nicotine schedule (See below). . ·\_.i. l
  -+ FIRST SUMMER. SPRAY: Apply 2 weeks after fifth cover, I.   { V
 Qc or consult Spray Service. Use 6 ounces actual DDT, 3 pounds f j· .
  of factory-processed nicotine bentonite (Black Leaf 155), 2 ‘   i »
 =:z_ quarts summer oil, and 2 ounces soybean flour per 100 gallons ` ·   V
  of spray mixture. Make a thin paste of the soybean flour, " · i
  allow to stand at least 10 minutes, then add to summer oil .
  and po1u· this mixture into the tank when tank is nearly » l ' ;
 {Q full. If mites are present, use instead lé pound DDT (actual) . __
  and *54 pound DN-111 per 100 gallons spray mixture. This
  ‘~`` formula may cause foliage injury if the temperature is above V .
  90° F. during the next 2 days. ‘.` A
  % SECOND SUMMER SPRAY: Apply 2 to 3 weeks after first 4
  summer spray. Same materials as first summer spray. ‘ l ‘
  ¤§ THIRD SUMMER SPRAY: Apply 2 to 3 weeks after second i I
 { summer spray. Same materials as first summer spray. ‘ M
 _ Additional s rays same materials ma be needed in late Auvust · _
  I P . Y O l
  or in September if there is a third brood of codling moth or if mites Q
  become a problem. ·. `
if B 1 T T a R R 0 T
`_ Growers who had loss from bitter rot last year should apply l yl
. —l-6-100 bordeaux about the middle of june (probably in fourth cover . .
_, spray) and at 2-week intervals thereafter until 4 sprays have been `
A applied. This rules out a shift to a fixed—nicotine-DDT schedule p
  for codling moth. However, growers who have a codling—moth prob- ' V
p lem can use % pound DDT (actual) and 4-6-100 in the summer sprays. y
i ln commercial orchards where the full schedule of first-brood cover · l
r sprays is followed, frequent use of weaker bordeaux as called for in y ·
; the cover sprays should control bitter rot.
1 _ l
j Growers should watch for the first appearance of b1tter rot, and . _ , ‘
{ immediately hand—picl< and destroy all spotted fruit, search out and {
  remove the overwintering places, and spray the affected trees and . 'Q
i neighboring trees. The overwintering places (old fruit stems, mum-  
_ mifid fruits, cankers, and dead wood) will usually be found directly ‘ §
» . . ' ;.
{ above the first rotted fruits.   F.

. G 8
Leafhopper damage to foliage is usually controlled by DDT or
fixed nicotine sprays. If other schedules are used and leafhoppers __ N
become numerous, apply ij, pint of 40—percent nicotine sulfate per A
100 gallons of spray mixture when the leafhopper nymphs are nearing ` -
maturity. Nicotine sulfate can be used in a regular codling-moth spray. *1  
Lead Arsenate Spray Schedule for Light Codling    
Moth Infestation  
The following schedule should be especially useful in Eastern g  
Kentucky orchards where codling moth is not much of a problem and _ K
where there is always danger of bitter rot.  
+ DORMANT through CALYX SPRAYS: Same as in previous   T  ./ ’  
scheduie, pages 3 to 6. Q  i g 
it .  
¤+ FIRST COVER SPRAY: For curculio and scab. Apply 7 to   .»=:; E 
10 days after Calyx Spray. Use 4 pounds of lead arsenate, gv  
3 pounds of hydrated spray lime, and 6 pounds of wettable    E g, 
sulfur per 100 gallons of spray mixture,  ~.  
· -) snooma oovmt smear; Appiy 7 to 10 days arm rust  
cover spray (usually just before first hatch of codling moth Q  
worms). Use 4 pounds lead arsenate, 6 pounds wettable ,   Z
sulfur, and 2 pounds hydrated spray lime in 100 gallons of Q t   1
spray mixture. On varieties susceptible to blotch, sooty __   ,_
blotch and King David spot, use 4 pounds lead arsenate _  
· and 4-6-100 bordeaux instead. ici,  
é THIRD COVER SPRAY: Apply 2 weeks after second cover ig  ._ira  
sp;-ay, Use 3 pounds lead arseuate and 4-6-100 b0i'd€3uX·  
FIRST SUl\/[MER SPRAY: Apply about July 10 in Eastern  
Kentucky (or consult Spray Service). Use 3 pounds lead  
arsenate and 4-6-100 bordeaux. g    
OTHER SUMMER SPRAYS: If bitter rot caused losses last    
year, apply 2 more sprays at 2-week intervals, using 4-6-100    
bordeaux without lead arsenate.    
Caution.- ln some Eastern Kentucky orchards where a single  
application of bordeaux has been applied during the summer, there   `
. . . -~...  
has been copper damage to foliage several weeks later, resulting in  try;
considerable loss of foliage and fruit drop. This has not occurred  
. . .,<. {
where several bordeaux applications have been made, probably be- _ 
cause the additional lime combined with any excess copper, There-  . ·"" 
fore, if a single application of bordeaux is made, it is well to put 011  
another spray a week or 10 days later, consisting of 5 pounds of limfi ;
per 100 gallons of water, as a safety measure.  
 _________/ 1
Lexington, Kentucky February, 1947 g
Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics: College or Agrlcultuit ‘
and Home Economics, University of Kentucky, and the United States Department or Agri-
culture, cooperating. Thomas P. Cooper, Director. Issued in furtherance of the Acts ci I
May 8 and June 30, 1914.
x UM-2-4*1