xt75hq3rw96h https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt75hq3rw96h/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1958 journals 068 English Lexington : Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Kentucky Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Progress report (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n.68 text Progress report (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n.68 1958 2014 true xt75hq3rw96h section xt75hq3rw96h A Results of the
BY V. C. FINKNER and RANDOLPH RICHARDS
EFFECT OF PLANTING DATE ON GRAIN YIELDS
Dato from experiments conducted on the Woodford Farm ‘
I958
80 YET?
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Sept. Oct. Oct. Nov.
PLANTING DATES
PROGRESS REPORT 68
(Filing Code I-II
UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
AUGUST I95B

 YOUR EXPERIM NT STATION RECOM ENDS
FOR THE 1958-59 SEASON ,
Winter Wheat varieties: TODD, DUAL, KNOX, VERMILLION `
Vand VIGO
(Plant only Kentucky certified seed or seed known to
be relatively free of loose smut. Todd and Dual are _
resistant to the Hessian fly.)
Winter Barley varieties: KENBAR AND DAYTON
(KENATE AND HUDSON for late
planting)
Winter Oats varieties: DUBOIS, ATLANTIC, FORKEDEER
and BRONCO
Spring Oats varieties: ANDREW AND MO. O-205
Seed Source: Kentucky Certified Seed
Seed Treatment: Chemical seed treatment to
control seed—borne diseases.
(Especially important on scabb
grain this year.)
Explanation of terms used in this report
l. Acceptable variety: A variety which has been test-
ed and found to be as good as or superior to a
recommended variety for a particular purpose. An
acceptable variety is eligible for certification
but Kentucky may not produce foundation seed.
2. Certified Seed: It is seed which has been grown in »
such a way as to maintain the identity of a variety '
It also helps to maintain freedom from weed and
other crop seed and, in some cases, freedom from
diseases. The Experiment Station recom ends that
Kentucky certified seed be used whenever possible '
for growing commercial crops of small grains.
2 .

 3. Chemical Seed Treatment: This treatment helps to
control a number of small grain diseases. It is
relatively inexpensive and should be used whenever
small grains are planted. Be sure to follow manu-
facturer's instructions for use.
4. Hard Red Winter Wheat: This refers to a commercial
class of wheat. Since the different classes of
wheat are used for different purposes -- for example,
hard red wheat for bread flour, soft red wheat for
pastry flour, white wheat for cracker flour -— com-
. mercial buyers prefer to buy wheat from areas pro-
ducing only one class of wheat. Kentucky is prima-
rily in the soft rgd winter wheat area and hard rgg
winter wheats should not be grown here.
5. Heading Date: The date when the head emerges from
the leaf sheath. It is important in determining the
adaptation of a variety in a particular area. In
general the early varieties have been superior in
Kentucky.
6. Hessian Fly: An insect pest of small grain, partic-
ularly wheat. It has been controlled primarily by
planting wheat after the average fly-free date.
Susceptible varieties should not be sown until after
the fly-free date. Todd and Dual are the first vari-
V ties of soft red winter wheat to be resistant to the
fly. These varieties may be planted earlier or ·
later than the fly—free date.
7. Highest Yielding Group: The group of varieties
whose yield was not significantly lower than the
highest yielding variety in that test. This is
determined by subtracting the L.S.D. figure from
the highest yield figure. Any variety that yields
as much as or more than that difference is consider-
ed in the highest yielding group.
8. L.S.D.: The abbreviation “L.S.D." means least sig-
nificant difference. This is a statistical term
used to estimate the precision of a test. Two
3

 varieties differing in yield by less than the L.S.D.
cannot be said to differ in yield in that test if
one wishes to be correct at least 95 percent of the
time. As two or more tests are averaged and also
over a period of years, the L.S.D. becomes smaller
and smaller. More reliance may be placed on small
differences in average yields when the yields are
averages of several test locations over several -
years.
9. Loose Smut: True loose smut occurs in wheat and
barley. It is a serious disease in Kentucky. .
Methods for control are through the use of resistant
varieties, the planting of disease-free seed, or
specialized water treatments. Chemical seed treat-
ment will not control this disease. Smut in sus-
ceptible varieties may be kept within reasonable A
control by use of Kentucky certified seed each year. _
IO. Mildew: A leaf disease which is important in wheat A
and barley production. The only control of this '
disease is resistant varieties.
ll. Plant Height: This is important from the standpoint I
of how much straw or hay is produced. Usually the
taller varieties produce more straw or hay.
l2. Recommended Variety: A variety which has been
tested and found to be superior under Kentucky
conditions. Seed stocks of recommended varieties
are maintained under the direction of the Experiment
Station in cooperation with Kentucky Seed Stocks,
Inc. and the Kentucky Seed Improvement Association.
13. Rusts: Leaf and stem rusts often cause damage to .
our small grains. The only control now known is
through the use of resistant varieties. Support
your agricultural experiment station in their
effort to develop disease resistant varieties. ·
lh. Scab: A fungus disease that attacks our small
grains. Swine refuse to eat scabby grain or
4

 become sick if they do eat it. Usually severe on
barley or wheat planted after corn if cornstalks are
not plowed under. Plowing under cornstalks or small
grain stubble and chemical seed treatment help to
control scab.
15. Septoria: Another disease which caused serious
damage to wheat in 1957. No control method is now
known. Chemical seed treatment helps.
16. Soft Red Winter Wheat: (See hard red winter wheat)
17. Straw Strength: An important characteristic, partic-
ularly with combine harvesting. If the grain is
lodged (weak strawed) harvesting is made more dif-
ficult and quality is usually poor.
18. Victoria Blight: A disease important in spring
oats. Controlled by growing varieties resistant to
this disease. Recommended varieties are resistant.
19. Weight per Bushel: Weight per bushel or test weight
is a measure of the quality of grain. Weight per
bushel is one of the factors determining the grade
that is assigned in commercial marketing of grain.
A price differential usually exists for the differ-
ent grades of grain. The higher the test weight
‘ the better the quality and the higher the market ·
value unless the grain is down—graded by another
quality factor.
20. White Wheat: Another class of wheat that should not
be grown in Kentucky.
2l. Winterhardiness: Winterhardiness refers to the
ability of the plant to survive winters when fall
planted under Kentucky conditions. Most varieties
of winter wheat and rye are sufficiently winter-
hardy in Kentucky. Winter barley and winter oats
often winterkill in Kentucky; therefore, winter-
hardiness is an important consideration. Winter
barley is usually more winterhardy than winter oats.
5

 THE 1957-58 TRIALS AND RESULTS
In 1957-58, 36 varieties of winter oats, 36 of winte
wheat and 36 of winter barley were tested at the Experi- ‘
ment Station Farm, Woodford County and the Experiment
Substation at Princeton. Twenty-five varieties each of
winter oats, winter wheat, and winter barley were tested ·
in cooperation with the Pennyrile Grain Improvement
Association on the farm of Mr. W. G. Duncan, III, near
Hopkinsville, and in cooperation with Murray State Col-
lege on its farm near Murray. Thirty-six varieties of
spring planted oats were tested at Lexington.
These tests include varieties being grown in
Kentucky and neighboring states, older varieties which
have been produced commercially in Kentucky and other I
states, and experimental varieties not yet named which
were developed by Kentucky and neighboring state experi- '
ment stations. In this report only the named varieties ‘
and some Kentucky experimental varieties will be consider
ed.
The recommended varieties were planted at different
rates and on different dates to determine the effect of
date and rate of seeding.
Effect of date and rate of seeding on grain yield
In these experiments the recommended and acceptable
varieties were planted at the rate of 1, 2, and 4 bushels
per acre on Sept. 25, Oct. 7, Oct. 19, and Nov. 8. The
normal seeding dates for central Kentucky are Sept. 15-30
for winter oats; Sept. 20 - Oct. 7 for winter barley; and ._
Oct. 8 - Nov. l for winter wheat. The Hessian fly-free
date for the Lexington area is about Oct. 8.
There was no significant difference among the yields -
of winter wheat shown on the different dates, nor among
the different rates. This indicates that rate of sowing
and date of sowing, within the limits of this experiment,
6

 V made little difference in wheat grain yield. None of
the wheat varieties used showed any winterkilling at
any of the planting dates or planting rates. In winter
small grain production the effect of date and rate of
seeding is usually in direct proportion to the amount
of winterkilling. Winter wheat seldom winterkills under
Kentucky conditions.
The earliest date at which wheat should be sown has
been limited by the Hessian fly-free date. All varieties
susceptible to the Hessian fly (Knox, Vermillion, and
Vigo) should not be sown until after the Hessian fly-
free date. Varieties resistant to the Hessian fly may
be sown prior to the fly-free date. While there may not
be a grain yield advantage to earlier sowing, the grain
would probably be earlier or more pasture produced. lf
good seed is used, the seeding rate of l to 1% bushels
per acre has been as good as higher rates. Earlier
sowing or higher seeding rates might show to a greater
advantage in severe winters. It would probably be a good
farming practice to sow as early after the middle of
September as the variety you are using permits; and,
if you are sowing after the middle of October to increase
your planting rate for added insurance against the
effects of an unusually severe winter.
- i The planting date is extremely important in barley _
production. Winter barley is not as winterhardy as
winter wheat and a greater difference is found among
varieties. The barley varieties tested averaged 78 bu/A
when sown Sept. 25, 63 bu/A when sown Oct. 7, 31 bu/A
when sown on Oct. 19, and 13 bu/A when sown Nov. 8.
At the seeding rate of 1 bu/A the varieties averaged
41 bu/A, at 2 bu/A 47 bu/A, and at 4 bu/A 51 bu/A.
Some of the loss in yield due to delayed planting may
be avoided if the planting rate is increased. This
is particularily true when the planting date is such
that a particular variety may or may not survive at
that planting date. For example, Dayton sown at l bu/A
on Oct. 19 survived only 22 percent and yielded 14 bu/A,
a completely unsatisfactory crop. The same variety sown
at 4 bu/A on Oct. 19 survived 50 percent and yielded
7 .

 34 bu/A, a fair crop. The more winterhardy a variety
is the later you can sow and still avoid some of the
loss in yield, by increasing the planting rate. For
example, Kenate is more winterhardy than Dayton. When
sown on Nov. 8 at 1 bu/A Kenate survived 20 percent and
yielded 22 bu/A and Dayton had zero survival and, of
course, zero yield. At 4 bu/A Kenate survived 86 percen·4
and yielded 29 bu/A, again a fair crop, while Dayton
survived only 32 percent and yielded only ll bu/A. The
important effect of date of seeding may be modified then
by planting according to the following chart. Of course
maximum yields are obtained only at the earlier planting
dates.
 
Seeding date Variety and seeding rate to use ·
  ~
Sept. 15-Oct. 1 Dayton or Kenbar at 1-1% bu/A
 
Oct. 1-15 Dayton or Kenbar at 2-4 bu/A
Kenate or Hudson at lk-3 bu/A H
 
Oct. 15-Nov. 1 Kenate or Hudson at 2-4 bu/A
(Don't use Dayton or Kenbar)
 
Nov. 1-15 Kenate at 4 bu/A (Taking a great
chance of no crop at this late
date.)
 
The effect of date of seeding and rate of seeding
oats is similar to that of barley, only even more crit-
ical. Winter oats are not as winterhardy as winter A
barley. At the seeding dates used in 1957, a crop was
produced at only the first two. None of the varieties
survived sufficiently to produce a crop when seeded on A
or after Oct. 19 even at the 4 bu/A seeding rate. The
4 recommended varieties averaged 69 bu/A at the first
seeding date and only 32 bu/A at the second seeding date.
Dubois is the most winterhardy. Bronco, Forkedeer and
Atlantic follow in order. The important effect of seed-
ing date may be modified with these varieties as shown
8 .

 in the following chart; however, again maximum yields
are obtained only at the earlier planting dates.
 
Seeding date Variety and seeding rate to use
 
Sept. 15-30 Any recommended variety at l-2 bu/A I
 
Oct. 1-15 Bronco at 3-A bu/A, Dubois at 2-4 bu/A
(Don‘t use Atlantic or Forkedeer)
 
Oct. 15 and Don’t seed winter oats
later
 
The effect of seeding date and seeding rate is
conditioned by a lot of factors and needs to be evalu-
ated over a period of years for each variety. The
conclusions drawn here are based on limited data and
may be modified as more data are collected.
WINTER WHEAT
V The season in general was favorable for wheat pro-
duction. Prolonged wet weather in July resulted in
serious damage to wheat not yet harvested. All trials
reported here were harvested under good conditions prev-
ious to the wet weather. Diseases were less severe this
year than on the average with the exception of scab in
certain areas of the state.
The recommended varieties of wheat have not always
shown distinct yield advantages over all other varieties.
The over-all performance and quality are possibly more
important in wheat production than in other grain pro-
duction. Only soft red winter wheat should be produced
in Kentucky. Varieties of other classes are often test-
ed but have not been superior to the soft red winter
wheat class. Mixing of different classes of wheat often
results in reduced market value and demand.
9

 The variety Triumph (sometimes called Oklahoma) be
longs to the class of hard red winter wheat. Its yield
record has been good but not superior to that of our
recommended soft red wheat varieties. Triumph should
not be grown in Kentucky. I
The older varieties Clarkan and Trumbull yielded
well this year but are inferior to the recom ended
varieties in other agronomic characteristics. The new
variety Lucas from Ohio has performed well but not
superior to our recommended varieties and seed supplies
are not available.
In the Kentucky experimental group, Taylor 16
(called Tay. 54-8904 in the 1957 report) again was
superior in yield. Additional testing will be needed
before any decision can be made concerning the exper- ·
imental varieties.
 
Winter Wheat Varieties
Yield in bu/A, 1958
State Prince- Hopkins-
Variety av. ton ville Murray Lexington
VERMILLION 39.6* 44.8* 43.2* 31.2* 39.1
TODD 35.6 38.7 35.8 28.1* 39.6*
VIGO 34.8 38.0 35.7 24.2 41.4*
KNOX 34.3 37.2 37.9 29.6* 32.5
DUAL 34.2 35.2 38.6 28.2* 35.0
Triumph 34.7 36.3 41.0* 26.6 35.0
Clarkan 33.2 39.5* 32.9 21.5 39.1
Trumbull 30.6 34.0 30.3 23.5 34.7
Lucas 35.0 40.8* 32.0 25.0 42.1*
Ky. Experimental Varieties
Taylor-16 41.2* 47.8* 41.6* 34.6* 40.7*
Ky. 55-283 36.0 38.9 39.4 29.9* 35.9
Ky. 55-241 35.0 36.6 35.6 31.5* 36.5
Ky. 56-225 34.2 36.4 31.8 32.2* 36.6
Ky. 56-250 34.2 40.3* 32.4 25.4 38.7
Ky. 56-2 35.8 37.3 36.4 31.0* 38.4
Ky. 56-68 33.7 33.9 34.0 30.9* 36.1
L.S.D.05 3.8 8.7 6.1 7.0 6.5
*Highest Yielding
group 37.4 39.1 39.7 27.6 39.4
Recommended varieties are in capital type
10

 .g WINTER BARLEY
Q The winter barley crop developed nearly normal and
R reasonably good yields were obtained at all locations.
f' A rather severe winter reduced yields of late
“ sown barley but probably caused only slight damage to
q; earlier seeded fields. Scab was severe in some parts _
V of the state. The scab developed late in the season
W and did not reduce yield to any great extent but made
w many fields unusable for swine feed. None of the winter
_m barley varieties now available are resistant to scab.
 
5 A Winter Barley Varieties
Yield in bu/A, 1958
= State Lexing— Prince- Hopkins-
, Variety av. ton ton ville Murray
·__ DAYTON 55.9* 60.2 60.6* 62.5* 40.3*
`jz KENBAR 55.0 68.8* 55.9* 58.1* 37.1
lg KENATE 56.1* 78.5* 58.4* 54.3 33.3
_ HUDSON 52.0 60.8 62.4* 51.7 33.0
AA‘Ky. 1 50.0 62.0 46.2 47.9 43.7*
» Mo. B-475 52.9 63.4 53.9 57.2 37.2
M Meimi 42.2 52.0 44.9 48.7 23.3
_$ Ky. Experimental Varieties
- a Ky.51-5321 48.3 59.7 54.6* 46.1 32.9
Ky.50-5400 53.3 63.0 66.7* 49.7 33.8
4 Ky.51-5752 58.4* 68.9* 65.8* 59.2* 39.8*
· Ky.53-3903 54.4 65.0 56.7* 56.3* 39.5*
Ky.55-63 53.0 63.3 53.9* 55.4* 39.3*
·° Ky.56—74 57.5* 65.5 65.6* 58.1* 40.8*
L.S.D. 05 2.9 11.0 14.0 9.5 8.6
'° *Highest Yielding
Q Group 55.6 67.5 52.7 54.7 38.6
Recom ended and acceptable varieties are in capital
‘ type.
.' The recommended varieties Dayton and Kenbar were
‘ again the outstanding varieties along with the acceptable
7 variety Kenate. Hudson was again slightly lower yielding.
V? The older variety Ky. 1 again yielded several
- bushels below {He recommended varieties.
*' ll

 The newer variety Mo. B-475 from Missouri has had »
a good yield record but has been weak strawed under
Kentucky conditions. °
The variety Meimi is a foreign introduction and ’*
doesn‘t perform satisfactorily in Kentucky. ” I
w
Among the experimentals, Ky. 51-5752 was outstand-
ing. A preliminary seed increase of this variety was *
started in l958. Ky. 55-63 and Ky. 56-74 also performed,
well but all need additional testing.
o·
WINTER OATS
The winter oat varieties were injured severely by ,;
cold weather at Lexington (Woodford Farm) where non- 3
hardy varieties winterkilled completely. Winterkilling ‘<
also was heavy at Princeton with some damage at Hopkins-,
ville and Murray. Even though winterkilling was severe,
plots with 50 percent stand or more developed well in H
the cool spring and produced relatively high yields.
Very few varieties are com ercially available that are
winterhardy enough for Kentucky, and some of those are ‘Y
not satisfactory agronomic types. The recommended vari-,
eties Dubois, Atlantic, Forkedeer and Bronco are the
hardiest of the satisfactory types. *i
Dubois and Forkedeer were more outstanding this
year than Bronco and Atlantic, while last year the oppo-’=
site was true. Over a period of years all of these q ¤
varieties have been reliable.
Q
The variety Le Conte from Tennessee has been consid;
ered too winter tender for production in Kentucky; howeve·
this year it survived and performed as well as our recomt
mended varieties. , A
Several of our experimental varieties show promise ’.
of being winterhardy and high yielding. A preliminary
seed increase has been started with Ky. 53-368. All ‘
need further testing before a decision can be made. 'W
l2 l
—»

 *2
 
4 Winter Oat Varieties
W Yield in bu/A, 1958
° State Lexing- Prince- Hopkins-
mVariety av. ton ton ville Murray
ZZUDUBOIS 67.2* 78.2* 57.3* 71.8 61.4*
éFORKEDEER 67.0 80.3* 56.8* 65.0 66.0*
MATLANTIC 57.0 63.2 49.2 66.3 49.2
'kBRONC0 54.2 70.3* 43.7 58.5 44.2
(Le Conte 64.2 76.5* 50.1* 73.7* 56.7
·; Ky. Experimental Varieties
· Ky.54—l63O 72.2* 78.0* 68.9* 74.8* 66.9*
”’Ky.54-1844 71.4* 74.7* 53.3* 85.7* 72.0*
:Ky.54-489 70.8* 81.2* 52.9* 77.9* 71.0*
Ky.54-490 68.8* 72.9* 52.8* 84.2* 65.1*
5 Ky.54—870 66.0* 83.2* ` 58.7* 65.3 56.8
*Ky.53—82U 64.7 76.6* 60.1* 71.8 50.2
__Ky.54-959 64.2 70.9* 51.2* 75.5* 59.3*
V'Ky.54—488 63.7 81.2* 55.5* 68.3 49.7
.sKy.54—463 63.6 68.1 59.2* 63.7 63.6*
_ Ky.54-1826 63.4 78.8* 51.8* 63.6 59.5* .
‘?Ry.54—799 63.1 82.0* 54.8* 69.4 46.2
·Ky.53—368 62.2 73.8* 46.1 74.0* 54.7
i' .S.D. 05 7.1 13.3 17.1 13.7 13.4
e*Highest Yielding
p Group 65.1_ 69.9 49.5 72.0 58.6
'Recommended varieties are in capital type
yo SPRING OATS _
3; The spring oat variety test was planted at Lexing-
_ton on April 9. This is about a month later than spring
!'oats should be planted but was as early as the ground .
acould be prepared. Both recommended varieties Andrew and
pMo. 0-205 were in the highest yielding group as were sev-
Eral of the other named varieties. The spring and summer
twere unusually cool making little difference in the yield
rbetween early and late varieties. Usually the early vari-
°eties are superior. The winter varieties spring sown
rproduced a higher yield this year than previously, again
probably due to the cool weather; however, the grain was
‘extremely poor quality. The winter varieties are gg;
pagsatisfactory gg spring sown varieties.
{"‘ 13

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