tinguish one from the other. And when the army arrived at the main river, they found it a bold, deep stream, not fordable for a half mile or more above by horses, and no means of transportation was then ready to ferry them over. Here they were in sight of the Indian town, with a narrow but deep river running between, and here the principal part of them remained until scows could be brought to ferry them across.

"When the volunteers reached the town, they found no enemy there. The Indians had quietly departed the same morning iu their canoes, for the western side of the Mississippi. Whilst in camp twelve miles below, the evening before, a canoe load of Indians came down wdth a wdiite flag, to tell the general that they were peaceable Indians, that they expected a great battle to come off next day, that they desired to remain neutral, and wanted to retire with their families to some place of safety, and they asked to know where that was to be. General Gaines answered them veiy abruptly, and told them to be off and go to the other side of the Mississippi. That night they returned to their town, and the next morning early the whole band of hostile Indians recrossed the river, and thus entitled themselves to protection.

"The enemy having escaped, the volunteers were determined to be avenged upon something. The rain descended in torrents, and the Indian wigwams would have furnished a comfortable shelter; but, notwithstanding the rain, the whole town was soon wrapped in flames, and thus perished an ancient village, which had once been the delightful home of six or seven thousand Indians.

"The volunteers marched to Rock Island next morning, and here they encamped for several days, precisely where the town of Rock Island is now situated.

"General Gaines threatened to pursue the Iudians across the river, which brought Black Hawk, aud the chiefs and braves of the hostile band, to the fort to sue for peace. A treaty was here formed with them, by which they agreed to remain forever after on west side of the river, and never to recross it without the permission of the president, or the governor of the State. And thus these Indians at last ratified the treaty of 1804, by which their lands were sold to the white people, and they agreed to live in peace with the government.

"But notwithstanding this treaty, early in the spring of 1832, Black Hawk aud the disaffected Indians prepared to reassert their right to the disputed territory.

"The united Sacs and Fox nations were divided into two parties.