xt75x63b055t https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt75x63b055t/data/mets.xml Venable, William Henry, 1836-1920. 1891  books b92-82-27254846 English R. Clarke, : Cincinnati : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. American literature Ohio River Valley. Authors, American Ohio River Valley. Beginnings of literary culture in the Ohio Valley  : historical and biographical sketches / by W.H. Venable. text Beginnings of literary culture in the Ohio Valley  : historical and biographical sketches / by W.H. Venable. 1891 2002 true xt75x63b055t section xt75x63b055t 















BEGINNINGS OF LITERARY CULTURE



                     IN THE




             OHIO VALLEY



HISTORICAL AND



BIOGRAPH ICAL



SKETCHES



BY



           W. H. VENABLE, LL.D.
Author of "A School History of the United States," "Foot-prints of the Pioneers,"
   "June on the Miami," " Melodies of the Heart," " The 'reacher's Dream," etc.

















                 CINCINNATI
           ROBERT CLARKE  CO.
                      1891

 
































  COPYRIGHT, 189i,

BY W. 11. VENABLE.

 


                  PREFACE.



  More than twenty years ago, in preparing for publica-
tion a series of articles on the libraries of Cincinnati, the
writer had occasion to glance through a good many books
of western origin, and to examine files of the earliest
newspapers and magazines issued in the Central States.
This incidental rummage through the alcoves of a dozen
dusty libraries led to further investigation, and awakened
curiosity to study the intellectual agencies which created
the first literary institutions in the Ohio Valley. Various
items of information concerning local writers and writ-
ings, from print and manuscript, and from the stored
memory of persons acquainted with the general subject,
furnished a stock of material which seemed worth pre-
serving. A certain historical value attaches to memoranda
derived from interviews with literary veterans whose minds
are rich in authentic reminiscences of
              "The days when we were pioneers."

  Data obtained from the sources mentioned supplied the
substance of a course of lectures on Western Poets and
Poetry, delivered in College Hall, Cincinnati, in the win-
ter of 1881, and afforded topics for occasional contribu-
tions to the Commercial Gazette, the Magazine of Western
History, and the Ohio Historical and Archaeological Quar-
terly, in the years 1886-7. Portions of the lectures and
published sketches alluded to are reproduced in this vol-
                                                 (iii)

 
Preface.



ume, in revised form, and with much additional matter,
never before in print.
  The discursive, and even desultory character of the
present book-its defects as to arrangement, proportion,
and unity, will be pardoned, in consideration of the fact
that the work was not fore-planned, not a regularly de-
veloped essay or treatise, but a repository of accumulated
notes. To condense, classify, and connect the gathered
fragments, and to dispose all under not unsuitable head-
ings, so as to produce a convenient reference book, has
been the unambitious endeavor of the author. It was at
the urgent advice of several gentlemen prominent in let-
ters, and interested in preserving for historical and literary
purposes such ana as these pages record, that the decis-
ion was made to put forth, in book form, the chapters
here collected under the title Beginnings of Literary Cul-
ture in the Ohio Valley.
  Though not confined strictly to the history of begin-
nfings, this imperfect survey of the cultural elements of
early western society is concerned, in the main, with per-
sons and events belonging to the period closed by the
Civil War. As a rule, the biographical parts of the nar-
rative relate to the dead; but exceptions are made in the
case of many noted men and women, yet living, who
achieved reputation before the year 1860. Brief mention
of numerous living writers will be found, usually in foot-
notes, in the chapter on Early Periodical Literature, which
deals with years quite recent.
  Doubtless there will be missed from the index names
that should have appeared, but no invidious discrimina-
tion is intended. The contents of this volume, far from
exhausting the subjects discussed, are merely suggestive.
These gleanings show only specimen sheaves, not a com-



iv

 
                       Preface.                   v

plete harvest. The collector gathered most of his mate-
rial from the sources nearest at hand, not having had
leisure or opportunity to examine, with equal care, all
parts of the wide field indicated by the title of the book.
Whatever is wanting to complete it, this contribution to
the history of early culture in the Ohio country is offered
as a report of progress.
  The author is indebted to a number of ladies and gen-
tlemen, who, in several ways, have aided in the prepara-
tion of this book. Special acknowledgment is made to
Col. Reuben T. Durrett, of Louisville, Ky., for much in-
formation in regard to literary matters in Kentucky; to
Mr. Henry Cauthorn, of Vincennes, Ind., who contributed
an entire chapter on the literary beginnings of Indiana;
to William D. Gallagher, whose cyclopediac knowledge of
western writers extends over a period of three-quarters
of a century; to Mr. Robert W. Steele, of Dayton, O., in
whom courtesy and public spirit unite to help every good
cause; and to Mr. Robert Clarke, of Cincinnati, without
whose cordial feeling toward ventures of the kind, this
volume would not have been issued. Thanks are due,
also, for the loan of books and manuscripts, or for letters
of information, or other polite favor relating to this pub-
lication, to Mr. A. C. Quisenberry, Lexington, Ky.; Hon.
Harvey Rice, Cleveland, O.; Hon. Horace P. Biddle, Lo-
gansport, Ind.; Mrs. Mary M. Coggeshall, Chicago, Ill.;
Mrs. M. E. Meline, Cincinnati; Mrs. Sarah H. Foote, Cin-
cinnati; Mrs. E. T. Swiggert, Morrow, O.; Mrs. Alice W.
Brotherton, Cincinnati; lion. Chas. D. Drake, Washing-
ton, D. C.; Hon. A. H. McGuffey, Cincinnati; Mr. Wnm.
Anderson Hall, Cincinnati; Mrs. Josephine Foster, Cin-
cinnati; Mr. Moncure D. Conway, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Mr.
Nathan Baker and family, Cincinnati; Mr. Emerson Ben-

 


Preface.



nctt, Philadelphia; Rev. James Freeman Clarke, Boston;
Rev. R. W. Alger, Boston; E. C. Z. Judson, New York;
Mr. L. A. line, Loveland, O.; Hon. Wm. Henry Smith,
New York; Prof. Wm. G. Williams, Cincinnati; Dr. Ly-
man C. Draper, Madison, Wis.; Hon. Benj. S. Parker, New
Castle, Ind.; Mr. Jerome B. Howard, Cincinnati; Mr. Sam-
uel Bernstein, Cincinnati; Mr. C. T. Webber, Cincinnati;
Hon. D. Thew Wright, Cincinnati; Mr. Jacob P. Dunn,
Indianapolis, Ind.; Mr. R. G. Lewis, Chillicothe, O.; Mr.
Drew Sweet, Waynesville, O.; Mr. J. L. Smith, Dana,
Ind.; Dr. John Clark Ridpath, Greencastle, Ind.; Mr. I.
H. Julian, San Marcos, Texas; Mr. Alexander Hill, Cin-
cinnati; Hon. Will Cumback, Greencastle, Ind.; and Miss
Harriet Edith Venable, Cincinnati. Every convenience
in library privileges was obligingly afforded the writer,
by Mr. A. W. Whelpley, of the Cincinnati Public Library;
Mr. John M. Newton, of the Young Men's Mercantile
Library; Mr. R. E. Champion, of the Ohio Mechanics'
Institute; and by the officers of the Ohio Historical and
Philosophical Society.
  CINCINNATI, May 18, 1891.



vi



 


                   CONTENTS.



                        CHAPTER 1.
            SOME EARLY TRAVELERS AND ANNALISTS.
Carlyle to Emerson on certain Quaint Books-Bossu's Travels-Bar-
   tram's Travels-Abundance of Literature concerning the Central
   States-Character and Influence of this Literature-Books on
   the Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi by French
   Travelers-John G. Shea's translations of these-Firat Accounts
   of the Ohio Valley-Christopher Gist and George Croghan Ex-
   plore Ohio in 1750-1-Major George Washington's Journal-
   Boone Explores Kentucky in 1769-John Filson, and his History
   of Kentucky-Captain Gilbert Imlay, and his Account of the
   West in 1792-Henry Toulmin-Travels of Isaac Weld-Weld's
   Description of the People of the Backwoods-Baily's Journal-
   The Travels of Michaux-Of Volney-" The Infamous Ashe "-
   The Travels of H. M. Brackenridge-Of Thaddeus Mason Har-
   ris-Of Christian Schultz-Of Timothy Flint-Of John Brad-
   bury-Bradbury's Interview with Boone, in Missouri-Books of
   Travel by Lewis and Clarke, Cuming, Stoddard, Harding, Dana
   and Long-Morris Birkbeck's English Settlement in Illinois-
   Thomas Nuttall's Voyage down the Ohio-A Frolic-A Corn-
   husking-Louisville in 1821-" Silence and Gloomy Solitude "-
   H. R. Schooleraft's Travels-Along the Wabash in 1821-
   Albion-Harmony-Bullock's Journey-First Historians and
   Histories of the Ohio Valley-Humphrey Wirsiiall' Kentucky
   -Butler's Kentucky-Collins's History-Haywood's Books on
   Tennessee-First Historical Sketches of Ohio-Nahum Ward's
   Rare Pamphlet-Salmon P. Chase's Preliminary Sketch-His-
   torical Labors of Caleb Atwater, Jacob Burnet, Henry Howe,
   and S. P. Hildreth-Historians of Indiana-John B. Dillon-
   Judge Law-O. H. Smith's Reminiscences -Early Annals of
   Illinois-The Writings of Birkbeck, Dr. Peck, Henry Brown,
   Governor Reynolds, and Governor Ford-Extracts from Rey-
   nolds's Pioneer History-Historical Services of Judge James
   Hall-Compendiums of Western History by Timothy Flint,
   James H. Perkins, Dr. Monette, and Others-Patterson's His-
   tory of the Backwoods-Doddridge's Notes-Withers's Chroni-
   cles-Sketches by John A. 'McClung, John McDonald, and
                                                    (vii)

 


Viii                      Contents.

   James McBride-Books of Early Travel and History as Literary
   Material for the coining Historian, Novelist, and Poet ..........  1

                        CHAPTER 11.
TImE PIONEER PRESS AND ITS PRODUCT-B)OOK MAKiN(;-Bo0K SELLING.
The First Printing in America-The Pittsburg Gazette-John Scull
   -First Book Printed West of the Alleghanies-First Press in
   Keiitucky-John Bradford-The Kentucky Gazette-Other
   Kentucky Newspapers-The Public Advertiser-The Focus-
   The Louisville Journal-The Centinel of the North-western
   Territory-The Western Spy-Other Newspapers in Ohio-The
   Early Press of Indiana and Illinois-First Paper Mills in the
   West-Early Book Printing in the Ohio Valley-First Books
   Made in Kentucky-First Books Made in Ohio-Beginning of
   the Book Trade-First Book-shops in the West-The Book Busi-
   ness in Cincinnati-Some Veteran Publishers-Sketch of U. P.
   James ....................................................... 36

                        CHAPTER III.
       EARLY PERIODICAL LITERATURE OF THE OHIO VALLEY.
The Medley, 1803-Hunt's Western Review, 1819-The Cincinnati
   Literary Gazette, 1824-Flint's Western Monthly Review, 1827-
   Hall's Western Magazine, 1832-The Western Messenger, 1835-
   The Hesperian, 1837-Moore's Western Lady's Book, 1850-
   The Parlor Magazine, 1853-L. A. Hine's Periodicals-The
   Western Literary Journal, 1844-The Quarterly Journal and
   Review, 1846-The Herald of Truth, 1847-The Ladies' Repos-
   itory, 1841-The Genius of the West, 1857-Conway's Dial,
   1860-List of Periodicals Published in the Ohio Valley from
   1803 to 1860 ................................................... 58

                        CHAPTER IV.
  LIBRARIES-ThE HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF 01110.
Libraries of Kentucky-Transylvania Library-Georgetown Li-
   brary-Danville Library-The Old Lexington Library-The
   first Library in Louisville-Private Libraries-The Durrett
   Collection-Rare Books-First Libraries in Ohio-The Putnam
   Family Library-The Belpre Library-History of Putnam
   Library by Dr. I. W. Andrews-The Cincinnati Library-The
   Coon-Skin Library at Ames-The Cincinnati Circulating Li-
   brary-First Library in Dayton, O.-Historical and Philosophi-
   cal Society of Ohio-Its Charter Members-Early Publications
   of-Transfer from Columbus to Cincinnati-Letter from J. Sulli-
   vant-Growth of the Library-Removals of the Society-The
   New England Society-Present Condition of the Historical Li-
   brary ....................................................... 129

 


Contents.



                        CHAPTER V.
         BACKWOODS COLLEGES, SCHOOLS, AND TEAChERs.
Jefferson's Educational Doctrines-Influence of "Notes on Vir-
   ginia "-Founding of Lexington, Ky.-John McKinney and
   the Wild Cat-Another Schoolmaster John-The Virginia
   School Act of 1780-Transylvania Seminary-Kentucky Acad-
   emy-Transylvania University-A Distinguished Faculty-Dr.
   Horace Holley-Dr. Charles Caldwell-Prof. Rafinesque-Dr.
   Joseph Buchanan-The College Library-The Literary Society
   Alumni-The First Seat of Culture in the West-"Athens" and
   "Tyre "-New England comes to Ohio-The Ordinance of 1787
   Dr. Manasseh Cutler-His Labors in Behalf of Education-
   Ohio University Founded-Thomas Ewing-Other Graduates-
   Miami University-Its Alumni-Dr. R. H. Bishop-Prof. R. H.
   Bishop-Lancaster Seminary-Cincinnati College-Dr. W. H.
   McGuffey-Other Early Colleges in Ohio, Indiana, and Illi-
   nois-The Course of Study-The tiolden Age of Academies-
   First Schools in Ohio-The Classics in the Woods-First School
   House in the North-west-PioneerSchools in Cincinnati-New-
   port Academy-Francis Glass-Pioneer Pedagogues-Getting
   up a School-Whisky and Tobacco-The School in Operation-
   Character of Early School Books-The Three R's-'School-book
   Authorship-Publishers-A Dream of " Dillworth "-Cadmus
   Conquers.................................................... 161

                       CHAPTER VL.
     THE VOICE OF THE PREACHER AND THE CLASH OF CREEDS.
"Mv Church "-The Jesuit Missionaries-The French Catholics in
   Illinois and Indiana-The Moravians in Ohio-Heekewelder-
   Zeisberger-First Preachers in the Ohio Valley-The Baptists in
   Kentucky-Lewis Craig-Presbyterians-Catholics-The First
   Church in Marietta-Cutler-His Liberality-Rev. Daniel
   Story-Divine Service in Military Form-Putnam's "Two
   Horned" Church-The Baptists in the Miami Purchase-
   Founding of the First Church in Cincinnati-Rev. David Rice-
   Rev. James Kemper-Church Troubles-Rev. Joshua R. Wil-
   son and Son-War of Sects-Heresy and Infidelity-Origin of
   the Camp-meeting-" The Great Awakening "-Revivals of
   1826-7-8-9-Barton W. Stone-The Cane Ridge Meeting-house-
   New Lights-Alexander Campbell-The Unitarian Revival-
   Dr. Flint-Lorenzo Dow-" Johnny Appleseed "-Dr. Peck in
   Illinois-His Useful Labors-Peter Cartwright-Dr. Bascom-
   Dr. W. H. Raper-Dr. Russell Bigelow-Dr. Lyman Beecher-
   His Battle with Dr. Wilson-The Proselyting Spirit-" New
   Lights"-Campbell's Work-Great Debates-Campbell v.
   Owen-Campbell v. Purcell-Campbell v. Rice-Rice v. Pin-



ix

 


Contents.



   gree-Owen at New Harnony-Frances Wright-The Free En-
   quirer-The "Leatherwood Godl" ............................ 197

                       CHAPTER V1I.
         POIATIVAL ORATORY AND ORATORS-THE LEcTURE.
Fourth of July Eloquence-Judge Varnum at Marietta-Governor
   St. Clair's Response-Edward Everett at Yellow Springs in
   1829-Toasts and Responses-A Reception to Webster in 1833-
   Speeches and " Sentiments"-New England and Ohio-The
   Golden Age of Debating Clubs-The Danville, Ky., Political Club
   of 1786-90-The People's Lyceum-Education by thinking on the
   feet-Lincoln-The Circuit Court a School-" Every Man a
   Politician "-The Horse-race an Intelleetual Stimulus-Talking
   Politics and Theology-Party Strife-The Disgusted French-
   man-The Slavery Agitation-Stump Speaking-Clay's Power-
   His Speech in the Senate in 1842-Other Kentucky Orators-
   Tom Corwin-Ewing and other Ohio Orators-Oratory in Indi-
   ana and Illinois-Lincoln's Eloquence-Douglass-The Lecture
   Platform-Brilliant Teachers in Colleges-Scientific Lectures-
   Early Lectures in Cincinnati-Stowe-Lectures before the Mer-
   cantile Library Association-John Quincy Adams's last
   Speech-Dr. Locke-O. M. Mitchel-List of Eastern Lecturers
   in the year 1854-List of Western Lecturers .................. 227


                       CHAPTER VIII.
PLANTING OF LITERARY INSTITUTIONS AT VINCENNES, INDIANA-Li-
                BRARIES, SCmIOOLa, AND THE PRESS.
Canadian and Creole Settlers-Bishop Benedict I. Flaget-Roman
   Catholic Educational Influences-Bishop Brut6-The Source of
   a Celebrated Address by Judge Law-The Oldest Library of the
   North-west-St. Francis Xavier Church-Old Church Records-
   William Henry Harrison, first Territorial Governor-Francis
   Morgan de Vincenne-Fort Sackville. Expedition Against the
   Chickasaw Indians-Harrison's Vincennes Mansion-Distin-
   guished Legislators and Educators-The Western Sun-Elihu
   Stout-" Thespian Society "-Vincennes University-Prominent
   Lawyers-Bar Association-" Vincennes Historical and Anti-
   quarian Society "-George Rogers Clarke-Vincennes Library-
   Youth's Library of Vincinnes-Working Men's Library-
   Township Libraries-Agricultural Society-Symmes Harrison-
   Benjamin Parke-First Bible Society-Physicians and Sur-
   geons-First Medical Society-St. Gabriel College-Organized
   by Eudist Priests ............................................. 254



x

 


                          Contents.                       xi


                       CHAPTER IX.
              PIoNEEr POET8 AND STORY-WRITERS.
Aboriginal Poetry-French Wood-notes-Song on the Ohio Flat-
   boats-Negro Melody-" The Eolian .Songster "-Popular Songs
   for Stage and Parlor-" Seat of the Muses "-The Verse Market
   Overstocked in 1824-John Filson a Rhymeater-R. J. Meigs, Jr.,
   the first poet in Ohio-Byron a Favorite in the West-English
   and American Poets of Seventy Years Ago-Percival-Char-
   acter of Pioneer Poetry-Classical Affectation-Subjects of
   Poems-" The Mountain Muse "-First Anthology of Western
   Poetry-A List of Poets-Coggeshall's " Poets and Poetry of the
   West "-Worth's "American Bards"-" The Muse of Hes-
   peria "-Thomas Peirce the " Horace of Cincinnati "-John M.
   Harney-William Wallace Harney-Mrs. Julia Dumont-John
   Finley, Author of " The Hoosier's Nest "'-0tway Curry-Har-
   vey D. Little-G. W. Cutter-Wm. Ross Wallace-Mrs. Frances
   D. Gage-Sarah T. Bolton-Rebecca S. Nichols-Hon. Harvey
   Rice-Theodore O'Hara-General WV. H. Lytle--Foreseythe
   Willson-Writers of Fiction-The Ohio a Romantic Stream-
   Themes for Story-" Modern Chivalry "-The First Western
   Novel-Tales and Sketches in the Cincinnati Literary Gazette,
   1824-In the "Western Souvenir," 1829-In the "Mirror"-
   In Hall's Magazine-Novels of F. W. Thomas-Drake's "Tales
   of the Queen City," 1839-" Blood and Thunder " Serials-Eanl-
   ermon Benett-" Ned Buntline "-Letter from Judson-Fos-
   dick's " Malmiztic, the Toltec "-Alice Cary's Novels-Mrs.
   Warfield's "Household of Bouverie "-Mrs. Stowe's Literary
   Work in Ohio--" Uncle Tom's Cabin "........................... 267

                        CHAPTER X.
        DR. DANIEL DRAKE, THIE FRANKLIX OF CINCINNATI.
The Old Kentucky Home-Life on a "Clearing"-Home Manu-
   factures-Things before Words-Books and Schools-On Horse-
   back to " Cin."-Peach Grove-Dr. William Goforth-Drake's
   Marriage-His First Publication-" Picture of Cincinnati "-
   Rev. Joshua L. Wilson-The Circulating Library-School of
   Literature and the Arts-Drake in Philadelphia-Dr. Wistar-
   First Soda-Fountain in the West-Drake at Lexington-Med-
   ical College of Ohio-A Famous Medical Book-The Western
   Museum-Audubon a Curator-The Infernal Regions-Powers,
   the Sculptor-Mrs. Trollope-Drake on Prohibition-Vine
   Street Reunions-The Uierary Coterie of the 'Thirties-College
   of Professional Teachers-The Buckeye Dinner-A Native
   Menu-Mrs. Lee Hentz-" Drake's Discourses "-Destiny of the
   West-Writings of Drake-Death and Charaeter .............. .29.9

 


Contents.



                       CIIA PTER Xl.
TIMOTHY FLINT, MIISSIONA.\IY, 4 iROGRIAPHYIR, E01TOUt, NOVFLIsT, ANI)
                            POET.
The Flint Family in Salem, Nlass.-Timothy Flint's Birth, Boyhood,
   and Education-WLhinsical Reports of the Far West-Lunen-
   berg-Flint Resolves to he a Missionary--Over the Mountains
   in a Coach-Pennsylvania Wagons and Wagoners-A Brother
   Clergyman-A Shaggy Drover front Mad River, 01io-Pittsburg
   -Wrecked on Dead Man's Riffle-Afloat in a lPirogue-River
   Seenery-Big btyeamLores-Marietta-(General Rufus Putnam-
   A Profane B-oatmnan-Cincinnati-General tW. H. Harrison-
   In the Saddle-Lawrenceburg-A  Bear in the Way-Vincen-
   nes-Vevay-Kentucky in 18ltl-Heaven a "Kaintuck of a
   Place "-"A  Preaching " at Frankfort-" The Athens of the
   West "-Backwoods " Culture "-Harry Clay-Tlke Peach Trees
   in Bloom-All Aboard a Keel-boat--'unshine and Storm-Up
   the Hills to Harrison's-Afloat Once Mfore-Lawrenceburg-
   Shawneetown-Cairo the WVobegone-Up the Mississippi-A
   Half Day of Bliss-The Cordelle-Bishwhaeking-Romance of
   the Night Camp-River Characters-The Skulking Shawnee
   Ste. Genevieve-Other Old French Villages-St. Louis-The
   Missionary at Work-Quarrelsome Christians-A Sojourn on
   the Arkansas River-A Dreadful Summer Pulpit Versus Ball-
   Room and Billiards-Up Stream Once More-The Extremity
   of Affliction-A Baby's Lonely Grave-" Thy Will Be Done "-
   A Learned Lady-Earthquake at New Madrid-Flint at Cape
   Girardeau-Fever and Ague-A Winter by Pontchartrain-Be-
   comes President of Rapide Seminary-Life at Alexandria, La.-
   Tour to the Sabine Country-A Twenty-Five-Hundred-Mile
   Journey-The National Road-Flint's " Recollections" Pub-
   lished-Residence in Cincinnati-The Novel, " Francis Ber-
   rean "-The Western Review-Hervieu, the Artist-His Paint-
   ing of Lafayette Landing at Cincinnati-Hiram Powers-A
   School of Fine Arts-Mrs. Trollope and Family-Jose Tosso-
   The Bazaar-Flint's Various Books-Flint Edits the " Knicker-
   bocker "-He Goes to Louisiana-Tornado at Natchez-Death
   of Flint ....................................................... 323

                       CHAPTER XI.
       JUDGE JAMES HALL, SOLDIER, JURIST, AUTHOR, EDITOR.
James Hall's Literarv Kin-Rev. John Ewing, D.D.-Mrs. Sarah
   Hall-Her Writings-James Hall's Brothers-The Port Folio-
   Hall's Schooling-Two Years in a Counting-house-Joins the
   Army-" The Dandies "-Becomes a Lieutenant-In the Battles
   of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane-A Cruise to Algiers-Studies
   Law-Life at Pittsburg-The Young Man Goes West-From

 



                          Contents.                      xiii

   Pittsburg to Shawneetown-The Deck of a Keel-boat-Hall's
   " Letters from the West "-Romantic Life in Southern Illinois
   -Pioneer Lawyers-A Den of Thieves-A Bargain with a Des-
   perado-Judge Hall's First Marriage-The Posey Family-
   "The Illinois Emigrant"-" The Illinois Magazine "-"The
   Western Souvenir "- Morgan Neville- Anecdote by Jose
   Tosso, the Violinist-The Illinois Magazine-The Western
   Monthly Mlagazine-Contributors-Hannah F. Gould-Caroline
   Lee Hentz-Harriet Beecher-The Semicolon Club-James
   Hall versus Lyman Beecher-The Catholic Question-Hall En-
   gages in Banking-Various Publications-Range and Character
   of His Writings-His Best Books-Style-His Poetry-Marriage
   to Louisa Anderson Alexander-Children-William  A. Hall
   alias "Timothy Timid "-Passage from Judge Hall's Address on
   the " Dignity of Commerce "................................... 361

                      CHAPTER XIII.
     GEORGE DE.NISsoN PRENTICE, JOURNALIST, POET, AIND WIT.
Prentice's Childhood-His Mother-His Precocity-Wonderful
   Memory-Teaches School-Goes to Brown University-Taught
   by Horace Mann-Studies Law-Edits the New England Re-
   view-Is Succeeded by John G. Whittier-Goes to Kentucky
   in 1830-Prentice's Life of Clay-The Soaring Style-" The
   Broken-Hearted, a Tale "-Louisville Journal Founded-Per-
   sonal Editors-Prentice and Greeley-Hammond and Dawson-
   Shadrach Penn-Prentice, the Wit-" Prenticeana "-Brilliant
   Mote-" The Darling of the Mob "-The Code of Honor-Tip-
   pecanoe,-Know-Nothing Party-Prentice and the Civil War-
   Worship of Clay-Prentice in the Lecture Field-Mr. Prentice's
   Wife and Sons-Major Clarence Prentice and President Lin-
   coln-The Veteran Journalist in His Sanctum-Last Days and
   Death-Tombs in Cave Hill Cemeterv-Statue of Prentice-
   Disposition and Character-A Patron of Literary People-
   Writers Whom He Helped-Prentice as a Poet-His Poems
   Edited by J. J. Piatt-Sentimental Diction-The Substantive-
   Adjective " Eden "-Prentice like Brvant-Prentice a Social
   Favorite-His Tribute to His Wife .............................386

                       CHAPTER XIV.
       EDWARD DEERING M1AN5FIBLD, PUBLICIST AND AUTHOR.
Colonel Jared NIansfield-Marietta in 1803-Madame Blennerhas-
   sett-To Cincinnati in an Ark-Cincinnati in 1805-Ludlow
   Station-First Astronomical Station West of the Alleghanies-
   Mount Comfort-E. D. Mansfield's First Books-His Education
   at Cheshire Academy, West Point, and Princeton-Admitted to
   the Bar in 1825-Distinguished Friends-Percival, the Poet-A

 


Contents.



   Poet's Description of Niagara-The Young Lawyer Goes West
   -The Columbia Street Theater-" Cincinnati in 1826 "-Assiets
   Benjamin Drake to Edit the " Chronicle "-Marries Miss Mary
   Wallace Peck-Goes in Partnership with 0. M. Mitchel-
   Sketch of Mitchel's Life-Mansfield Embarks in Literature-
   Literary Parties at Dr. Drake's-The Semicolon Club-The
   Footes-Other Members of the Club-Mrs. Stowe-Benjamin
   Drake-Nathan Guilford-William Greene-Cincinnati Society
   in 1834-Charles Fenno Hoffman-The College of Profes-
   sional Teachers-Alexander Kinmont-The Common Schools-
   George Graham - Eminent Educators - Mansfield's Political
   Grammar-His Addresses-Connection with Cincinnati Col-
   lege-Edits the Railroad Record-Edits Cincinnati Gazette-
   "A Veteran Observer "-Made Commissioner of Statistics-His
   First Meeting with Governor Morton-Popularity of E. D. M.-
   His Books-" Personal Memories"-Family History-Second
   Marriage-Sons and Daughters-Home at Morrow, Ohio-
   Death-Character ............................................ 409


                       CHAPTER XV.
WILLIAm DAvIs GALLAGHER, POET, EDITOR, AND GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL.
Birth and Parentage-The Gallaghers Move to Ohio-Settle near
   Cincinnati-Sir Woodworth's School-A   Boy's Pleasures-
   " Billy " Goes to Clermont County-His few Books-Goes to
   the Lancastrian Seminary-Learns to Set Type-" The Remem-
   brancer "-" The Western Tiller "-"The Emporium "-" The
   Commercial Register"-"The Western Minerva "-Gallagher
   Visits Kentucky-Is Entertained by Mrs. James Taylor-Pays
   His Respects to Clay at Ashland-Writes for the " Chronicle "
   -Builds a House for His Mother-Edits the " Backwoodsman "
   at Xenia, O.-First Meeting with George D. Prentice-Marriage
   -Edits the "Mirror "-Makes His Maiden Speech-Debating
   S`,ocieties-" The Lyceum "-" The Inquisition "-" The Tags"
   -" The Forty-twos8 "-Publishes " Erato "-A Handsome Man
   -Hard up-The " Western Literary Journal "-The " Hesper-
   ian "-Assists Hammond on the Cincinnati Gazette-Secretary
   of the Whig Committee-Letters to Otway Curry-A New Lit-
   erary Comet-Issues " Selections of Western Poetry "-A Re-
   former-His Poems-Edits the " Daily Message "-Made Presi-
   dent of the Ohio Historical Society-Address on " Progress in
   the North-west "-Becomes Private Secretary to Thomas Corwin
   -Conveys Gold from New York to New Orleans-A Storm-
   Anecdote of Corwin-Goes to Louisville-Connection with the
   " Courier "-Quarrel with Prentice-A Challenge-Retires from
   Journalism-Life at Pewee Valley-Literary Associations with
   Edwin Bryant, Noble Butler, Ross Wallace, Mrs. Warfield, and
   Others-Letter from Wallace to Gallagher-Delegate to the



XIV

 


Contents.



xv



   Chicago Convention-Carries the News to " Old Abe "-Threat-
   ened with Violence in Kentucky-Becomes Secretary to Salmon
   P. Chase-Collector of Customs-Literary Activity-Reputation
   as a Public Official-Character of His Poetry-" Miami Woods"
   -A Pathetic Story-Mr. Gallagher's Family-His Serene Old
   Age ........................................................ 436

                      CHAPTER XVI.
                      AMELIA B. WELBY.
Amelia Welby and Alice Cary Compared-Birthplace, Parentage,
   and Infancy of Amelia-Her Childhood-A Born Singer-An
   Improvisatrice-The Emotions of Sweet Sixteen-Two Girls-
   "When Shines the Star "-Amelia and Prentice-A Sudden
   Blossoming-Enter George Welby-Amelia's Beauty and Bril-
   liancy-Ben Cassidy's Eulogy of Her-The Poets Worship
   Their Queen-"Ah! Lovely Shade "-The Apotheosis of Senti-
   mentalism-Mourning for Amelia Dead-Threnodies-Popular-
   ity of the " Poems by Amelia "-Fourteen Editions-What Poe
   Wrote of Amelia-Character of her Verses-Subjects of Her
   Poems-Specimens-The " Rainbow " Faded-A Monument in
   Cave Hill Cemetery .......................................... 471

                      CHAPTER XVII.
                        ALICE CARY.
Genealogy-Robert Cary's Home-The New House-An Appari-
   tion-The Shadow of Death-Alice a Romp-A Country Girl's
   Tasks-Studying under Difficulties-What the Girls Read-
   First Appearance in Print-Alice Contributes to the Star in the
   West-John A. Gurley-Phcebe's Name in a Boston Paper-
   Letter to Lewis J. Cist-The Sisters Become Acquainted with
   L. A. Hine, Emerson Bennett, and Dr. Gamaliel Bailey-First
   Earnings of Alice-Praise from Poe-Help from Griswold-
   Horace Greeley-The Sisters Visit Whittier-Alice Moves to
   New  York City-Publication of "Clovernook "-Letters to
   Wm. D. Gallagher-A Slave of the Pen-Author and Editor-
   A Merciless Criticism-Coates Kinney Reviews Alice Cary's
   Poems-Alice Cary Buys a House-Distinguished Guests-
   Bonner's Liberality-Novels-The Sorosis-A Brave Woman-
   Dissatisfied-Longing for the West-In Clover -A Love Story
   Remarks on Alice Cary's Poetry-Clovernook Dedicated-The
   House is Haunted .........   .... ....................... 482

 
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   Literary Culture in the Ohio Valley.



                 CHAPTER I.

       SOME EARLY TRAVELERS AND ANNALISTS.

  In a letter to R. W. Emerson, dated July 8,1851, Thomas
Carlyle wrote as follows: " I lately read a small old brown
French duodecimo, which I mean to send you by the first
chance there is. The writer is Capitaine Bossu:l the pro-
duction, a Journal of his experiences in 'La Louisiana,'
' Oyo (Ohio), and those regions, which looks very genuine,
and has a strange interest to me, like some fractional Odys-
sey or letter. Only a hundred years ago, and the Mississippi
has changed as never valley did: in 1751, older and stranger,
looked at from its present date, than Balbec or Ninevehl!
Say what we will, Jonathan is doing miracles (of a sort)
under the sun in these times now passing. Do you know
BartraM's 2 lravels  This is of the Seventies (1770) or so;
treats of Florida chiefly, has a wondrous kind of flounder-
ing eloquence in it; and has also grown immeasurably old.
All American libraries ought to provide themselves with
that kind of book; and keep them as a kind of future
biblical article."

I Nouveaux Voyages aux Indes Occidentales, Contenant une Relation
des differents peuples qui babitent les environs du grande fleuve Saint
Louis, appell6 vulgairement le Mississippi; leur Religion; leur Gouv-
ernement; leurs Guerres, leur Commerce. Par M. Bcsu, Amsterdam,
1768.
'2 Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West
Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Musco-
gulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Choctaws. By
William Bartram. Plates. 8vo. London, 1792.
                                                 (1)

 
Literary Culture in the Ohio Valley.



  Writing a month later to the same appreciative corre-
spondent, the great Scotchman said: "Along with the
sheets [of the life of Sterling) was a poor little French book
for you-Book of a poor Naval Mississippi Freneliman, one
'Bossu,' I think; written only a century ago, yet which
already seemed old as the Pyramids in reference to those
strange, fast-growing countries. I read it as a kind of de-
faced romainee; very thin and lean, but all true, and very
marvelous as such." The books thus strikingly character-
ized by Carlyle represent a species of writings constituting
the very foundation of western literature.
  The