xt75x63b1624 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt75x63b1624/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1933 journals kaes_circulars_265 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 265 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 265 1933 2014 true xt75x63b1624 section xt75x63b1624 University of Kentucky—College of Agriculture
$80118 THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
-.000-·i*<> cnmar No. 265 May, was
") 0
l’DUi'uU Published in connection with the agricultural extension work carried
_ on by cooperation of the College of Agriculture, University ot? Kentucky,
l,`l34.TT with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and distributed in furtherance
of the work provided for in the Act of Congress of May S, 1914.
. Poultry Parasites and Sanitation
Q.; By F. E. Hut:.
  Cnlcks are not infested with parasites at hatching time.
:52 Chicks may be kept free from parasites by preventing contact
  wlth the parasites, parasite eggs, or intermediate hosts.
wry; Intermediate hosts are not dangerous unless they have had
’_H1_gg access to droppings from parasitized birds.
Parasitlzed chickens are damaged chickens and usually fall
yi]42.24 to recover completely following treatment.
_2g_t_;;; Prevention by proper management is the best defense against
,253.15 parasites.
gum The common parasites of poultry are roundworms, tapeworms,
610-62 , UCB and mites. These cause a continuous loss to the IJOultI‘Y il1dl1S-
YSOTSZ U`Y· The greatest loss occurs among young birds. Adult fowls and
60312 A contaminated houses and grounds furnish a constant source of infesta-
iS30Sl tion for the young chickens. The presence of parasites is an indica-
YGGWI . tion of poor sanitation and poor management. Poor health, unthrift—
@903 m€SS» and lmproductivcness are often directly traceable to the pres-
`SOHG @109 of parasites. Methods of prevention that are elfective against
`5gG 67 tht? COHIIHOI1 parasites of poultry are effective against other D8»I`?lSit€$
BGGAGQ ‘ Ot poultry and aid in the control of a majority of the diseases of
rpglgg D011ltI‘y.
` ` ` l Roundworms. The common roundworm is yellowish-white in color
No MI and from one to four inches long. It is found in the intestines of the
'GGSU fowl. The mature female worm produces a large Iillinbef of GSES
winch pass out of the chicken with the droppings. Droppings fre-
_’J_ WGHUY sel: into the feed and water containers or become mixed with
53130 feed that is picked up from the floor or the ground. In this Way round-
worm eggs get into the intestines of other {owls. These eggs hatch

 2 Kentucky Eazteusiou Circular N0. 265
and the small worms become mature in three to four weeks. The
female worm then begins to produce eggs.
Roundworm eggs are resistant to heat, cold, and disinfectants,
They may remain on the ground or in the chicken houses for more
than one year and still be capable of producing worms. Disintectants
kill very few roundworm eggs. The best method is to clean the
chicken house frequently.
Treatment. Treatment may be given to the individual bird or to
the flock as a whole. Individual treatment is more edective, but flock
V treatment is easier. A tablet or capsule containing nicotine is the
recommended remedy for individual treatment. These capsules or
tablets may be obtained from local veterinarians or from dealers in
poultry supplies.
Flock treatment is not always effective. A moist mash containing
some form of tobacco may be used. The prescribed dosage is as fol-
lows: One pound of ground or flllély chopped tobacco leaves and stems
for each 100 adult birds is steeped for two hours in enough water to
cover. The liquid and tobacco then should be mixed with S pounds of
mash. This mash should be fed wet in the afternoon to chickens that
have been held off feed since the previous evenilng. One gallon of
water containing one pound of epsom salt should be provided for each
100 adult birds as soon as the mash is consumed. Smaller chickens
should be given proportionately smaller doses.
Several tobacco by-products are on the market for the treatment
of chickens for roundworms. lf such proprietary remedies are used
the directions of the manufacturer should be followed carefully.
Tapcworms. These are white. flat, segmented, ribbon—shaped para-
sites. Some kinds are so small that it is impossible to see them with-
out a microscope, while others are larger and easily recognized. The
head of the tapeworm fastens itself to the intestinal wall. The last
segments are the oldest and when mature contain numerous e£—§é'5· A
The mature segments break off and are passed in the droppings. .
’ Tapeworm eggs are not capable of causing infestation of chickens
if picked up with the feed or water. It is necessary that the egg he
eaten by an intermediate host, develop to a certain point in the inter-
mediate host, and that the intermediate host be eaten by the chicken.
Intermediate hosts are flies, grasshoppers, earth-worms, snails, slugs-
and beetles. One of the means of preventing tapeworms is the control
of intermediate hosts and preventing them from coming in contact
with poultry droppings. _
T2·e:a.tm.cufs. No highly effective treatment for tapeworms in
chickens has been discovered. Kamala is the best remedy for the
removal of tapeworms from poultry, altho it cannot be depended upon
to remove them all. The dose of this drug is 15 grains (1 gram) for a

 Poultry Parasites and Sanitation 3
The mature chicken. This dose should be reduced for birds in a weakened
condition and for chickens that are not full grown. For turkeys use
mts, the same dose as for chickens, except that especially large birds may
more bg given a 2 gram dose. The Kamala treatment is quite severe and
mms should not be used for flocks in high production or for birds that have
I uw ghicken pox or other infectious diseases. The birds should be treated
in the morning, following a light feeding. It is not necessary to use
OY to a physic with this treatment.
flock Lice. Poultry lice are spoken of as body lice, head lice, and
S the feather lice. These parasites live on the outside of the fowl’s body and ·
SS or feed on portions of the feathers or on scales from the skin. Head lice
TS in infest baby chicks and body lice and feather lice appear when chickens
begin to feather. Lice spend their entire life on the infested fowl.
[mm The eggs are deposited singly or in clusters on the bases of the feathers.
gs foil The eggs hatch in one week and the lice become mature in ten days.
Stems The heat of the chicken’s body is necessary for the hatching of lice
mr to eggs. Lice die very quickly when off the fowl. They pass readily from
lds Of one chicken to another.
what Treatment. A flock of chickens may be freed from lice and kept
On Of in this condition. Reinfestation usually comes from stray fowls or
.0aCh from birds added to the flock which have not been quarantined and
ckeus treated.
The best treatment is a 40% solution of nicotine sulfate. This
tment material should be applied to the porches one-half hour before the birds
used so to roost. The application may be made with a small brush or an oil
can. lt is not necessary to cover the entire top of the perch, but only a
lpara- small strip thru the center.
With. All poultry should be treated for lice following the cleaning of the
Thg houses on March 1 and September 1. This one treatment will not
G mst déstroy lice eggs; therefore three applications of nicotine sulfate to the
eggs, perches at intervals of 7 days will be necessary.
_ Baby chicks will not become infested if the older birds are kept
ickeus free of lice. The head lice that infest baby chicks may be treated by
seg be applying a little lard to the cl1icks’ heads. The chicks must be kept
inter- out of the sun for 2 days following this treatment.
lickeir All setting hens should be examined carefully for lice. If lice are
slugs f011Hd the hen should be treated with sodium fluoride powder by the
mm-Oi lllll(lh method. This consists in taking a small pinch of powder be-
ontact tween the thumb and lingers and rubbing it thoroly under the feathers
just below the vent, another under each wing, at the base of the neck
ms in ` Hlld at the base of the tail.
5,. the Niles. Poultry serve as hosts for six different kinds of mites.
l upon The red mite is found in most flocks. The other poultry mites may
ltcru be controlled by the treatment for the red mite, or by the treat-

 4 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 265
ment for lice. Red mites are blood—sucking parasites. They
feed almost entirely at night, and leave the chickens and hide in the
chicken house during the day. The eggs are deposited in cracks and
crevices on the perches, ceiling, walls, floor, and nests. Mite eggs
hatch in two days, and the mites become mature in five days.
Treatment. Red mites are not hard to kill. The greatest obstacle
is the difficulty of reaching them in their hiding places. The first
step is to get rid of the hiding places. Loose boards and other un,
necessary material should not be allowed to accumulate in the chicken
. houses.
Drainings from the crankcase may be used as a spray to kill
mites. A rather coarse spray should be applied from all angles and
thoroughly driven into the cracks. Used crankcase oil can be sprayed
better if diluted with kerosene at the rate of one part kerosene to
three parts of the other material. The spray should be applied to
the ceiling, walls, floors, perches, nests, and any other part of the
chicken house that might furnish a hiding place for mites.
The treatment for mites should follow the thoro cleaning of the
chicken houses on March 1 and September 1. lf mites appear between
these spraying times the perches, perch supports, and adjoining walls
should be painted with used crankcase oil.
Prevention of parasites Is dependent upon a proper management
program which Includes proper disposal of droppings, clean poultry
houses, clean ground, clean water containers and clean feed hoppers.
This program must be of long duration and the details will depend
upon the size of the flock and the amount of land available.
Worm-free flocks require less feed, produce more, and are more
resistant to disease than infested flocks. Because of permanent in-
jury to birds by parasites and a lack of highly efficient worm r€H1€’· ,
_ dies, treatment of poultry for parasites is often unsatisfactory.
Disposal of Droppings. It is always best to attack parasites at
the weakest point in their life cycle. The eggs of all roundworms and
tapeworms of poultry are found in the droppings from parasitized
birds. The eggs may not be the weakest point in the life cycle of all
of these parasites, but it is a point where they may all be attacked
simultaneously. Brooders, range shelters and laying houses should be
kept clean. The droppings should be placed in containers that pro- j
tect them from insects and poultry until they can be removed to 3
place remote from the poultry houses and yards.
Cleaning the Brooder House. Parasite prevention depends UDOU
the poultrymairs ability to keep the chicks separated from the para-

 Poultry Parasites and Sanitation. 5
They sites and the parasite eggs. The brooder house should be cleaned and
H the moved to clean ground before the chicks are put into it.
sand How often to clean. The brooder house should be cleaned three
6sgS times each week. As the chicks increase in size, more frequent clean-
ing may become necessary. As soon as evidence of a disease, such as
Stacie ooocidiosis, appears the brooder house should be cleaned daily.
mst How to clean. Old brooder houses should be cleaned in the fall or
Y unl winter, before being moved to clean ground. Too much reliance
icken should not be placed on disinfectants. All brooder house equipment
l should be removed except the stove. Scrape and sweep the ceiling,
’ km walls, and floor until all litter and droppings have been removed.
S and After the house has been thoroly dry cleaned it should be scrubbed
Fayed with hot lye water, made by adding one 13·ounce can of lye to 5
ug to gallons of hot water. After scrubbing with hot lye water wait one
ed m hour and then rinse the house with hot water. The house should
{ um then be sprayed with a 5-percent solution of some cresol compound.
Let the house dry and then spray the ceiling, walls, and floor with
`f me used crankcase oil. The brooder house is now ready to be moved to
WGBH clean ground.
walls Clean and disinfect feed containers, water containers, and alll
other equipment at the same time and in the same way that the house
has been cleaned and disinfected.
Cleaning the brooder house after chicks have been put into it
should be done with a minimum amount of water and disinfectants.
’m°‘“ Moisture aids the development of coccidiosis. Frequent dry cleaning
"~"t"Y by scraping and sweeping is best. The use of a minimum amount of
’P°"“· litter makes frequent cleaning less difficult.
’P°"d Cleaning the Range Shelter. About June 1 growing chickens are
large enough to get along without heat f1·om the brooder stove. At
more this time they may be moved to a range shelter or allowed to remain
it in- in the brooder house. Systematic cleaning of the brooder house or
reme- _ range shelter should not be neglected after it becomes unnecessary
to care for the brooder stove. Insects that serve as intermediate
es at hosts for parasites increase in number during June, July, and August.
s and It is impossible to get rid of insects, therefore poultry manure should
itized be protected trom them. This can be accomplished by frequent clean-
ot an ins.
icked How often, to clean. Range shelters should be cleaned three times
ld be each week. As soon as evidences of disease or parasites appear the
, p1`O· Huge shelters should be cleaned daily.
to a How to clean. On June 1 the range shelters should be thoroly
cleaned and disinfected following the method that was suggested for
upon the brooder house. At this time the spray of used crankcase oil is
para- €SD€€i%1UY important, This spray serves as 8. preventive f01‘ IIIHBS.

6 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 265
Following this thoro cleaning and disinfecting the cleaning should be
done without the use of water and disinfectants.
    V { ’ ¤·Z:·2 V   ‘ ; ’.l' .,  ; V   E 3  
§_   ‘  `? ` .   _.·  K"` .T`~   rr  i_{;.g-ggégiiy ,l
· » I ‘ * »       lei i
,   _ r __ ._ i         _____ _ __
3 i ¢,_;’  i_  il     ,__, _ ___,____,<..  
  ; l J,   V   A  5;   2;.. .,,... , ....  
~ *¢     g · ‘ :· I ..¤‘ ·l 4·»——»—~—————z we
  °     .  Y--- ·-l· we  i??" -il l: ,ll·,   l#~?}'
7,e;r3_¤>¢'¥ 1  g ‘;  ¤ ‘   ` "lw e ;—.!.€°   ··’·
”*:‘l?$»rl·..»-  i A @,— i * 'iigil  ·       .:
..   »·v’ ‘  Y?. f, J { i T ‘ __, l    
g ;`LQ&=iI_j¤’1&‘.;   gig 4   A      * r L-    ; ’ ,4,  ‘·  ‘;9z;l§E
 ’%_ivy®i   ..... _   \ A \ · A, ~¤§__&, · j—·__  
  ·    .#’.    -      , .   ~
 ,`$**¢'—;‘ ,;»—¤ » ’     ;·¤"»A.’..., »` *-`¤T‘&¤» * ‘°"’§ig ·=".;  ·  · ·; :2-e  r pm _‘_ __   `· [
  ,u,l *        i;      
_;;? _ ,§ ;*_y_,.;y’ ir`!    ’ *·  ____   ·. F   .,;»;·'f>¢¢f ,~§1¥;fJi 
{4;  ¤s;»> ".1*¢#·.   .;;—<€.»‘,‘i?*_  g;;-:¢r&e·&·’*“.:  ·.{`~#*" ‘·,`;,X;;§;,g,,¤, ?%»£¤-i¢'¥°$·f}‘—;"·
Fig. 1. Brooder house in good condition.
Cleaning the Laying House. The brooding and laying flocks are
a constant source of supply of parasites and parasite eggs. Hens and
pullets allowed free range void more than 50 per cent of the drop-
pings in the house, therefore the laying house should be cleaned ,
thoroly and systematically.
How often to clean. The house should be cleaned thoroly and dis- ,
infected twice each year, March 1 and September 1. The house should i
be sprayed for mites and all poultry should be treated for lice at these , ]
times. Dropping boards should be cleaned each week, and floors should
' be cleaned each month. More frequent cleaning of floors and dr0DPi¤S I
boards may become necessary in damp weather, ;
How to clean. All movable equipment should be taken from the
house. All litter, droppings and dirt should be burned or taken to a l
place remote from the poultry houses and yards. The house should be i
thoroly dry cleaned by scraping and sweeping. Ceiling, walls and floor 1
should be scrubbed with hot lye water, made by adding one 13-ouucé »
can of lye to 5 gallons of water. Rinse the house with hot water and ,
then spray with a 5-percent solution of some cresol compound. Let the ,
house dry, then spray the ceiling, walls, and floor with used <¤F8¤k‘ 1
case oil. l

 Poultry Parasites and Sanitation 7 ·
uld he Clean and disinfect feed containers, water containers, roosts, nests,
and all other equipment at the same time and in the same way that
the house is cleaned and disinfected.
t mums 1. men 2.
  lst. year lst. year
Poultry Runge Grass Mixture
2nd. year End. year
Any cultivated crop Poultry Range
3rd. yesr 3rd. yes:
  Any smell grain Any cultivated crop
  4th. year 4th. yes:
 crc:. Grass mixture Any small grain
{Y _ ssoonm
ff amen s. swam 4.
  lst. yeer lst. year
  Any small grain Any cultivated crop
::43;; 2nd. yeu End. Year
 —ili_;` Grass nurture Any smell grsln
‘ .  3rd. year 3rd. you
  Poultry Hangs Grass Kixture
?;'T» 4th. year 4th. your
' Any cultivated crop Poultry Ha¤6¤
ks are Fig. 2. Brooder house and four-year rotation.
ns and
i dwp Apply a 40% solution of nicotine sulfate to the roosts, as directed
leaned for control of lice, before allowing the chickens to come into the house.
t The monthly cleaning of the floor and the weekly cleaning of the
ud dl; dropping boards is a matter or scraping and sweeping—dry cleaning.
shou Proper construction of the house and dropping boards makes cleaning
C [WSG . less dilhcult.
Sh°}‘1d The September cleaning and disinfecting should be done before
Oppmg the nnllets are housed, All pnllets should be deloused immediately
after being pnt into the laying house.
lm the Ranges for Growing Chickens. It is especially important that
D we growing chickens have a clean range. All the Work Of k€€DiTlg 8
»uld b€ brooder house clean is lost if chickens are turned out on a range in-
d Hom f€$l€d With parasite eggs, The best plan is to provide f0llI‘ I`P\T1iZ€S, 3
.-ouucg different one to be used each year. The ranges not in use may be
gr all; cultivated, or mowed frequently. Weeds, brush, boards or other trash
·€ttk€ Eh0Uld Dot be allowed to accumulate on any poultry range. Trash
cmu h?ll`llUl‘$ insects that serve as intermediate hosts fOl‘ parasites of DOUL
UV A four-year rotation is suggested. This system makes yearly

8 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 265
moving of the brooder house unnecessary. Four yards surround the
house, each to contain at least one—tourth acre.
It it is impossible to begin with clean ground it would be best to
move the brooder house each year to new ground at least 100 yards
from the old range, instead of using a rotation system.
Ranges for Mature Poultry. A three or four-year range rotation
should be provided in connection with the laying house. The range
rotation described for growing chickens may be used. It the land
available is limited a two-year rotation would be much better than
’ using the same range each year. A sanitary program lessens the
possibility of mature poultry becoming a source of infestation for the
growing chickens.
Examlnlng Fowls for Worms. The presence ot intestinal para-
sites in a flock may be determined by examining the intestines of the
i     url   
· 'I     , ’ I
. iis    r 4
  ·__=r:"·5  ,v,    J
iii. *:11   >.1;`Q 4
J;      ·._,
,  fi r; ..:1*Q;   uf ; I
Fig. 3. Intestinos slit open, to show tapeworms.
chickens that are killed for table use. All chickens that die should bc
examined. Remove the intestines from the dead bird and slit them
open with a small knife or a pair of scissors. It the opened intestines
are placed in a pan ot warm water the smaller worms will be easier
to see.
Dlsposal of Dead Fowls. Fowls that die should be burned im-
mediately or buried deep. An outbreak of disease or parasites Call (
often be stopped by killing and burning all sick chickens. Dead baby `
chicks may be burned in the brooder stove. (