xt76125q9d36 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt76125q9d36/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1938 journals kaes_circulars_003_326 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 326 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 326 1938 2014 true xt76125q9d36 section xt76125q9d36   ·
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  COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
  Extension Division
  THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
Yfj}j`;.‘ CIRCULAR NO. 326
I MINERALS FOR LIVESTOCK
F Lexington, Kentucky
November, 1938
Published in connection with the agricnltizrnl extension work carried on by cooperation
of the College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, with the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture and distributed in furtherance of the work provided for in the Act of Congress of
. May 8, 1914.
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  ! Table 1. Pounds of calcium and phosphorus in 100 pounds of some
  _   commonly used feed stuffs. Average analyscs."‘
‘ · I   Calcium Phosphorus
1   lbs. ms.
_; E Dry Roughage
_A §   Alfalfa hay, all analyses ...,............................ 1.43 0.21
g   Clover hay, red, all analyses ........................ 1.21 0.18
[ J j. Clover and timothy, all analyses .............,.. 0.65 0.17
V} _ - Corn stover, medium in water ..................., 0.41 0.08
{   Cowpea hay, all analyses ................................ 1.13 0.25 —
, _   F. Lespedeza hay, all analyses ............................ 0.99 0.19
l   _ Oat hay .......................................,......,................... 0.22 0.17
’E · Orchard grass hay ............................................ 0.17
° W Soybean hay ........,.....................,......................... 0.96 0.25
— -§ I;. Timothy hay, all analyses ............................ 0.27 0.16
`   E ·   Green Roughage
  lr Alfalfa, all analyses ................,....................... 0.40 0.06
.   ! Clover .....................,.............................................. 0.43 0.07
‘ I     Lespedeza .............................................. . .............. 0.41 0.08
  , Silage
    Corn silage ............................................................ 0.07 0.06
» f I Sorghum silage ...................,................................ 0.07 0.04
    Concentrates
` _ 1. L Barley ...................................................................... 0.05 0.38
_ f { 9   Corn, N5. 2 ............................................................ 0.01 0.27
    jj Cottonseed meal 41% protein ........................ 0.20 1.19
`_   Linseed oil meal, O. P. .................................... 0.33 0.86
      oats ................ . ......................................................... 0.09 0.33
    Peanut oil meal .................................................. 0.17 0.55
        Rye .......................................................................... 0.04 0.37
.2      Soybean oil meal, hydraulic or expeller
.4;;%     process, all analyses ................................ 0.28 0.66
      Tankage or meat meal, 60% protein ......,..... 6.21 3.42
gi; tr     Wheat ................................................... . ................. 0.03 0.43
    f» Wheat bran, all analyses ................................ 0.12 1.32
 ; ..4   Wheat middlings ................................................ 0.09 0.72
      * Taken by permission of the Morrison Publishing Company, Ithaca, New York, from
    .5 Feeds and Feeding, 20th Edition, by F. B. Morrison.
 —.  S

 Vj·i`v~}T,i
(`ireular N0. 326 U   "
some __ TT-
__ MINERALS FOR LIVESTOCK
lO1`llS
l GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
B Research at this Experiment. Station and elsewhere has shown
7 that certain mineral elements in feeds are essential to the proper
E nourishment and growth of animals; and that an otherwise good
9 feed may not contain enough of some essential mineral element to
7 supply the need of the animal for that particular element. This
7 makes it important to use an appropriate mineral supplement in
5 connection with certain feeds.
6 The ilffnem/s Ncerlml in //u· [urges! (2I[(l}IfIifl.(’.S`. Four mineral
elements are needed in rather large amounts hy all farm animals.
6 including poultry. They are sodium, chlorine, calcium. and phos-
; phorus. Common salt which is a compound of sodium and chlorine.
is a necessary supplement to all feeds. Salt should be in common
use on every farm. Stockmen may fail to salt animals regularly. ·
2 not because they do not recognize the need, but because they forget.
lt. is becoming a practice of animal husbandmen to keep salt before
all farm animals at all times. There are two reasons for this. One
lg is that it eliminates the danger of forgetting to salt; the other is
  that animals need salt every day just as humans do. If it is kept in
L6 a container sheltered from rain and dust, farm stock will take
B what they need daily and thus prevent a craving and consequent
L5 over-eating when too long a time elapses between saltings. Sheep
V7 and hogs, if kept without salt for too long, are inclined to overeat
36 and may die from salt poisoning.
L2 The other two very essential mineral elements needed in animal
L3 metabolism are calcium and phosphorus. These two minerals con-
gg stitute a large percent of the mineral material of the bones and
Z2 teeth of domestic livestock. Dehciency of calcium results in weak-
  ening the bones, lameness, or even fractures of the bones, while
phosphorus deficiency causes stiffness and soreness of the joints.
listlessness and lack of appetite and even depraved appetite mani-
fested by eating dirt. chewing bones or wood. Milder symptoms ol
the dehciency of one or both of these minerals are slow growth.
-T-This circular was prepared by members of the staff 0f the Animal Industry Group.

 _   4 Kenlucky EXf€}I.S`fO71 Cirrtzfar N0. 326
E
      poor condition, or unsatisfactory milk production in lactating ani-
A     mals. i 3
    Rarer Mhzemfs. Iodine is another essential mineral but only
_—     needed in small quantities as compared with the four already men- _
·     tioned. Usually feeds contain all the iodine needed in animal
.     metabolism. There are, however, areas in the United States in
l _ jr   which the grains and herbage do NOK get enough iodine out of the
j soil to meet the needs of animals. In such areas iodized salt is used
    by livestock and humans and is a very efficient and inexpensive
_‘‘_ l ·· method of preventing goiter and other disturbances that often de-
_     A velop on a feed consumption deficient in iodine. Kentucky is not
  Ailr `   _ an iodine deficient state. Some sections of the eastern coal Helds do
V;   _ not have as much iodine as other parts of the state but as far as is
V   _, known the feeds grown in the areas contain enough iodine to meet
    l, the needs of the animals which consume them.
j   There are many other minerals needed by farm animals which.
T.   almost without exception, are l`ound in abundance in grains and
T _.-   herbage and as a consequence are usually no problem to the feeder.
    j Some of these minerals are iron, copper, sulfur, magnesium, boron.
*¥   j manganese, zinc and cobalt. _ `
Ay [ j j Some mineral elements are in_jurious to farm animals. If selen-
  ~ j   ium is found in abundance in a soil, grains and grasses grown on it,
  may contain enough selenium to produce in animals the "alkali
V. j;   j disease." The hair falls out, lameness, loss of appetite and Hnally
ly ,;_   death results from selenium poisoning. Fortunately selenium
2v   —i"»   poisoning is no problem in Kentucky.
_ -· n  ·, Fluorine, even in small quantities, is injurious. It causes bones
__    and teeth to lose their normal color and to soften. In addition to
  the effect on the bones and teeth, too great an amount of fluorine
._  interferes with food consumption and growth. The usual grains
  ~ and grasses fed to farm animals do not contain enough fluorine to
  T be injurious. The danger usually comes from feeding ground raw
  rock phosphate as a phosphate supplement. There is enough fluo-
    rine in raw rock phosphate to injure the animals, if much of it is
    consumed over a period of time. For this reason, ground raw rock
  phosphate should not be used as a phosphate supplement.
  The first principle of good animal husbandry is to feed liberally
 V1 and to feed nutritious, appetizing feeds containing the right
  proportion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and minerals. After a
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 i\»linm·a{s for l,iw¢.rtoc/t 5
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liberal supply of feed is gl\'C1l, the next concern of the feeder is
nh, to see that clean water and salt are always available. lf this is done
Cn/_ no conditioners, tonics or complex mineral mixtures are needed.
mil They are iuore likely to be harmful than beneficial.
in The S()l.l)`(.'K of Mincm/s in l’I
- jj·-»  5 in a ration IS greatly in excess ol phosphorus, the phosphorus Cilll-
‘?{s?€j  not be utilized ellectively. On the other hand, il` the quantity ol
Qjzg  phosphorus greatly exceeds the calcium in the ration, then the cal-
    cium is utilized less efhciently. However, even if adequate calcium
_‘i‘·.:;€?Y.;   and phosphorus are present and in the right proportion, poor utili-
YQ "   . . . . .
;Q.,g_j,   zation ol these two elements takes place unless vitamin D is present.
    Vitamin D is obtained by animals from the effect of sunlight or from
j`t`j·.I:Z’   the consumption of sun-cured roughages. This emphasizes the need
 ii, for sunshine and for feeding livestock sun-cured hays and other
  jr sun-cured roughages. Roughages not sun-cured, such as dehydrated
  allalla meal, do not contain vitamin D.