xt763x83jm04 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt763x83jm04/data/mets.xml Durbin, John P. (John Price), 1800-1876. 1844  books b92-202-30752248v2 English Harper, : New York : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Great Britain Description and travel. France Description and travel. Europe Description and travel. Observations in Europe  : principally in France and Great Britain (vol. 2)/ by John P. Durbin. text Observations in Europe  : principally in France and Great Britain (vol. 2)/ by John P. Durbin. 1844 2002 true xt763x83jm04 section xt763x83jm04 
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              PRINCIPALLY IN



     J OH N P. D U R B I N, D.D.,



           VOL. II.

         N E W-Y 0 R K:

            1 844.


Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1844, by
                 HARPER  BROTHERS,
In the Clerk's Office of the Southern District of New-York.





                    CHAPTER I.
Embark at Ostend.-Approach to London.-The Thames.-Custosr-house.
-Registry of Foreigners.-Mr. Randall's.-Mr. Everett.-House of Lords.
-Brougham.-Wellington.-House of Commons.-Corruption.-O'Con-
nell.-Protestant and Roman Catholic Politicians .  .   . Page 0

                    CHAPTER II.
The Tunnel.-How to know an American.-The Docks.-East India flocks.
-West India Docks.-Commercial Docks.-London Docks. -Tobacco
Warehouse.-Wine Vaults.-St. Catharine's Dock.-The Tower.-Horse
Armory.-Raleigh's Cell.-The Regalia .18

                   CHAPTER III.
The Queen.-Royal Procession.-Appearance of Her Majesty.-Want of
Enthusiasm.-Duke of Wellington.-Marshal Ney.-Prorogation of Par-
liament.-Newspaper Accounts of the Court.-Prince Albert.-Fondness
of the English for Gossip about the Royal Family  .  .  .  . 26

                   CHAPTER IV.
Blue-Coat School.-History of the School.-Boys at Dinner.-St. Paul's.-
Ball.-Gallery.-Monuments.-Westminster Abbey--British Museum.-
Mr. Home.-Number of Churches and Chapels in London.-Impressions
of London.-Vastness.-Wealth.-Contrast with Pari  .   .   . 33



                      CHAPTER V.
                  METHODISM   IN ENGLAND.
City Road Chapel-Introduction to the Conference.-Mode of doing Busi-
  ness.-The Legal Conference--Mode of stationing Preachers.-Church
  Edifices.-Worship.-Liturgy.-Style of Preaching.-Comparison of Eng-
  lish and American Methodism.-Efficiency of their Financial Measures.-
  Funds.-Missionary System.-Education.-Circulation of Books.-Com-
  parison.-Social Intercourse .Page 44

                     CHAPTER VI.
                 METHODISM IN ENGLAND.
Origin of Methodism.-Origin of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Amern-
ca.-Question of the Sacraments.-Relation cf Methodism to the Estab-
lishment.-Recent Modifications of that Relation.-Policy of the Establish-
ment.-The Factory Bill.-Dr. Dixon's View of the Position of Methodism.
-The Free Church of Scotland.-Political Importance of the Methodists.
--Relation of Methodism to the Working Classes.-Attachment of the
Methodists to the Establishment declining .78

                     CHAPTER VII.
                 LONDON TO MANCHESTER.
Outbreak in the Manufacturing Districts.-Rapid Spread of the Discontent.
-Mobs.-Queen's Proclamation.-Departure from London.-London and
Birmingham Railway.-Birmingham-Wretched Appearance of the Oper-
atives.-Manchester.-Mob-law.-Chartists.-Their Proclamation.-The
Workmen.-Messrs. Wood and Westhead's Factory.-Suppression of the
Mob.                             .     .   .       .   . ill

                    CHAPTER VIII.
Sheffield Railway.-Wesleyan Conference.-Mr. Montgomery.-Hull.-Mr.
Cookman.-Great Thornton-street Chapel.-Placards,-Worship.-York.
-The Minster.-Law Courts.-Wigs.-Lord Dennian.-Cathedral Bells
ringing for the Races.-The Clergy.-The Stage-coach.-Newcastle.-A
Coai-mine.-The Miners.-" Honest John"  .   .   .   .   . 127

                     CHAPTER IX.
A lying Agent.-Annoyancte of Servants in England.-Bolting a Breakfast.
-A dirty Village.-Alnwick.-Arrival at Edinburgh .-General A ppear-
ance of the City-Origin of the New Town.-The Old Town.-Holyrood
Palace.-The Barber in the Abbey.-Bones of the Kings.-Queen Mary's
Apartments.-Rizzio's Closet  ..140




                       CHAPTER X.
                         EDINB URGH.
Preparations for the Queen's Visit- A Disappointment. -The Queen gets
  'up too early in the Morning. - Tragi-comedy.-Mortification in Edin-
  burgh.-The Queen refuses to attend the Presbyterian Church.-General
  Excitement caused by her Conduct .Page 146

                      CHAPTER XI.
             rHE FREE CHURCH OF SCOTrLAND        .   .   157

                     CHAPTER XII.
                     THE HIGHLANDS.
Excellent Roads.-Loch Leven.-Perth.-Pass of Killicrankie.-Dunkeld.
  -Sunday in Scotland.-Worship.-Grounds of the Duke of Atholl.-For-
  est Trees planted.-Immense Estates.-Labourers.-Taymouth Castle.-
  Return to Edinburgh.-Glasgow.-Growth of the City.-Manufactures.-
  Buildings.-Education.-Paisley.                           166

                    CHAPTER XIII.
Coexistence of National Wealth and National Misery. - The Power and
Wealth of England.-Wretchedness of the Mass.-Poverty of the Habita-
tions and General Condition of the Labouring Classes.-Illustrations in
Stockport, Leeds, Manchester, Glasgow.-Lodging-houses.-Agricultural
Districts.-Liverpool.-Moral Depravity.-Illustrations.-Ratio of Mortality
in different Classes of Population.-Distress in Times of dull Trade.-
Conclusions.             .      .     .      .           17

                    CHAPTER XIV.
                    EVILS OF ENGLAND        .    .   .   190

                    CHAPTER XV.
Steamer to Belfast.-SheareTs.-Belfast.-Sunday.-Primitive Methodists.
-Abundant Population.-Trade.-Lord Donegal.-Antrim.-Round Tow-
ers.-Opinions as to their Design.-Jaunting Cars.-Cottages.-The Gi-
out's Causeway                                          205
                             A 2





                     CHAPTER XVI.
Dunluce Castle. - Coleraine. - Lough Foyle.-Londonderry.-Strabane.-
  Newton-Stewart. - Omagh. - Leinster. - Wretchedness of Peasantry. -
  Beggars.-Drogheda.-Arrival at Dublin .Page 215

                   CHAPTER XVII.
Dublin.-View from Carlisle Bridge.-Public Buildings.-Trinity College.-
  Phcenix Park.-Beggars.-Temperance Reform.-Sunday in Dublin.-
  Route to Limerick.-Peasantry.-Hovels.-The Pig.-Round Tower.-
  Rock of Dunamase.-Limerick.-The New Town.-A Walk through the
  Old Town.-Chapel.-Filth and Poverty.-The River Shannon    . 219

                   CHAPTER XVIII.
Killarney.-Victoria Hotel.-No Bedroom.-The Lakes.-Muckruss Abbey.
-A Resting-place.-Peasant Girl.-The Upper Lake.-The Channel.-
  The Eagle's Nest.-Echoes.-Weir's Bridge.-Turk Lake.-The Lower
  Lake.-Ross Island.-Innisfallen Island.-Lord Kenmare.-Evils of Ire-
  land .227

                    CHAPTER XIX
Stage-coach.-Want of Courtesy among Travellers.-Conversation.-Opin.
ions of America.-Mrs. Trollope.-The Lee.-Cork.-Appearance of the
City.-Fatber Mathew.-Taking the Pledge.-The Temperance Reform
  in Ireland.-Adhesion of the Catholics.-Conversation.-Effects of the
  Reform.-Question as to its Permanence.-Dependant on their Political
  Regeneration      ..                  .     .           234

                    CHAPTER XX.
General Interest in the Irish Question.-Evils of Ireland.-Poverty.-Igno-
rance.-Indolence.-Religious Feuds.-Romanism.-The Protestant
Church Establishment. -Just Claims of Roman Catholics. -Large Es-
tates. - Landlord and Tenant. - Absenteeism.- Slavery of the People.-
('Connell.-Repeal  .   .   .  ..245


                         CONTENTS.                       Vii

                    CHAPTER XXI.
                THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND.
Prejudice in favour of the Church of England. - Awakening of the Public
Mind in regard to her exclusive Claims. - Change of European Policy. -
No more Religious Wars.-Policy of England favourable to Romanism.-
The Church of England a Political Institution.-Patronage.-Simony.-
Church Revenues. -Enormous Incomes of Bishops. -Inefficiency of the
Church.-Statistics .Page 259

                   CHAPTER XXII.
                   ROMAN CATHOLICISM.
Increase of Romanism in England.-The Roman Catholic Church a Mis.
sionary Church.-Statistics.-Historical Sketch. -Energy of the Papal
Movements.-Elements of Power in the Roman Church.-Ceremonies at
Prague-Naples-Rome.-Duty of Protestants .275

                  CHAPTER XXIII.
                  ENGLAND AND AMERICA        .   .   . 294

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                   CHAPTER I.

Embark at Ostend.-Approach to London.-The Thames.-Custom-house.
-Registry of Foreigners.-Mr. Randall's.-Mr. Everett.-House of Lords.
-Brougham.-Wellington.-House of Commons.-Corruption.-O'Con-
nell.-Protestant and Roman Catholic Politicians.

  WE went by the railway from Brussels to Ostend,
arriving after night, The tide was low, and the steam-
er lay a few miles out at sea. A man, professing to be
an agent for the vessel, pointed out a barge which was
to convey us on board; we entered it, and were soon on
our way to the vessel. When the lights of the steam-
er appeared through the gloom, a surly boatman laid
down his oar and demanded two francs from each pas-
senger. A little fellow in company declared himself to
be the ship's steward, and assured us that the boat was
employed by the captain to bring off the passengers.
The demand was refused; but the oarsmen not only
persisted in it, but actually turned the head of the boat
towards the shore, declaring that they would take us
back if they were not paid. Here was a pretty quar-
rel. The steamer was impatient-we could hear the
loud hissing of her steam-and yet we were not near-
ing her. Some of us would have paid ten passages
sooner than be left behind; but the idea of being cheat-
cd by force was very disagreeable, so we tried to ar.




range matters between the contending parties. It was
at last agreed that we should pay when we reached the
ship if the captain did not, and the boat proceeded. I
suppose the boatmen intended to detain our luggage if
they were not paid ; but as soon as we touched the
ship's side, the boat was grappled, we were called on
to ascend, and some of the steamer's hands jumped into
the boat and handed out our luggage. Hot words and
strong blows passed; and, at last, I am sorry to say,
the boatmen were cast off apparently empty-handed.
One of the officers of the steamer, however, assured me
that it was all right.
  I slept well in my berth on board the noble Bruges.
At four o'clock next morning, after a rutt of about five
hours, we awoke in the Thames. The banks were flat
and uninteresting until we approached Gravesend, when
they began to rise, and the country on each side swell-
ed away in beautiful undulations. Above Gravesend,
the scene rapidly changed. The river was thronged
with shipping. The banks were lined with villages
and towns. Presently piles of dingy buildings were
seen in every direction, and a thousand tall chimneys
rose into the air, vomiting forth their contributions to
the dense canopy of smoke which expanded itself wider
and higher in the direction of London. Scores of small
steamers shot by us, loaded with men, women, and
children escaping from the murky atmosphere and
steaming streets of the great city.
  As we approached Blackwall, our progress was more
and more impeded by the floating world of shipping.
We took a pilot on board to guide us through the labyr-
inth. After passing the London docks, we were fair-
ly entangled in a throng of ships, barges, and steamers.
It seemed impossible for our large vessel to extricate her-



self. Five steamers were puffing around and pressing
us, and the hurrying tide of the river was vexed by ten
thousand keels. As I looked upon the burdened Thames,
not wider than many of our nameless creeks at home, I
thought of our mighty Mississippi as a more fitting chan-
nel for so vast a commerce. The day may come
when she shall bear as many ships upon her waters;
they will have space and verge enough. The river
became more and more gloomy from piles of ugly build-
ings pressing down upon its slimy shores. Rude wood.
en platforms often projected from these into the water.
The movements of the masses in the river were per-
formed in sullen silence, a striking contrast with the
cheerful noise of the Continental harbours.
  Just as the dome of St. Paul's became visible, our
vessel was forced lo make a retrograde movement to
get out of the way of a large Scotch steamer. She
passed, and we advanced again, slowly enough. The
blackened pile of the Custom-house appeared, and di-
rectly, also, the lofty Fire Monument. I noticed four
low, round towers above the crowded roofs: they
crowned the Tower of London. In a few minutes we
reached St. Catharine's Dock, and the steamer came to.
Our baggage was carried on shore, and underwent
the ordinary custom-house investigation. For the first
time on such an occasion, we paid the officer for his
trouble, the fee being sixpence for each package. We
were somewhat surprised on being required to call at
the " Strangers' Office" in the Custom-house, that our
names might be registered. I remarked to the officer
that I had expected nothing of this kind in England.
He replied that " he did not know what it was for; but
it was an old statute of George 111. revived." By the
regulation, not only are all strangers arriving in Lon-




don required to report themselves, but masters of ves-
sels coming into any port of the kingdom must deliver
a list of their alien passengers at the Custom-house.
A certificate of arrival was handed to Us, to be retained
during our stay in the kingdom, and delivered to an
officer of the customs at our departure.
  I had secured lodgings, before visiting England, at
Mr. J. Randall's, No. 7 King-street, Cheapside. I found
the character of Mr. R.'s house fully sustained during
my stay in London, and take great pleasure in record-
ing the kindness and care with which he and his esti-
mable family contributed to our comfort and enjoyment.
  Shortly after our arrival in London we called on Mr.
Everett, our minister at the court of St. James. We
were received with great cordiality, and subsequently
had frequent instances of the politeness and good feeling
of our accomplished minister during our stay in the city.
Having been provided, by his courtesy, with tickets for
the houses of Parliament, we took an early opportunity
to see " the assembled wisdom" of the British nation.
  I had the good fortune to hear Lord Brougham on
my first visit to the House of Lords. When he rose to
speak every noise in the hall was hushed. The crowd
of spectators rose simultaneously to their feet and listen-
ed to every word that he uttered with breathless at-
tention, though the question was devoid of popular in-
terest. It was the Dissenters' Marriage Bill. The ques-
tion was concerning the validity of marriages perform-
ed under certain conditions in Ireland by Presbyterian
clergymen. The courts had decided against their valid-
ity; and the question now discussed by the House ol
Lords was, whether a declaratory act should be passed,
affirming the legality of the marriages, or whether they
should be mad- legal by a legislative act. It is easily




to be seen that this question involves the cardinal point
now in controversy in England and America, of the
apostolical succession of ministers. If these marriages
had been performed by a Catholic priest, or by a cler-
gyman of the Established Church, no question would
have arisen. Lord Brougham took the ground that
there could be no discussion as to the legality of the
marriages, as that point had already been settled by the
courts, and he therefore advocated an act to legalize
them. I was sorry to find him maintain this position.
Lord Brougham's dress and movements were careless,
and even negligent. His air was that of a man who
felt himself to be fully equal, if not superior, to those
around him. While I admired the novus homo who
stood thus proudly among the old nobility of England,
I could not but think that plain Henry Brougham, lead-
ilg the party of the people in the House of Commons,
would have been a nobler sight.
  I had a good view of the Duke of Wellington. He
stoops tunder the weight of years, and his physical pow-
ers are gradually yielding. His countenance is strong-
ly marked: firmness and decision are clearly written
there. It is not strikingly intellectual, however ; there
is no expanse of forehead; nor is there any light of
genius in the eye. This last may have been different
in his younger days. I heard it frequently remarked
in London that there is a strong likeness between the
duke and Bishop Soule. The duke certainly would
have no reason to be mortified by the comparison.
  From the House of Lords we proceeded to the House
of Commons. The lobby leading to the gallery was
crowded, and a number of persons were waiting there
for admission, as their names were called to supply the
places of those who had retired. In three quarters of
  VOL. II.-B




an hour we were summoned. There were four of us
in company, and we had but two tickets, yet we passed
the first inspector without difficulty. At the second
door, however, the sturdy keeper said that two tickets,
even though signed by the American minister, could not
admit four persons. I was trying to devise some arith-
metical process to solve the problem, when one of my
young companions said that " Parliament was about to
be dissolved, and that we lived three thousand miles off,
and ought to be admitted." At the word we passed
forward; and, whether the doorkeepers were moved
by my friend's appeal, or startled at its impudence, they
made no farther opposition. We were hardly reward-
ed for our pains and for the time we spent in the House,
as none of the distinguished members spoke. A report
of an election committee on a case of corruption was talk-
ed about, not debated. The amount of the matter was,
that both parties had been guilty of the vilest corrup-
tion according to the testimony, and the only question
was their comparative guilt. One of the speakers re-
marked, jocularly, " The only point in dispute is, which
of us used the most money."
  I looked with more interest for Daniel O'Connell than
for any other man in the House. A stout, well-built,
plain-looking man, walking, up and down among the
benches and talking familiarly with the members, was
pointed out to me. It was the member for Clare.
Here was the man who for years had controlled the
British House of Commons. I say controlled, for, in
reality, O'Connell held the balance of power between
the two great political parties. For the present, his
power in the House is at an end, and there is suppo-
sed to be a temporary check to the influence of Catholi-
cism in Parliament; but we have Mr. O'Connell's own



authority for saying that he expects yet to see high
mass celebrated in Westminster Abbey. In a late speech
at Freemasons' Hall, Mr. O'Connell said, " I am a mod-
erate man, easily contented, and you will all think so
when I inform you that all I want by coming here to-
day is to hear high mass celebrated in Westminster Ab-
bey (applause) : it has often been celebrated there be-
fore; it was built for that purpose, and it would be a
pity to disappoint it from returning to its original object.
I do want to hear high mass in Westminster Abbey,,
and I am deeply convinced, as far as man can judge
from surrounding events, that the period is approaching
fast when we shall have high mass performed in WVest-
minster Abbey. It will be a glorious day for England
when the anointed priests of God shall put on their
sacred vestments at the old altar tomb, where they used
to vest themselves, the tomb of Edward the Confessor,
a man not more venerated for his love of religion and
good practices, than for those foundations of British lib-
erty which he instituted. I do hope to see that day,
when the priests, descending from the stairs leading from
that chapel, with their acolytes and thurifers, sending
up incense as a token that they have returned to that
altar which ought never to have been desecrated. Yes,
I believe that happy period is returning, when England
shall again be in the one fold, under the one Shepherd."
  In reference to a late Charge of the B.shop of Ox-
ford, which favoured the Oxford Tracts, Mr. O'Connell
  "Let us remember that those men who are aiding us
are not as yet altogether Catholics; we must remeni-
ber that it is our duty, by love to our fellow-creatures
and charitable affection, to increase our exertions, and
take heed, by our constant endeavours, that the work




of God may not be only half done, and that those who
are now only half Catholics may not continue so, but
become entire Catholics. Only two years ago the Rev.
Mr. Sibthorp was in that position; but where is he
now  He is a minister of the Catholic Church. There
is many an incipient Sibthorp-there is many a half-
formed Sibthorp-who is now in his second birth, la-
bouring for the truth, and who might be turned back if
any repugnance were shown to him, but may yet be-
come an entire Catholic if he is not forsaken. But
there are passages in the Bishop of Oxford's charge
which fill my mind with consolatioi: he acknowledges
this great movement."
  The conduct of Mr. O'Connell is perfectly consistent
with the fundamental principle, to which all others must
be subservient in the mind of a true Romanist, viz., that
there is no salvation out of the Roman Catholic Church.
Every honest man holding this doctrine must feel him-
self bound in conscience to use every effort in his power
to extend the means of salvation-that is, to extend the
influence of the Romish Church. Mere political ques-
tions must be subordinate in the estimation of such a
man. If he be in Parliament, his religious interests will
overbear all others, and control his votes.  On the
other hand, the Protestant admits the possibility of sal-
vation in any church, even the Catholic; and, there-
fore, it cannot be possible that his conscience should be
so constrained when he comes to give his vote. Polit-
ical preferences sway him; and when they require it,
his religious opinions and connexions yield. It is ob-
vious that, on this principle, a Catholic faction in any
constitutional government may, with skill and good
management, exert a political influence out of all pro.
portion to its numbers. Though Catholics form a very




                      O'CONNELL.                   17
small minority either in Great Britain or the United
States, the balance of political power may easily be
obtained by them, if they have but skilful leaders, train-
ed to the arts of Democratic politics, and acute enough
to trim well between the parties that divide the coun-
try. Daniel O'Connell was courted and caressed by
the late Whig ministry, although they hated both his
person and his principles. He has always had a strong
foundation for his power, however, in the truth and jus-
tice of his claims for Ireland. The wrongs and evils
of Ireland have made him what he is-the most re-
markable demagogue of all time-the subject of Vic-
toria, but the ruler of Irishmen, wielding, in the very
face of the most powerful government on earth, an im-
perium in imperio. I may allude to him again when I
speak of Ireland.
                        B 2



                   CHAPTER II.


The Tunnel.-How to know an American.-The Docks.-East India Docks.
-West India Docks.-Commercial Docks.-London Docks.-Tobacco
Warehouse.-Wine Vaults.-St. Catharine's Dock.-The Tower.-Horse
Armory.-Raleigh's Cell-The Regalia.

                    THE TUNNEL.
  WE took passage at London Bridge, the lowest on
the Thames, in a small steamer for the Tunnel, two
miles lower down the river. As a mode of transit was
much needed from Wapping to Rotherhithe, and a
bridge could not be erected without too great an inter-
ference with the immense commerce at this point, the
Tunnel was proposed, and has been carried through.
Various attempts of the sort had previously been made
at different points on the river, without success; the
present project, however, commenced in 1824, and car-
ried on under circumstances of unparalleled difficulty,
bids fair to be completely successful. Arriving at the
opening of the shaft on the Wapping side, we descend-
ed to the bottom, and the western half of this great
subfluvial thoroughfare opened before us, like a long-
drawn aisle vanishing to a point in the distance. The
bed of the Tunnel descends a little from each shore to-
wards the centre of the river, in order to preserve suf-
ficient thickness of ground for safety under the deepest
part of the bed. A range of heavy brickwork, pierced
with arched spaces, runs through the whole length of
the Tunnel, dividing it into two carriage-roads, with



footpaths on each side, and over each is a vaulted ceil-
ing,, the inner edges of which rest on the partition wall.
The sides, floor, and ceilings are of hard-burned brick,
laid in Roman cement, and plastered, except the floors,
with the same material. The carriage-ways are to be
approached by circular ways, commencing about one
hundred and fifty feet from the river on each side, and
descending gently to the mouth of the Tunnel. Foot-
passengers enter by winding stairs, in shafts nearer the
river. The height, from the floor of each carriage-way
to the ceiling, is sixteen feet four inches ; the width of
each, at the base of the arch, thirteen feet nine inches,
but less at the floor, the exterior side-walls dipping in-
ward as they descend.
  Walking slowly through the brilliantly-illuminated
archway, we found our progress stopped at last by a
temporary bar placed across the way, designed to pre-
vent visiters from approaching too near the workmen and
engine. We expressed our regret at being thus arrested
to a man standing behind the bar. "Thomas," said he to
a little boy near him, "' we must let these American gen-
tlemen pass." " And, pray, how do you know we are
Americans " we exclaimed with one voice. " Oh,"
said he, " I knew that you were Americans as you
came towards me: your walk showed it; I can tell an
American by his walk as far as I can see him. And
then, besides, when you spoke, the first word that you
uttered was ' well."' So much for national traits. I
believe no man in America would hesitate a moment to
declare an Englishman's country in the same way.

 wNhen I returned to London the following year, the Tunnel was finished,
except the carriage-ways, and millions of foot-passengers were passing under
the river at a penny each.





   The greatest wonders of London, perhaps, are its
docks. Without these vast receptacles the port would
be incapable of accommodating the unnumbered vessels
that carry on its immense commerce. To a stranger,
coming up the river for the first time, they present the
singular appearance of forests of masts springing up in
the midst of the fields. The American reader, to con-
ceive of them properly, must lay aside entirely his no-
tion of a dock as occupying the space between two ad-
jacent wharves, and thus forming a simple opening for
the reception of vessels. The docks of London (and
the same is true of those of Liverpool) are vast inland
harbours, cased solidly in stone, and connected with the
river by canals, which are closed by heavy gates as the
tide ebbs, so that the shipping in the docks are always
afloat, even at the lowest water. By following the ac-
companying plan, the reader will get a distinct notion
of the position of these great commercial docks.
  Coming up the river, the first that appear are the
East India Docks, on the right bank of the Thames, at
Blackwall. These were commenced in 1803, and open-
ed in 1806. As the name implies, they belong to the
East India Company. There are two docks, the im-
port and export, of which the former covers eighteen
acres of ground, and the latter nine; and, as the water
is deeper at this point than higher up, they accommo-
date vessels of heavier burden than any other docks on
the river. It will be perceived from the plan that the
docks communicate with the city by the Blackwall
railway, which is a little over three miles in length.
  At the distance of half a mile from the East India
Docks, the Thames bends suddenly southward, and, by



z    A   V

41, t ,'t

4          M

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an extensive curve enclosing the Isle of Dogs, returns
again almost into the line of its former course. Be-
tween the points of flexure lie the West India Docks,
which were the first and most extensive in the port,
opened in 1802. The Export Dock is 870 yards long
by 135 broad; the Import of the same length, and 166
broad; the south dock, used for the wood and timber
trade, is 1183 yards long. Six hundred vessels may be
accommodated here. The quays are built up in spa-
cious warehouses. The whole area covered by the docks
and warehouses is about 300 acres. It will be seen from
the plan that the two principal docks communicate with
the river by a basin and canal at each extremity.
  Passing round the circuit of the river. you see the
Commercial Docks on the south side. The extent of
these docks is even greater than that of the last de-
scribed, but they are not on so expensive a scale, being
intended chiefly as a harbour for vessels, and for the
unloading of timber and such commodities as do not
require warehouses.
  Ascending the river to Wapping, we arrive at the
London Docks, on the north side of the Thames, which
were the first commenced in the port, but not opened
until 1805. At present they consist of three docks:
the Western Dock, with a superficies of twenty-five
acres; the Tobacco Dock, adjoining the first, covering
over an acre; and the Eastern Dock, lately added. con-
taining about seven acres. The eastern and western
canals, opening into the river, are nearly a mile apart.
Immense ranges of sheds are erected along the quays
for the removal of cargoes; and behind them are lines
of warehouses, solidly, and even splendidly built of
hewn stone. The tobacco warehouse alone occupies
nearly four acres of ground, and will store twenty-four




thousand hogsheads of tobacco. But the most remark-
able feature of this immense establishment are the ex-
tensive vaults under the warehouses, principally devo-
ted to the storage of wines and spirits. We had the
curiosity to ramble through the largest of these, the
east vault, appropriated exclusively to the storing of
wines. The foreman, Mr. B. Randall, conducted us,
with great civility, through its hundred subterranean
streets. This single vault covers nine acres of ground,
intersected by ranges of pillars, sometimes of masonry,
but frequently of cast-iron, on which the arches of the
ceiling rest. In the compartments thus formed the
casks are piled up, generally three in height, leaving a
space of three or four feet to the ceilings. Between
the ranges a space of a few feet is left for convenience
of access to the different pipes and casks. The main
avenues, about eight feet wide, are laid with railways
to facilitate labour, and strown with sawdust.  The
lamps are suspended along these avenues. The casks
and ceilings are covered with a thick, whitish mould,
almost in the form of a jelly, which is never removed,