xt769p2w6d7j https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt769p2w6d7j/data/mets.xml Richmond County, Georgia Georgia Historical Records Survey 1939 Prepared by The Historical Records Survey, Division of Professional and Service Project,s Works Progress Administration; v, 152 leaves: illustrated, maps, plans, 28 cm; Mimeographed; Includes bibliographical references and index; UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries; Call number Y 3.W 89/2:43/G 296/no.121 books English Atlanta: The Survey This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Georiga Works Progress Administration Publications Inventory of the County Archives of Georgia, Number 121 Richmond County (Augusta) text Inventory of the County Archives of Georgia, Number 121 Richmond County (Augusta) 1939 1939 2015 true xt769p2w6d7j section xt769p2w6d7j   I` is  J1-; r\ 1,77 S 1   " NLIpI|v§FT$ITY0IiKFENTUCK`Y W V S
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_ The Historical Records Survey
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Jane Van de Vrede, State Director Q G
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· The Inventory of County Archives of Georgia is one of a number of bib-
liographies of historical materials prepared throughout the United States
by workers on the Historical Records Survey of the Works Progress gdmiris-
5 tration. The publication herewith presented, an inventory of the archives
j of Richmond County, is No. l2l of the Georgia series.
‘ The Historical Records Survey was undertaken in the winter of l955—56
Q for the purpose of providing useful employment to needy unemployed histo-
Q rians, lawyers, teachers, and research and clerical workers. In carrying
{ out this objective, the project was organized to compile inventories of his-
‘torial materials, particularly the unpublished government documents and
jg records which are basic in the administration of local government, and which
Q provide invaluable data for students of political, economic, and social his-
J tory. The archival guide herewith presented is intended to meet the require-
Q ments of day-to-day administration by the officials of the county, and also
E the needs of lawyers, business men and other citizens who require facts from
i the public records for the proper conduct of their affairs. The volume is so
I designed that it can be used by the historian in his research in unprinted
i sources in the same way he uses the library card catalog for printed sources.
i The inventories produced by The Historical Records Survey attempt to do
l more than give merely a list of records — they attempt further to sketch in
·i the historical background of the county or other unit of government, and to
q describe precisely and in detail the organization and functions of the gov-
1 ernment agencies whose records they list. The county, town, and other local
§ inventories for the entire country will, when completed, constitute an ency-
§ clopedia of local government as well as a bibliography of local archives.
i The successful conclusion of the work of The Historical Records Survey,
Q even in a single county, would not be possible without the support of public
j officials, historical and legal specialists, and many other groups in the
A community. Their cooperation is gratefully acknowledged.
¤; The Survey was organized and has been directed by Luther H. Evans, and
Z .operates as a nation—wide project in the Division of Professional and Service
Q Projects, of which Mrs. Florence Kerr, Assistant Administrator, is in charge.
g Administrator

 E iv
A Passncs
g The Historical Records Survey in Georgia was organized October 10, 1956,
·; as an independent state unit of the nation-wide Federal Project No. 1 of the
V, Works Progress Administration, under the supervision of Dr. Luther H. Evans,
T National Director. The project at the beginning was set up as part of the
Federal Writers' Project, and is indebted to Mrs. Carolyn P. Dillard, State
Director of that project, for its initiation. Miss Annie Laurie Hill was in
charge of the Historical Records Survey as Assistant State Supervisor under
Mrs. Dillard until November 1956, at which time the present State Director
my was appointed, and the larger organization went into effect.
,Q The first objective of the Historical Records Survey in Georgia has been
E the preparation of complete inventories of the public records of the state,
4 of each county in the state and of other local governmental units. The con-
i densed form of entry as used in the inventory gives the limiting dates of
YQ extant records, contents of individual series, and the location of records in
¥, the county courthouse, or in other depositories. The titles of the various
j records are arranged by subject under the office of origin, and are indexed
; alphabetically with cross references. There is also a brief statement pre-
2 ceding each office as to its history, functions, and records.
V, The aim of the Survey in Georgia is to make readily accessible the large
A store of source material of interest to research students and historians,
éy which has generally been stored away unlisted in the public vaults and files.
Such a survey should greatly assist the growing interest in local history
— 2. and, in turn, it should encourage a more systematic arrangement of records
,, and filing of county officials, by directing attention to the frequently
ly crowded and careless condition in the storage of out-of-date papers,
TE The Inventory of County Archives in Georgia, is expected to consist of
; a separate, numbered volume for each county in the state, and will be pub-
E lished in mimeographed form for distribution among state and local officials
j and leading public depositories. The county inventory volumes are being
numbered in the order in which the county names came on an alphabetical list
é of Georgia's 159 counties. Thus, the mimeographed inventory of Richmond
if County becomes No. 121 in accordance with such list.
Q In inventorying the many records, files, and books within the various
ll offices of the courthouse, such printed books as Supreme Court Reports,
Q Court of Appeals Reports, Georgia Codes, and all modern legal text books,
§ are not listed.
A, In preparation of the Richmond County Inventory, the field work, which
Q began April 6, 1956 and was completed January 8, 1958, considerable material
{ has been tabulated so as to be available for close study of the social history
A, of this old section of Georgia. The work in Richmond County was under the
E direction of Mrs. Edith Bell Love, District Supervisor, and a clerical staff
f of workers, who endeavored to exert great care and accuracy, The legal es-
l says and final draft of this inventory were prepared by Harold Warnell,
y Assistant State Director, H S, with the exception of the Historical Sketch,
., which was prepared by the State Director.
Records of marriages, taxes, education, health, and land transfers are
{ listed, which may be searched by coming generations to disclose details of
. the lives and character of the past inhabitants of the county.

¥f V
§ Preface
& Valuable assistance was rendered by the county officials, who maintained
”= . . . . . . , .
F at all time an appreciative spirit of courtesy and cooperati n. aid was also
2 given by the various clerks and officials in the State Area offices of the
42 Works Progress Administration.
? Through such cooperation, we hope the inventory of this very early county
of Georgia will appear well among the several thousand inventories fer the
{ counties throughout the United States and which will be deposited with our
4 state inventories in the leading depcsitories of Georgia and other states.
i Rixiferd J. Weed
%· State Director
ii The Historical Records Survey
{ Atlanta, Georgia
% April l959
“ 4
> K
zi °

 .   1
I Q A. Richmond County and Its Records System
ji Page
1 1. Historical Sketch ..... . . ....... . . . . . . . . . 5
· Maps of Evolution of Boundaries of Richmond County . . . . . 16
,; Population of Richmond County to 1950 . . . . . . . . . . . 18
; 2. Governmental Organization and Records System . . . . . . . . . 19
i Chart of Governmental Organization . . .... . . . . . . . 28
{ 5. Housing, Care, and Accessibility of the Records . . . . . . . . 29
Yi Floor Plans . . . . . . . . . .......... . . . . . 52
Q M. List of Abbreviations, Symbols, and Explanatory Notes . . . . . 56
{ B. County Offices and Their Records
i I. Board of County Commissioners of Roads and Revenues . . . . . 58
i· Minutes. Receipts and Expenditures. Requisitions.
ia Warrants. Tax Records. Advertisements. Audits.
` Roads and Bridges. Record of Uonvicts. Orders,
Supplies, Produce. County Police. County Poor.
A Licenses. Correspondence. kiscellaneous. i
1 II. Superior Court Clerk as ex Officio County Recorder . . . . . . hh
g Realty and Personaltyz General Property Records;
1 Deeds; Mortgages; Land Title Registers; Land Maps
f, and Plats. Homesteads. Charters of Incorporation.
gi Trade Names. Professional Registrations. Soldiers.
`2 Aliens and Citizenship. Slaves,
{ III. Superior Court and Clerk , , ,,,,,,,, , , ,,,, , , , 50
j Civil Records: Case Papers and Pleadings; Divorce;
Q Dockets; Minutes; Subpoenas. Criminal Records;
1 Case Papers; Dockets; Minutes; Subpoenas; Juries.
§ Court Costs. Notaries Public and ex Officio
Q Justices of the Peace. Exhibits. Miscellaneous.
j IV. Solicitor General . . . .... . . . . .... . . . . . . . 59
Q Warrants. Indictments.
iv V. Jury Commissioners .... . . . . . . . ....... . . . . GO
gl Jury Lists.
il   I       I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I O  
VII. Inferior Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . 62
; Sitting for County Purposes; Minutes. Sitting
i for Ordinary Purposes: Estate Accounts. Sitting
l as a Court of Law; Minutes; Dockets; Slaves and
i Free Persons of Color.
`] VIII. Court of Ordinary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Minutes. Estates: Case Papers; Record of Wills;
. Administration of Estates; Guardianship; Bonds,

 I 2
if Table of Contents
ti Representatives of Estates; Appraisements and
ei Inventories; Accounts; Returns, Representatives
ii of Estates; Widows Years Support; Dockets. Lu-
tj nacy Records. Orphans and Apprentices. Marriages.
Q Vital Statistics. Homesteads ari Exemptions.
ll Land Records. Habeas Corpus. Voters. Officials
I Oaths and Bonds. Confederate Pensions and Records.
p; Poor School Fund. Paupers. Licenses and Bones;
{ Soldiers; Pistol Toters; Explosives; Spirituous
J Liquors; Hunting and Fishing, Estrays. Business
{ and Professional Registrations. Newspapers. Cen-
i sus and Directories. Miscellaneous.
  IX. County Court ......................... 80
{ Ihnutes. Dockets; Civil; Criminal. Bonds. Court
I Costs.
V? X. City Court of Richmond County and Clerk . . . . . . . . . . . 82
‘é Civil Records; Case Papers; Dockets; Minutes.
'§ Criminal Records; Case Papers and Accusations;
§ Dockets; Minutes. Jurors.
E XI. City Court Solicitor . ..... . ......... . . . . . BB
Q XII. Justice of Peace Court . . . . . . . . . ....... . . . . BB
, ll9th Militia District. l20th Militia District.
i l2lst Militia District. l22nd Militia District.
v. l269th Militia District. lh5hth Militia District.
l660th Militia District. 1760th Militia District.
I XIII. Municipal Court of Augusta and Clerk ........ . . . . . 91
§ Civil Records: Case Papers; Dockets; Minutes.
` Criminal Records; Case Papers; Dockets; Minutes.
A XIV. Municipal Court Sheriff . . . . . .......... . . . . . 9b
; XV. Juvenile Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... . 9h
t Case Histories. Dockets. Annual Reports.
“‘ Lisoellaneeus.
XVI. County Attorney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
XVII. County Coroner . . . ...... . . ..... . . . . . . . . 96
I XVIII. County Sheriff . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
V Executions. Sales. Subpocnas. Bench Warrants
1 and Fines. ~County Jail Records. Sheriff’s
City Court Docket. Miscellaneous.
XIX. Tax Receiver . . . . ........ . ......... . . . 105
Returns. Digests. Miscellaneous.
I .

_ Table of Contents
E XX. County Board of Tax Assessors ....... . . . . . . . . . . 105
. Assessments. Field Books. I
Q XXI. Tax Collector . . ....................... 106
l Tax Receipts and Collections; Receipt Stubs;
Q Cash Books. Tax Digests. Specific and
Y Special Taxes. Insolvent and Delinquent Tax-
H payers. Tax Execution Dockets and Fi Fas.
[ Monthly and Annual Reports. Poll Taxes.
F Voters. Correspondence.
@ XXII. County Treasurer ....................... 111
{ Receipts and Expenditures. Checks and
Q Warrants. Miscellaneous.
i XXIII. County Auditor ....................... 115
g Audits.
1 XXIV. County Registrars . ............ . ....... . 1Ui
y Voters.
E XXV. Board of Education for the City of Augusta and the
§ County of Richmond . . . ................ . 115
§ Minutes. Deeds.
11 XXVI. Superintendent of Public Schools .............. 119
g Teachers. Pupils. Reports and Orders. Pinan-
Q cial Records. Miscellaneous.
.1 XXVII. Richmond County Department of Health . . .......... 125
I XXVIII. District Commissioner of Health . . . ......... . . . 125
‘ Vital Statistics; Births; Deaths. Public Health
¥ Nursing. Food Inspection. Laboratory Tests,
Sanitation. Receipts and Expenditures. Reports.
%? XXIX. County Physician . . .... . ................ 129
>l XXX. County Department of Public Welfare .............. 129
E hinutes. Cases. Applications. Financial Record.
rl XXXI, Road Commissioners ...................... 155
S » XXXII. County Surveyor ....................... 15h
li AXXIII. County Engineer . . ..................... 155
Maps and Plans.
3 XXXIV. County Agricultural Agent . . . ................ 156
S Reports.
XXXV. County Home Demonstration Agent .............. . 157
V Reports.

 _   4
IY Table ef Centents
it Clruwmelcgieellndex......................142 l
KQ Subject z;mdE1;try I11d.e:< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

 ;‘_  5
= l
V; In 1755, just two years after the founding of the Colony of Georgia at l
{Q Savannah, Oglethorpe, the philanthropic founder of this thirteenth English
;E Co1ony,authorized the placing at the head of navigation of the Savannah River,
H the town of Augusta. This future seat of Richmond County was established to
{ secure the Indian trade and to defend the western edge of the settlement.
Q Moorels Fort had already been built at the little Carolina village, then
U called Savannah Town,(l) where as early as 1716 there had developed a profit-
Q able trade with the Cherokee and Creek Indians.(2) Across the river at the
.1 site then known as Kenyon*s Bluff an English trader named Sam Eveleigh is
li said to have suggested establishing a settlement and fort {5) which
rg Oglethorpe decided to call Augusta. There has been disagreement as to which
i of the English princesses was honored by the naming of the outpost, but it
§ is supposed to have been Augusta of Saxe-Gotha,who was at the time betrothed
% to Frederick, Prince of Wa1es.(4)
§ Nearly three hundred years before the English established their outpost
§ in the present Richmond County, the section had been visited by DeSoto, the
7; Spanish explorer who passed through in 1540 on his famous march northward
E from the Spanish settlements in Florida. He crossed the Savannah River near
i the eastern edge of the present county, and tradition says that while in this
i section he abused the hospitality of the friendly Indians, despoiled their
l village, and captured their queen.(5) Relics of the Spanish visit have been
_` unearthed occasionally about the present county.
fl Close beside the river at the new town, Fort Augusta was started in 1756,
dp (6) and garrisoned by a detail of troops from Savannah. It was completed the
g following year,(7) when Oglethorpe brought back guns from England to defend
g€ this center of Indian trade.(8) `Within a year the fortifications at Augusta
¢V had induced traders from Charleston to open stores there, and before long the
,p small forts which were built along the Indian frontiers, starting at Augusta,
gi encouraged numbers of new settlers who constructed warehouses and carried on
» much trade with the Indians.(9) The present Richmond County became the
Y' 1) Candler, Allen D., Colonial Records of Georgia, Atlanta, 1905, 28 vols.,
rV IV, p. 666; Jones, Ci-IYTTTFTTYEETYEIDEHE Ttcher, Memorial History of
iz Augusta, Syracuse, 1890, pp. 25-26; Crane, Vernerddi, The Southern Fron-
fQ 1iZE?;d5urham, 1928, pp. 152, 187. ` ———·————*__——-———`
si 2) McCall, Hugh, History of Georgia, Savannah, 1909, pp. 54, 187.
 { za) camier, A11en raS or Georgia, Atianm, ieee, ze vsis.,
1· II, p. 179. "——_-——*-___°___-**_—“_——_—
IQ 4) Anderson, Mary Savage, et al, Georgia: A Pageant of Years, Richmond,
ji 1955, p. 19; White, George, HistEF1EH1—C511eEtions of Georgia, New York,
EF 1854, p. 595; Cumming, Mary G., Two Centuries of Augusta, Augusta, 1926,
t' p. 14; Encyclopedia Americana, 1952, 50 vols., II, p. 545.
5 5) Mitchell, Frances Lctcher, Georgia Land and People, Athens, 1895, pp. 7-8.
if 6) Candler, Allen D., Colonial Records of Georgia, Atlanta, 1905, 28 vols.,
if IV, pp. 46-47, 155; XXI, pp. 179, 289, 401.
{_ 7) Ibid., IV, pp. 46-47; III, p. 589.
jp 8) McCall, Hugh, History of Georgia, Savannah, 1909, p. 45.
$ 9) Candler, A1len—D., Colonial Records of Georgia, Atlanta, 1905, 28 vols.,
?· III, p. 589; IV, 666; McCall, Hugh, History of Gpppggpg Savannah, 1909,
d, pp. 54, 85.

 Q 6
yi Historical Sketch of Richmond County (First entry, p. 40)
ii gateway into Georgia from the Carolinas and Virginia, and much of the great
ti stream of Georgia pioneers entered the state at this point. I
` 1 From the beginning of the English colonization the settlements about
,1 the head of river navigation f1ourished,and in 1740 the Secretary of the
°l Board of Trustees in his journal reported that Augusta was the most flour-
_§ ishing town in the province of Georgia.(l0) In 1759 a road was laid out to
VQ connect Augusta and Savannah, the seat of the royal government, scum two
5 hundred miles away by water, and a road was also established to the head-
1, quarters of the Cherokee Nation. `Within a few years warehouses in the town
Q had increased to five and these were filled with many articles for the Indian
is trade . ( 11)
i Prominent among the early leaders and traders were Capt. Roger Lacy,
? Capt. Richard Kent, John Rae, and Kenneth 0'Brien. Names of other traders
·* mentioned in early lists were: Wood, Brown, Clark, Knott, Spencer, Barnett,
1 Ladson, Mackey {or Mackay), Elsey, Facy (or Faeey), McQueen, Wright, Gardner,
g Andrews, Duvall, Campbell, Randel, Chauncey, Newberry, Frazer, Miller
E William Clark, Overstreet, Bean, Grey, Calahan, MCGi1IjvT&y,Casson, Gilmore,
é Goodale, Ross and George Ga1phin.(l2) The last name mentioned on the list is
{ of particular importance in the growth of the colony, since Galphin who had
§ an elegant home at Silver Bluff on the Carolina side of the river had a
§ trading post at Ogeechoo Town or Galphinton, which was to be a great factor
Q in bringing groups of pioneers to the surrounding eountryo At a later date,
- 2_ it was to pay the debts due the Galphin estate and others, that the Indians
,, ceded to the colony the territory to form Wilkes, Oglethorpe, Elbert, and
Q, Lincoln Counties.(l5)
Y] In September 1759, Oglethorpe made a trip into the heart of the Indian
Q Country, where he met the chiefs of the Indian nation at Coweta Town, and,
‘. as representative of the British government, he had made a most notable con-
Q firmation and extension of the treaty of 1755. A letter from Oglethorpe tells
{ of his having been taken ill with fever while on this visit to the Indians,
` ~t and of his visit to Augusta after his recovery.(14) This was the only visit
Yi to the present Richmond County of the co1ony*s founder, and while there he
ji discussed with leaders of the Creek nation their complaints about traders
pl selling poisoned rum, and about other matters.(l5)
 ·‘l  ) From the earliest days in the upper colony the trade in rum and in
;5 10) Candler, Allen D., Colonial Records of Georgia, Atlanta, 1905, 28 vols.,
it III, p. 402; V, p. 461. ·—'-—--
D 11) Coulter, E. Merton, A Short History of Georgia, Chapel Hill, 1955, p.
Y 457. '
;[ 12) White, George, Historical Collections of Georgia, New York, 1854, p.
I . 600; Smith, George G., Story of Georgia and G65`Fgia People, Atlanta,
Q 1900, p. 189.
 I 1s) Ibid.
if 14) Candler, Allen D., Colonial Records of Georgia, Atlanta, 1905, 28 vols.
A- XXII, part 2, pp. 208, 214.
it 15) Ibid., pp. 215-216; IV, p. 405; McCain, James Ross, Georgia as a proprie-
Q, tary Province; The Execution of a Trust, Uoston,‘l917, pp. 276-277.

fi Historical Sketch of Richmond County (First entry, p. 40)
é§ slaves brought discerd,(l6) and this condition continued until the charter of
LQ the colony was surrendered in 1782. The early traders with land on the ]
lf Carolina side secured land grants just across the river in the Georgia Colony, 1
 _“_ A and carried their slaves easily into the new territory,(l7) where they could
Q be kept almost unnoticed in the large acreage comprising the plantations on
Q the frontier.(l8) In 1747, the inhabitants declared that if they could not
si retain their slaves they would move to the Carolina side,(l9) and consequently
f slavery was practically overlooked by the authorities.
5 Partially due to the use of slaves, but also because of the rich lands
? in the frontier regions,(20) the plantations after 1740 were expanded from
+5 50 acre to 500 acre tracts, and became major source of food supply for the
'Q colony.(21) Corn and grain mills were estab1ished,(22) and indigo production
{ was developed as an industry.(25) With the growth of industry and farming,
Q* the efforts by Augusta stores to secure monopolies, and the bitter feuds
jp grewingiout of these efforts, created a problem which continued to annoy the
5. colony for a number of years.(24)
dy To curb the great amount of unscrupulous trading in the early days, it
E was deemed necessary to attempt to have justice in the upper state adminis-
pj tered by appointees of Oglethorpe or the Trustees.(25) The first method was
W for an agent, a local constable, or the commander of Fort Augusta to apprehend
y offenders locally for trial in Savannah.(26) In 1759 Oglethorpe appointed the
W commander of the fort, Capt. Richard Kent as Conservator of the Peace,(27)
EQ but the unruly traders claimed that Kent did not carry an authorized appoint-
ji ment from the Trustccs,(28) and it was not until 1741 that such an appointment
fY was made.(29) This was a formative period in the judicial and administrative
Qf affairs of the colony, and in 1741 the territory then occupied was divided
QE into two main divisions called counties. From the present Richmond County
if down to Savannah was included in Savannah County, presided over by Colonel
It Stephens as President,(50) and the area southward along the coast, including
ig the Scottish settlement, was called Frederica County and presided over by
lf Colonel Oglethorpe. Under such government two local acts worthy of mention
.[ were· the appointment in 1746 of two Augusta men as a "Court Judicature" to
y _‘=, assist the Censcrvator in trying eases of misbohavior and suit; gf ppb
ii 16) Candler, Allen D., Colonial Records of Georgia, Atlanta, 1905, 28 vols.,
gi XXV, pp. 44, 48; IV, p. 544; IV Sup. p. 272; V, p. 555; XXIII, p. 185; I,
M§ p. 495; XXV, p. 257.
”y 17) Ibid., IV Sup. p. 272; I, p. 495.
QE  4` 18) Ibid., IV Sup. p. 272.
YE 19) Ibid., XXV, p. 257.
Q? 20) Ibid., IV Sup. pp. 152, 257; IV, pp. 544, 667; V, pp. 486, 555, 554.
*» 21) Ibid., XXIII, p. 470.
,” 22) Ibid., VI, pp. 172, 182, 294.
QQ 25) Ibid., VI, p. 225.
ik 24) Ibid., II, p. 512; I, p. 561; XXVI, pp. 152, 169; VI, p. 555.
 ;‘ 25) EEE., iv, p. 181.
.*’  . ze) TFIET., mu, p. 452; icuii, p. zes.
~§ 27) Ibid., V, p. 558; XXIII, p. 122.
  28) ip'i'€., iv Sup, p. iev; v, p. see.
ig,  29) IEEE., v, pp. eee-eve; ii, p. 572; 1, p. see.
  so) IEEE., ii, p. sev.

gl Historical Sketch of Richmond County (First entry, p. 40)
ij over ten pounds sterling,(5l) and the appointment in 1750 of a non-military
yl man as Justice of the Peace.(52) However, because of the distance from l
fl Savannah, plaintiffs did not find it profitable to make the journey for as '
is little as ten pounds.(55) And to aid the flourishing section, in 1751 the
Q trustees established a "County Court" in Augusta with a conservator of the
Q peace, three free-holder assistants, and a constable.(54) This court was a
jf model for the two other district courts in the colony.(55)
in In 1765 under the treaty of Paris, England received undisputed title to
il the French possessions east of the Mississippi, and the dangers of Spanish and
fg French intrigues no longer threatened the frontier settlements. To inform
eg the Indians as to governmental changes and boundaries, there was a meeting
Q held in Augusta on November 5th, 1765, at which the governors of the Carolinas
Q and the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia met with the superintendent of Indian
TQ affairs for the southern department and with a large number of representatives
if of five Indian nations. A treaty was drawn up at this meeting under which
E the Creeks gave up lands along the Savannah River as far westward as Little
j— Riven and Governor Wright agreed to enforce strict regulations for Indian
?` trade.(56)
*i During the succeeding years, Governor Wright was forced to relax en-
i forcement of regulations drawn up for the Indian trade. As the Creeks and
.j Cherokees became greatly indebted to the traders much dissension developed.
L. In consequence, during the summer of 1775, another Congress was held with
{ members from the Indian nations to settle the differences. As a result of
J? this meeting, a treaty was made that greatly extended the holdings of the
if colony to the west, as well as cementing friendly relations.(57)
ji In the discord leading up to the American Revolution prevalent along
it the coastal areas,the section around the present Richmond County took little
g` part. St. Paul's Parish was represented at two meetings held at Tondee's
if Tavern in Savannah in the summer of 1774, but then the parish joined with
Q; the Parish of St. George in registering protest against any opposition to
fl the British Crown. In spite of this former declaration of loyalty to the `
{E Crown, the revolutionary sentiments spread rapidly during the first part of
iff 1775, and the Parish of St. Paul sent representatives to the Provincial Con-
yjl gross in Savannah and joined with the other parishes in endorsing all pro-
ii ceedings of the Continental Congress and in taking over the government of
gy the colony so as to leave the royal governor, James Wright, powerless. The
yi! representatives of St. Pau1’s Parish to the Provincial Congress were: John
Pl Walton, Andrew Burns, Robert and James Rae, Andrew Moore, Andrew Burney, and
Ei Leonard Marbury. Early in 1776 the royal governor fled the colony, and in
 y 51) Ibid., XXV, pp. 27, 59; V, p. 722, II, p. 467.
y 52) Ibid}, VI, p. 509; I1, p. 509; I, p. 549.
y  ss) Tina., 1, p. sei.
,  ss) `iiii`5., 1, pp. sei, ses; iocvi, p. isi, 1, p. sss.
l  55) IEE., zewi, pp. isz, rro.
if 56) Jones, C. C., Jr., wid Salem Dutcher, Memorial History of Augusta, Sy-
lis racuse, 1890, pp. 44-48. I
Q $7) Coulter, E, Merton, A Short Histogy of Georgia, Chapel Hill, 1955, p.
R 86.

 Q 9
gf Historical Sketch of Richmond County (First entry, p. 40)
lyt December, George\Walton of St. Pau1*s Parish succeeded William Ewen as re-
ft presentative.(58)
Y In 1777, a constitution was drawn up under which Georgia was to be gov-
j erned for the next twelve years, this being the first regular constitution
j of the state. The parishes were at this time replaced with counties, and the '
l Parish of St. Paul became Richmond County, honoring the Duke of Richmond who
gi had befriended the colony in Parliament with money and personal support.(39)
$1 During the first part of the Revo1utionary`War, the frontier section
g of Georgia took little part. Later, however, after Savannah had been cap-
§ tured in 1778 by the English, the state executive council designated
3 Augusta as the seat of govcrnment,(40) and the Tory activities concentrated
g on the section below Augusta. So rapidly did the noted Tory, Lieutenant
§ Colonel Campbell, lead his forces upward through the state, and so badly
i did the South Carolina Tory, Schopol, menace the state by his raiding
§ parties which swept across from below Augusta to the Florida line, that
i Augusta was capital in little more than name.(4l) Aware of the defenseless
5 condition of Augusta, the state now being almost entirely in the hands of
é the British, the assembly on.Fcbruary 5, 1788 designated Hcard*s Fort in
Q `Wilkes County the place for the transaction of business of the state.(42)
i During the hazardous months that followed, the Revolutionary Government
i moved its headquarters from one fortified place to another in Wilkes and
° Burke Counties before finally again establishing it in Augusta after the
V expulsion of the British in June 1781. This followed the bloody battle
§ in which not only Fort Augusta, but also St. Paul*s Church and the
Q parish records were destroyed. A landmark of this period, still standing
U in Augusta, is the old "White House" where the British under Colonel
J Thomas Browne hanged thirteen of the wounded Americans who were left behind
§ when Georgia troops were forced to retreat.(45)
Q For almost a year after the expulsion of the enemy, Augusta again
Q served as the seat of government. Then, as the British were forced out of
Q Georgia, the government was carried back down the river to Ebenezer early
E in July 1782, and in about ten days placed again in Savannah, which had just
, been evacuated by the British. But this location of the government had now
f begun to be considered inaccessible to the settlers of the up-country, who
Q complained of the long and expensive journeys required to transact business
ii of the state. A fight for relocation was begun, which terminated in 1786
Q with Augusta being designated the temporary capital until three appointed
E Commissioners, Hugh Lawson,`Wil1ia