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                 Mammoth Cave

    HIS immense cavern does not consist of one great room but of a series
    of marvelous chambers, magnificent avenues and pits and domes. These
have been worked out of the limestone by the mechanical and chemical action of
the water which threaded its way through the numerous channels, long since
abandoned. Throughout the long centuries that have elapsed the solvent
action of water has asserted its power and left the monuments of its work that
we see in the cave today, as immense pillars, stalagmites, stalactites, helectites,
onyx and gypsum formation, crystaline and alabaster flowers.
   The vast work accomplished by the water during the centuries may, to
some extent, be understood when we consider the magnitude of this Underground
Wonderland. It consists of over one hundred avenues, seventy miles of which
have been explored; twenty-nine domes, measuring from eight to five hundred
feet in height; and sixteen pits, from ten to one hundred and fifty feet in depth.
'The avenues range from a few feet to eighty-five feet in height and from less
than two to over two hundred feet in width. In one instance the width of the
main avenue is four hundred and fifty feet and it measures sixty feet
in height. It has been computed that over twelve million cubic yards of lime-
stone was removed by the cov.biniedi action of water in forming this vast cavern.
   Spring, summer, a'qtuain and winter ape unknown in this underground
region as an even temperature, oi fifty-four degrees prevails throughout the
year. Not a ray of. sl-;ilig'h hfs ever pcnetzat;(d beyond a few hundred yards
of an entrance. Oppressive d.il.rkness holds swav in these regions of endless
gloom. Absolute silence prevades the ca'crn broken only occasionally by the
sound of water either dripping, flowing, rushing or roaring in its passage on
to a lower level.
   The country u-ithout the cave is well suited for a summer holiday. The
scenery is beautiful and picturesque. Virgin forests, charming valleys, fertile
fields, and an occasional pond that mirrors the passing clouds-when you add
to this the grand ridges with this vast cavern underneath, you have a play-
ground that the equal cannot be found.
   And wshat caln equal in wonder and surprise the marvelous halls; the
beautiful avenues; magnificent chambers; lofty domses and wonderful grottos,
overhung with dazzling splendor, and all shrouded in eternal gloonm.
   Visit the Cave and all other scenes you have witnessed will be dwarfed in
the grandeur. You will be convinced thiat the 'Manmmioth Cave of Kentuckv
stands without a rival, and that the cave region should and will he the Play-
ground of the world.
                             (ConI iitied on Paze 5)


in Onyx.
This mas-
sive Onyx
formation  bep  
30 feet in
width and fro
feet in

                                    FROZEN NIAGARA,'N  

a few feet of the ceiling (a distance of thirty feet) when this beauty comes into.
view one st-ands spell bound. It is simply beyond human ability to properly
describe it. Men who stated before they entered the cave. that their daily
business was handling the English language, came out as helpless as those of
less accredited ability. A certain editor was very confident that he would
be able to express his impression of this formation and upon his return from
his visit, when requested to give a description, be struggled seemingly for
several seconds for the words that would convey his impressions and then
said, "All I can say is that it is simply stupendous, I cannot do justice to it."
It is stupendous, marvelous, and any and all adjectives combined fail to give
the description desired.             4


   Mammoth Cave has for the century past been known as one of the
"SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD." Due to the recent discoveries
made and exhibited as the NEW ENTRANCE TO MAMMOTH CAVE, the
famous cavern will be able to retain its rightful place as ranking foremost in
natural world wonders, although severely challenged by the new discovered
Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico.
   The exact date of the discovery of the cave is problematical. While it is
generally conceded that in 1809 the venturesome hunter, Houchins, first
entered in pursuit of a wounded bear, there is also a legend, attributed to
Bayard Taylor, that it was discovered in 1802. A search of the records at
Bowling Green, the county seat, reveal the fact that the Cave was designated
as a marker for a corner section of land as early as 1797 and was not only
designated as a cave but as a salt peter cave. This would not only imply that
the cave was known to the surveyor, but that it had been explored. Sufficient
at least to locate the deposits of nitrous or peter dirt. The Indian relics, debris,
etc., discovered in the section of the cave now known as chief city, proves that
the Indians had access to the underground regions at a prior date. So it is
fair to assume that the new purchaser who purchased the cave and dated its
history by the manufacture of saltpeter, accepted the legend of the wounded
bear. It is very plausible that the tale of the wounded bear was the means
that excited sufficient curiosity to investigation and publicity. At present
no data is given in cave history of the owner prior to 'McLean. Some one must
have owned the cave in order to sell to 'McLean. This man did own the cave.
He traded another man a mule for the cave and forty acres of land which he
sold to McLean for forty dollars. The old mule was well sold. This former
owner was not selling caves or land; he was selling and trading mules. The
owner, prior to the mule dealer, was a hunter. He traded Mammoth Cave and
land for an old flint lock. These are the tales of ownership as told in the
cave region and relate to squatter titles. So, as far as historical value is con-
cerned, the hunter Houchin and McLean titles may be accepted as the starting
point in the history of Mammoth Cave.
   McLean soon sold the cave and land to M1r. Gatewood, who resold in 1811
to Messrs. Gratz and Wilkins. They made a fortune from it during the war
of 1812. These men brought capital and experience to aid in the manufacture
of the then much needed salt peter and although the methods employed were
the most primitive, the yield from the cave largly furnished the supply that,
despite the general embargo, gave America the victory over Great Britain.
The following extract from "World's Work" gives a summary of the history of
that period:
   "In 1816, Gratz and Wilkins sold the property to a Philadelphia merchant,
Mr. James Moore, who, it is averred, entangled the cave's fortunes with one
of the most romantic lost causes in American history, the attempt of genial,
brilliant, adventurous Aaron Burr to carve out a kingdom for himself and his
friends in the unexplored West.
                             (Continued on Page 7)


Leading into
a dome 30
feet in  
and 50 feet
in height,
Onyx for-
every where.

                      ENTRANCE TO 'OLD TUTT'S TOMB"
   Passing under the falls one enters Old Tutt's Tomb, a dome-shaped room.
Looking up and looking down one finds oneself at the edge of a pit, twenty
feet deep and an equal distance across. The walls of the pit are not perpen-
dicular but stand at a severe slope. With care one can descend to the bottom
of the pit, then standing in a huge egg shaped dome, fifty feet in height and
thirty feet in diameter. Within this dome where ever the eye may rest one
will find beautiful onyx formation from the most fragile and delicate to the
huge stalagmites and stalactites taking form as Totem Poles, Pyramids,
Markers and in other myraids of shapes. One small onyx stalagmite growing
from the floor twenty inches in height and four inches in diameter is noted for
its perfect svmmetry, sparkling whiteness and polished appearance. Another
massive stalagmite calls for special mention as it resembles the trunk of an
old tree that has passed to decay and the top has been removed by wind or



   After the catastrophe of Blenerhassett, Moore was ruined. The estate
was purchased by Mr. Frank Gorin in 1837 and the era of discoveries began.
The immediate cause of explorations was an accident. Mr. Gorin's nephew
was lost in the cave for thirty-nine hours and it was while searching for him
that many of the wonders in the subterranean vaults were seen for the first
time. Tlhe fame of the cave began to spread both in America and Europe, but,
like most of the world's great marvels, was least well known at home. John
Crogan, a young physician of Louisville, traveling in Europe, heard so much
about the marvels of Mammoth Cave and was so mortified to confess his own
ignorance about it, that he returned home and bought the property from Mr.
Gorin. He expended large sums on its development and at his death in 1845 he
bequeathed it to his eleven nephews and nieces.
   Its history has been a torchlight procession of admiring tourists" until
in 1907, Eignbigler, of New York City, paid a, visit to the Cave and became
enthused with admiration and it was due to his activities that the vast dome
bearing his name was discovered; also a second dome which he named for his
sister Edna. While he and his party were enjoying a noon-day lunch a colored
lunch carrier, Ed Hawkins, ventured across a dangerous pit which had de-
terred others of the party, and was rewarded by discovering the passage way
which now bears his name, "Hawkins Way" and also "Hawkins.Springs."
      This passage way when investigated leads into the "Five Monarchs"
known as Cathedral Dome, and described in this book by Hovey and Robert-
son. This discovery added vast new regions to the then known route of Mam-
moth Cave.
   In 1908 Max Kemper, a German, visited the Cave with the avowed purpose
of spending a short period only, but his investigations extended over months
and months. Due to his activities Violet City was added to the vast domain;
as was also the route extending southeast from the passage way to Cathedral
Dome, known as the New Discovery Route. This leads to Saratoga Springs,
Forks of the Cave, Alice's Grotto, the Mammoth Gypsum Wall, the Black
Onyx Region and the Crystal Room. This series of discoveries added as
much mileage as was formerly known as the Mammoth Cave routes. The
Majestic Avenue, known as the New Discovery, equals in size any known
avenue in the underground world of wonder.
   In the spring of 1916, George D. Morrison, first visited the cave
and was so impressed with what he saw that he prolonged his visit until
he had thoroughly explored each of the routes open to visitors and was more
familiar with the long routes of the cave than were several of the guides
whose specialty was the short trips. Having become a cave fan and explored
all open routes; having asked innumerable questions of the guides; having
read all books issued relative to Mammoth Cave; having secured and studied
all available maps of the underground routes; he was convinced that the vast
avenues that required six hours steady traveling to reach the point where
the guide requested you to return (and the avenue continued on with more
signs of increasing than of diminishing) extended miles beyond the present
boundaries of the Groghans heir's estate.


LARS standI
as sentinels
the passage-
way into the
known as
the ONYX
ADE.   As
glimpsed in
the picture
this region
ribounds in
unnumber -  
ed  Stalag-
m    citis and
ranging  ila
size  fromyn
the size of a
quill to mas-
sive pillars.
in one in-
stance to a
single pillar
twenty -two
feet in di-

                             ONYX PILLARS

   In following out his investigations he ascertained that in walking in a
southeast direction from the cave entrance, he could reach the eastern boundary
of the cave estate in fifteen minutes, and in walking south the southern
boundary line was reached in thirty-two minutes. Comparing the time re-
quired to traverse the cave avenue to turning point, or six hours, to the time
required to walk to the estate boundary, or thirty minutes, corrobrated his
former conviction that only a parcel of Mammoth Cave was under the land
owned by the estate. Being conversant with the laws relative to mineral or sub-
surface rights, he was not mislead by any false claims that the cave and cavern
rights underlying the adjoining tracts of land by any imaginary right or law
could belong to the Mammoth Cave estate except by purchase or with the
consent of the land owner.
   Now having become positively convinced that the cave avenues did1 extend



miles beyond the boundary of land owned by the Croghan Heirs, and that
a new entrance could be effected and that this new entrance would open up
untold beauty which was accessible from Old Entrance to only those who had
the hardihood and endurance necessary to endure eleven to twelve hours of
continuous walking.
   These regions of beauty which are unsurpassed were so remote from the
Old Entrance that in 1916 only one guide of the six claiming to be guides
would venture to show the then known New Discoverv route. The real guide
was Ed. Bishop. He instructed Hunt how to reach the New Discovery from
the Cathedral Dome route and Hunt instructed Bob Lively, but during 1916
and 1917 it was necessary to wait for Bishop, to make the trip.
   Even at the present time it is doubtful if there is any of the present
guides, except Lively, that can guide a party to the New Discovery or to what
was known as Alice's Grotto. This proves that the efforts to make the New
Entrance was based on the fact that a New Entrance was warranted as it
would render these regions easily accessible to visitors and would avoid the
necessity of retracing of one's steps for six long hours. No labor is more
futile than that of retracing after energy is exhausted in going forward.
   It would open up new routes of untold beauty that have been sealed in
these remote regions for long ages, antedating the building of the Tower of
Babel or the Egyptian Pyramids.
   It would make it possible to visit these regions every day of the year while
from the Old Entrance these regions are only accessible during the seasons
that Green River is within its banks. Any rise in Green River closes the pas-
sage of what is known as Echo River so access from the Old Entrance de-
pended on the rise and fall of Green River. During exploring trips Ganter
Avenue was traveled and one must be a true cave fan to take that trip more
than once or ever advise a friend to take it. It is simply impossible; more
suited to goats than to human beings.
   Having become satisfied as to the feasibility, practicability and desirability
of a New Entrance, the necessary steps were taken to accomplish the desired
results, leases and options were secured .on all the tracts of land that touched
the cave estate on the East, South and West, an aggregate of six thousand
acres. After securing the needed acreage the question then was to locate the
Cave avenues and as there is only one main cave avenue which is about as wide
as the average country road and as crooked, and as it passed somewhere across
the six thousand acres and was buried some two hundred to three hundred feet
below the surface, this was the question that had deterred many and had caused
the defeat of all those who had ventured to effect a new entrance.
   The many traces of former excavations seen on the hillsides in the cave
regions are monuments to such men as Hazen and Proctor, who spent years
and all their means in a futile attempt to locate the cave avenue and effect
the New Entrance.
   In the question of locating the cave avenue practical knowledge of oil
well drilling rendered this a simple question and was solved by moving the
                              Continued on Page 11


T.he  center
Piece Of Lbis
drapery ex-
tends six to
'eight  feet
lower  than
.the second
tier of drap-
ery and ta-
pers to   a
Point. Start-
ing from the
ionnt  the
format ion
(which  is
not solid but
of fold like
form. made
up of num-
erous folded
wavy hang-
Ing  -shawl
increases in
siZe to eight
feet across,
a huge

                                GIDEON'S FLEECE

    On the wall, some thirty feet up, is a deposit of pure white, fleecy appear-
ing onyx. This has been named "GIDEO1N'S FLEECE," due to the remark-
able resemblance to a white fleecy rug. On the opposite side the wall of the
dome recedes, forming a recess. Standing on the opposite side and looking
into this recess one gets the impression of a distant view of a vast valley,
partially covered with snow flakes, drained by one main stream and several
tributaries, with a contour rough and rolling and sides of valley covered with
timber. This is due to the channel cut in the lime stone and covered with
different shades of onyx. The pure white represents the snow scene.
    The top of this magnificient dome is hung with the 'Most marvelous drapery
ever formed by nature. No architect or designer could equal the harmony,
symmetry, mystery, and variety shown in the innumerable seemingly seperate
sheets of formation that make up this crowning drapery. Suspended from
the top of this dome and completely covering or filling the top so that no
support is visible except the side walls of the dome, the conclusion is reached
that this formation is attached and hangs from the roof.


drilling equipment to the cave region and drilling a series of holes. The sixth
hole drilled located the main avenue within a few feet, the seventh hole drilled
located the main cave avenue positively between Holes 6 and 7. These two
holes were only 160 feet apart. The cave avenue was closer to hole No. 7 than
to hole No. 6, and the avenue being twenty feet in width at this point, to all
needed requirements, the cave was as positively located as though the drill
bit had centered the cave.
   With the Cave avenue located then came the question of making the en-
trance. Several methods were considered and this was the deciding factor as
to the method pursued: The writer called at one of the country homes
and in the conversation the mother told of the children, when young, playing
down a deep ravine. The reason assigned for their desire to play in this
ravine was that a strong current of cool air issued out from under the rocks
on the hot days in summer. The mother stated that in the years since (some
20 years) the washing of the hillside had covered the rocks and closed the
air vent. Investigation proved that this reported air vent was according to
cave location within six hundred feet of the main avenue of the cave, and the
surface location tallied with a strong air current that had attracted atten-
ion when the cave was being explored.
   With the checking up of all data at hand this place, described by the
country mother, was selected and excavation commenced. Only a few feet
had been excavated when an air current was noticable; this increased as work
progressed until a satisfactory air current was reached. Work was con-
tinued following this air current through its meanderings. Sometimes the
crevice was extremely small-not of sufficient size to admit one hand. Work-
ing a passage through the practically solid limestone, following the small air
vent, the crevice suddenly burst forth into a huge room or dome. Several
of these huge spaces were encountered and as each one was reached hope
soared high. It was positively thought, until the room or dome was thoroughly
explored, that the mammoth cavern had been reached, but not finding the cave
avenue, drilling went on, then the re-discovery of the air current was necessary
and sometimes proved very elusive. Men spent days in deciding which was
the right crevice to follow and after sixty days of hard laborous work, success
crowned their efforts. They reported that they had broke through into a
large dome and with the use of ropes lowered one man to the bottom of the
dome. He reported that there were footprints in the dome and it was positive
that the party who made the footprints had entered the dome from the main
cave. Further investigation proved that the man who entered the dome was
Ed. Bishop, as his name was soon found scratched on the wall and, following
his tracks, we were lead to the same opening, where the strong air current was
noticed when exploring the underground wonder.
   Having effected the much coveted entrance some two weeks was devoted
to the surveying and mapping of the underground routes that comprised Mam-
moth Cave. The surveying and mapping completed, we were ready to announce
to the world the New Entrance to Mammoth Cave. In order to properly
signify the event, four of the employees of the Old Entrance, who were met


Timber and
supplies for.
building all
and bridges
was lowered
through the
opening in
the top o-f
DOME, anld
then passed
down into

                              GIANT STAIRWAY

in the cave, were invited to come out of the New Entrance, which they did,
they being the first persons known to have went in at the Old Entrance and
to come out some two miles away and to come back over the surface. This
done, the Collossal Cavern Company was notified that the New Entrance was
affected. This New Entrance was made on the W. P. Cox tract of land, the
underground rights of which were owned by The Collossal Cavern Co.
    The Colossal Cavern Company was notified and their co-operation solicited,
 but this did not meet with their approval and they immediately enjoined us
 from any further activities on the Cox tract of land. This seemingly brought
 to a close any further thought as to a New Entrance to Mammoth Cave, as
 the Colossal Cavern Company refused to co-operate, and the land owners,
 namely, W. V. Houchin and the Doyle sisters refused to consider any sale
 of their tracts of land.


   Thus were all activities in the Cave region stopped until in the spring of
1921 when I returned to the cave region with the intention of doing some
further explorations there. I then learned that I could purchase the cave
and cavern rights underlying the W. V. Houchin tract and the Velma Cox
tract. Under these tracts surveys made in 1916 showed the Cathedral Domes
to be located. I was also able to purchase the cave and cavern rights under-
lying the E. J.  S. F. Doyle tract of land, under which the former survey
showed the New Discovery Route of Mammoth Cave. With the cave and cavern
rights purchased under these two tracts of land it then became a question of
locating the New Entrance on land upon which we held title.
   Active work was commenced in May, 1921, and continued at various places
until August, 1921, but with no marked degree of success; however, at this
time we had under exploration on the Doyle tract of land reached forty feet
of the Cave Avenue in depth and 128 feet south of the Cave Avenue. Then
came the question of whether to drive this tunnel through the 128 feet or to
still seek a new location. With this thought in mind and accompanied by my
nephew, Earl Morrison, we started scouting the hillside. On this trip we came
into what is known as the Doyle Big Break. This is a vast depression eighty-
five feet in depth and 300 feet across the top. The mass of rock which was dis-
placed to cause this depression would equal the mass of rock which forms
what is known as the Big Break where the survey stopped in Mammoth Cave
in 1916. I had not visited this section since 1915, and on this visit I recognized
that this must be the Big Break which seemed to close the main Cave Avenue.
I remarked to Earl that we would secure instruments and run the Cave line
that afternoon, which proved that the underground survey of Mammoth Cave
stopped within 200 feet of this immense depression.
   We at once commenced exploration work in the base of this break. Our
first effort being toward the north led us into an underground region showing
minor pits and domes and leading 200 feet around the north side of the break.
Then we centered our activities to the southwest, and after excavating to a
depth of 14 feet a strong air current was discovered. By using twenty sticks
of dynamite this opening was enlarged sufficiently to permit men to crawl
through. In working out this crawl-way the smallest men in the exploration
crew were used; namely, Jack and Lacey, in charge of Earl Morrison.
   Jack, making the. first passage, a distance of some forty-five feet, with
difficulty, entered a large room now designated as the "President's Office," and
in his exploring work accidentally extinguished his light, leaving him in an
unknown region in absolute darkness. Lacey was called to go to the rescue
of his buddy. On his rescue mission it was- noticed that he experienced no
difficulty in passing through the crevice. With the additional light it showed
that they had entered a room some 40 feet in height and 20 feet in diameter.
   After several days of exploring in this region, moving rock and earth, an
air vent was discovered in the floor on the south side of the pit. This opening
led into a series of crevices some three feet in width and sixty feet in height
which leads to what is now known as the Zigzag Stairs. Following to the north,
this crevice leads into what is now known as Roosevelt Dome, but to the ex-


Showing the
drapery  of
and  Stalag

                             DOME AND DRAPERY

plorers at that time it stood as a bottomless pit. The scouting party was
supplied with 100 feet of rope and with this Earl, who was the leader of all
explorations, was lowered ninety feet. At this depth his feet rested on a ledge.
He then called to the man above asking how much rope they had yet. They
advised about ten feet. He called to them to pull him out, and the men thought
they had at last reached one place where Earl had lost his nerve. However,
he reported to me that when standing on the ledge and flashing his light.
he could still see no bottom and that he would require additional rope to reach
the bottom.
   We at once ordered 300 feet of rope which reached us in a few days and
Earl the second time descended, finding the actual distance to the bottom
185 feet. He reported the discovery of what is now known as the Twin Domes.
Other men of the party were lowered on succeeding days and several days



were spent in exploring high and low in the different regions for a passage
way from these vast domes to the main cave.
   When all seemed practically futile, a crevice, possibly six to eight inches
in width still remained unexplored. It was suggested to the smallest man of
the scouting crew to attempt to pass it, but no one was willing to try it. Earl
then said that he would attempt it, and by removing his outer garment andexhal-
ing all air from his lungs he was able, by twisting and working, to slide through
a distance of six feet into an unknown region, which proved to be a series of
pits and domes 110 feet in depth. On three days he made this ascent and
descent through the crevice, scouting the unknown region alone. This was
too dangerous, as an accident to hand or foot would'render himohelpless, so
he was notified that some of the other men must go with him. At his sug-
gestion his former buddy and friend, Carl, was permittde to go. When he
suggested that Carl should go I stated that Carl was heavier than the other
boys, but he said that in going through the crevice he had learned that by
turning himself at an angle he could go through easier and he thought Carl
could make it. Furthermore, he said that he and Carl had been together in
France and if anything happcr.ed he'd know where Carl stood.
   Carl joined Earl on Monday morning, passing through the crevice which
was the only passage way leading into the unknown region 110 feet in depth
and 150 feet in width, including two beautiful domes and a vast room now
known as Solomon's Temple. In order to be lowered to the bottom of this
series of pits the end of a rope was passed through a hole not three inches
in diameter and a set of pulleys lowered through the crevice. These were
so arranged that the men in the first series of domes were able to raise and lower
the bovs in the second series of pits, but no other entrance was available ex-
cept through the crevice. The second day, Tuesday, Carl crawled out through
a crevice and reached a point where his passage was blocked by some loose
rocks, but over them he could see a large room. He called to Earl, who was
scouting in another crevice, and asked him if he wanted to look into MNam-
moth Cave. Earl said that he did, and Carl's reply was to come on over.
Earl made the crevice, and in order to see it was necessary to crawl over the
top of Carl. Earl got a view of the vast room, and being higher and naturally
more aggressive, he gave the rocks a shove and was able to dislodge several
which allowed him to crawl into what proved to be the main avenue of the
Mammoth Cave. Thus Carl was able to see in first and Earl was able to
crawl in first.
   From that date they proved the legend that no man could scout in Mam-
moth Cave without a guide was untrue, as they covered every portion of the
famous Cave without any guide other than the survey map.
    An incident occurred while they were scouting this unknown region.
Another buddy of theirs who had been with them in France visited the Cave
region; his name was Briscoe. He reached the Cave region in the evening;
Earl met him on the road and arranged to visit him after his Cave trip. The
next morning very early he visited my room and requested permission to take
Briscoe with him on the scouting trip. I raised the question about Brsicoe


           CARL NICKERSON                        EARL MORRISON
   Carl and Earl, ex-service boys back from France, whose Victory Medals
had five bars each, showing that they participated in the five principal battles,
of the World's War and whose lack of fear made the New Entrance to
Mammoth Cave possible.

being heavier than either of them, but they were sure they could get him
through. They did get Briscoe through all right, but in coming back through
the crevice it required all their strength to get him out, and it was necessary
to cut all the buttons off his military shirt and trousers.
   After the boys had scouted the Cave I then decided to make a re-survey
in order to check the former survey. To do this work I selected Mr. Parrish,
civil engineer of Bowling Green, Ky., whose weight is 125 lbs. In my conver-
sation with Mr. Parrish I informed him it was necessary to crawl forty-five
feet, go down three series of ladders to the first level; then be lowered down

100 feet on a rope, then through the crawl-way to the main Cave. I stated
that one of my men would go in front of him and one follow him, and asked
him if he wanted to go. He answered that he would go-and he did go.
   In making the survey the men carried blankets and food sufficient for
three days and sle