xt76hd7nph53 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt76hd7nph53/data/mets.xml Lexington, Kentucky University of Kentucky 1915059 minutes English University of Kentucky Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Minutes of the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees Minutes of the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees, 1915-05-jun9. text Minutes of the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees, 1915-05-jun9. 1915 2011 true xt76hd7nph53 section xt76hd7nph53 






MINUTES OF Em BOARD OF T3BUSTESJ



     The Board of Trustees of the State University of' Kentucky met in regular session

on Thursday, June 9, 1915, at eleven o'clock, in the Trustees' room in the Gymnasium

Building.

    on roll call, the following were present:-

    Governor McCreary, Henry S. Barker, C. B. Nichols, James K. Patterson, G. G.

Brock, Samuel Marks, T. L. Edelen, Claude B. Terrell, P. P. Johnston, Jr., J. E.

Brown, R. W. Brown, James W. Turner, William H. Cox, Tibbis Carpenter, John Wesley

.Joods.

     Mr. R. C. Stoll was present vien the Board reconvened after lunch.

     Absent:-

     James Breathitt, Johnson N. Camden, Richard N. Wathen, Barksdale Hamlett,

Denny P. Smith, Louis L. Walker, Dr. A. Gatliff.

     Governor MeCreary acted as chairman of the meeting.





     Minutes of the December meeting were read by Judge Laff'erty, and on motion, were

approved and adopted.





      The minutes of the Executive Committee were read by the Secretary. Motion was

made, seconded and carried that the minutes, as read, be adopted.



June 9, 1915




 





M2IUTES OF The BCARD CF TRUSTEe9



     President Barker then read his annual report, which is as follows:-


                                         Lexington, Ky., June 8, 1915.


TO '=R BOARD OF TRUST EES,

   State University of Kentucky,

      Lexington, Ky.


Gentlemen:-

     We are now drawing to the close of the most successful and one of the most satis-

factory sessions of the University since its foundation. That you may have clearly

before you the growth of the institution, in the last five years, I aDpend below a

table taken from the records of the Registrar's office, which shows the annual growth

during the period to which it relates:


          UNDERGRADUATE COURSES LEADIING TO A DEGREE



1910    1911     1912     1913     1914     1915



Arts & Science                   119     179      239      268      251     271

Agriculture                       18       42      87      156      201     245

Civil Engineering                 87       74      63       68       64      62

Mechanical Engineering           138      150     167      165      171     199

Mining Engineering                27       35      39       26       29      23

Law                               46       50      74       67      100      95

Total                            435      530     669      750      816     895

Graduate Students                 38       52      85       76       39      56

Tot al                           473      582     754      826      855     951

Special, Short Courses &         248      221     508      404      389     467



Tune 9, 1915



Total Enrollment



721     803     1262     1229     1244    1418




 




MINUf IS OF TiE BOARD OF T.HUSTISu 9



     An inspection of this table shows that in 1910, there were four hundred and thirty-

five (435) undergraduates pursuing a four years course leading to a degree; in 1915

there were eight hundred and ninety-five (895) such students. In 1910, there were,

including special and short course students, an aggregate of seven hundred and ten (710)

students. In 1915, there were of such students, an aggregate of fourteen hundred and

eighteen (1418), an increase, in each case, of one hundred per cent during the period

or twenty per cent each year. The increase of the Agricultural College has been most

phenomenal; in 1910, there were only eighteen (18) four year students; in 1915, there

were two hundred and forty-five (245). I believe that the records of but few, if any,

universities, in the country, will show steadier or healthier growth than ours.

     In order that you may compare the cost of the work of the University with that

of similar institutions throughout the United States, I reproduce a table from my

last report to the Governor and General Assembly, showing the incomes of twenty-two

(22) state universities:

    University                              Annual Income       No. of Students

    Wisconsin                               $2,000,000.00            4,500
    Nebraska                                   850,000.00            3,500
    South Carolina                             115,000.00              426
    Illinois                                 2,225,000.00            4,850
    Texas                                      540,000.00            2,100
    West Virginia                              210,000.00              715
    Missouri                                 1,000,000.00            2,700
    Indiana                                    336,500.00            2,000
    Iowa                                       830,000.00            2,100
    Alabama                                    135,000.00              750.
    Arkansas                                   275,000.00            1,200
    North Carolina                             263,500.00              900
    Mississippi                                104,000.00              450
    Ohio                                     1,100,000.00            3,750
    Michigan                                 1,750,000.00            5,800
    California                               1,675,000.00            4,750
    Virginia                                   295,000.00              800
    Minnesota                                2,150,000.00            7,000
    Oklahoma                                   175,000.00              800
    Purdue                                     375,000.00            2,000
    Kansas                                      610,000.00            2,500
    Miofi                                      175 000.00              850
                                            $17'188 000.00          54,441 av. $310.
    Kentucky                                   210,000.00            1,418 av. 150.

    Here we have a list of twenty-two representative universities with a student en-



Tune 9, 1915




 




MDNUTES OF THE ECARD OF T7m.lTr=S



rollment of approximately fifty-five thousand (55,0o0e) and a total income of over

seventeen million dollars ($17,000,000.00), or an average per student of about three

hundred and ten dollars ($310). In other words, our University having the same Stan-

dards for admission and graduation, educates its students at a cost of fifty per cent

of the cost per student of the other twenty-two (22) state universities.

     The one hundred and two (102) universities in the country have an average per

capita cost of two hundred and fifty-five dollars ($255.00), while Kentucky spends only

one hundred and fifty(dollars) collars ($150.00). hEven at those colleges in. the United

States and Canada that spend only ten thousand dollars ($10,000) to fifty thousand

dollars ($50,000) per annum in salaries, their student per capita cost is one hundred

and eighty-seven dollars ($187), and their teaching is largely academic, while our

fully two-thirds of our students attend the Engineering and Agricultural Schools.

     The student cost at a school of technology is fully double that of student cost

in an academic college.

     Ratio of teachers to students - (Given by Carnegie Foundantion)

     California                      One teacher to          8.5 students
     Wisconsin                       One teacher to         12.0 students
     Columbia                        One teacher to          7.3 students
     Harvard                         one teacher to           7.0 students
     Yale                            One teacher to           9.0 students
     Pennsylvania                    One teacher to           9.8 students
     Leland Stanford                 One teacher to          8.5 students
     Michigan                        One teacher to         15.0 students
     Illinois                        One teacher to          8.7 students

     Now, in the Kentucky State University, we have, today, fourteen hundred (1400)

students and only seventy (70) professors, instructors, etc., or an average of one

teacher to twenty (20) students.

     An inquiry directed to the various universities of the country elicited the

reply that fifteen (15) hours per week of actual class room teaching is the mexiimum

of work that a university professor should do. Indeed, several of the great institu-

tions, notably the University of Illinois, wrote that they would not accept the work

of an institution where more than fifteen (15) hours per week were required in the

class room.   Our instructors are in the class room on an average of eighteen hours



JTune 9, 1915




 




MMTl1UES OF TN BCARPD OF TIRU.3TEuES



per week, so that from whatever angle it is viewed, our institution is doing more work

at less cost than any other similar institution of which I have any knowledge.

      But we are not only doing more work, proportionately, than any similar institution

 at a lower cost, we are also doing as fine work as any other institution. Our grades and

 standards are as high as any university and our students take rank with any students in the

 land. A great railroad man told me that the State University boys, in the employ of his

 road, stood in a class by themselves and were always spoken of as "those fine Kentucky

 boys". our young men win a large majority of the intercollegiate debates, oratorical and

 literary contests in which they engage, and our agricultural students have always taken

 high rank in stock judging and other similar contests.  Those who graduate from this

 institution go into the world as well equipped mentally, morally and physically as the

 graduates of any other state university.

     In Tanuary last, the Pennsylvania Railroad requested Dr. Tuttle to send them a list

of young chemists whom he could recommend as desirable for its laboratory. Dr. Tuttle

indicated seven and all were offered places, and although only four would accept the em-

ployment; I mention this to show that our Arts and Science men take just as high rank in

the business world as the vocational graduates.

     When this report comes to you, you will have before you our financial statement pre-

pared by the Comptroller, Mr. Hywel Davies, which shows up to May first, 1915, how we
                                                               (next)
have lived within our income; you will also have the budget for net year prepared and sub-

mitted by the Executive Committee. It is a matter of great satisfaction that we, now,

know positively our financial standing, and that our budget system enables us, by means of

requisitions, invoices, and vouchers properly audited, to know where every dollar of our

income went, who got it, and for what.

    On a parity with the developement (development) of the accounting department, has

been the developement (development) of the Registrar's office with its complete record

of students, grades, etc.

    The evolution of these two departments during the last four years, shows their special



June 9, 1915




 




MINEIETS OF 2E BCARD OF THUDTESe



value to the institution and to the State; both are statistical and reliable statistics

are invaluable.

     I shall not take up a great deal of your time with a detailed statement of the

various colleges of which the University is composed; they are all doing good work and

all seem to be growing at a sound end healthy rate.

     The College of Mines, in addition to its regular work conducts, during the school

year, short courses in practical mining for the benefit of those who have neither the

time nor the money to take a more protracted course.  Dean Norwood is also giving what he

calls "Extension" courses to the miners of the State. These consist of lectures and demon-

stration work done at the various mining camps, and he reports very satisfactory and en-

couraging results from these endeavors. owing to the slump in mining interests caused

by the European War, the number of the short course students in the department, this

session, has only been twenty-fIve, but there is no doubt that this number will increase

very rapidly when the coal business becomes normal, and the nmn are enabled to make regu-

lar wages. In this connection, I quote one sentence from Dean Norwood's report: "One

of the features of our work among the miners, both in short course and in our extension

courses, which I think cannot be emphasized too strongly, is that it is knitting a bond

which is to tie the University and the mining interests of the State more and more closely

together."

     The College of Civil Engineering is conducting, each year, short and extension

courses in road makings the object being to give practical instruction in one of Kentucky's

great needs, - good roads.   I adopt the following excerpt from a publication issued from

the Highway Department of this College:

     "The recent development (development) of road building and the demand for a higher

class system of highways, have made it necessary for engineers to make a special study of

this particular phase of the profession. The University has undertaken, through its

Highway Department, to educate and train men in this line of work, realizing that Kentucky

will never have good roads until she has good road builders."



J-une 9, 1915




 




MINJES OF TH'E BOARD OF Tht:TEES1



     One hundred and seventy-two (172) men, from every part of Kentucky, attended the

 short courses in road building this session.

     The College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering has, this year, the largest

class it has had in its existence. No college in the country turns out better equipped

engineers than Dean Anderson's graduates.  They are in demand all over the country,

and almost without exception, they push their way to the front and hold their own against

(sentence incomplete in original).

     Our College of Law is one of the very best in the south and its graduates are forging

to the front wherever they settle for their life's work. The College is everywhere recog-

nized as being up to standard in every way and whenever it has been inspected by pro-

fessional examiners, it has been highly commended. It has a three years course and re-

quires each student to take a year's work in the College of Arts and Science before

graduation. Several new courses have been added in the last year, and Dean Lafferty is

constantly strengthening it and increasing its efficiency.

     The College of Arts and Science is growing greater annually. The School of

Journalism, which was created last year, has been a great success, there being about

fifty very capable and very enthusiastic students taking the course. Professor Grehan,

who is at the head of the Department, believes, and in this I concur, that his school

has a great future before it.

     The Graduate School, under Dr. Mackenzie, is growing rapidly. There are now fifty-

six (56) students taking post graduate work, and under the able dean in charge, I expect

it soon to equal in numbers, as it now does in the quality of the work done, any post

graduate school in the south.

     This brings us to the Agricultural College.

     I have already pointed out to you the phenomenal growth of this department in the

last five years, the roster roll running up from eighteen four-year students in 1910

to two hundred and forty-five (245) students in 1915.   There will be forty-two graduates

from the College at the end of this term, nearly all of whom will go out into active



June 9, 1915




 




M  JINUTES OF 'DBOARD OF T'dZT2S      -       June 9, 1915



developement of agriculture in Kentucky. A great -number of them will be employed as

County Agents in the Extension Department of which I shall speak presently. It goes

without saying that the education of so many young farmers each year, and sending them

back to their respective counties, cannot but exert, in a very short while, a tremendous

influence upon the agricultural developement of the State.

     I do not deem it necessary, indeed, the space to which I have allotted myself in

this report, will not permit me to go into the details of the great work which the

Agricultural College and the Experiment Station are doing for the Commonwealth.   Every

agricultural interest in the State is administered to and stimulated by these two great

departments.

     The Extension work, which the Agricultural College is doing in connection with the

United States' Bureau of Agriculture, is done under the provisions of the Smith-Lever

act, with which you are familiar.  We have now, thirty-eight County Agents actively

engaged in as many counties in solving all the problems of the farmer and in stimulating

an interest among the tillers of the soil in scientific agriculture. We also have men

engaged in organizing Corn Clubs and Pig Clubs among the boys and Canning Clubs among

the girls of the State.   There was never a time in the history of Kentucky when there

was such a ferment of agricultural endeavor as is now going on in the Commonwealth of

Kentucky. During the last twelve months, there was expended, in the State of Kentucky,

under the provisions of the Smith-Lever Bill, ninety-seven thousand dollars ($97,000.00)

in Extension work, and for the coming fiscal year, beginning July first, next, we will

have under our control, for Extension Work in the Commonwealth, one hundred and eighteen

thousand dollars ($118,000.00). You will recollect that, under the terms of the Smith-

Lever act, the Commonwealth gets ten thousand dollars ($10,000.oo) without any conditions

attached to it. This sum is increased each year thereafter, but the condition for en-

Joying the increment is that the State or somebody for the State shall put up dollar

for dollar with the money of the United States. Thus far, we have had funds in the

Extension Department of the Agricultural College and Experiment Station which enables us




 



MINUTES OF ME, BOARD OF ThUSTEES



to meet the Government s added money, and we will have sufficient funds during the

coming fiscal year, but after that, unless we can obtain an additional appropriation

from the State Government, we cannot obtain any further increase in the sum to be

expended under the Smith-Lever Act.  I feel confident, however, that upon a proper

presentation of the needs of the farmers, that the Legislature will provide sufficient

funds to enable us to enjoy the whole amount which should come to us under the Smith-

Lever act.

      In order that we may understand thoroughly all that is being done in the Agri-

 cultural Department of this University, I respectfully refer you to the report of the

 Dean of the Agricultural College, a copy of which has been furnished you, and I

 recommend that you carefully read it in its entirety, also the report of the Extension

 Department by Professor Mutchler, which is well worth a perusal.   A copy of this report

 is also in your hands. There is one part of the report of the Director of the Experi-

 ment Station to which I desire to especially call your attention. It is with regard

 to the controversy which has arisen between the teaching of the Experiment Station and

 the interests of manufacturers of commercial fertilizers.

     That you may have the Director's side of the controversy, I quote you from his

report, as follows:-

     "The attention of the Board of Trustees is directed to a growing dissatisfaction

on the part of the fertilizer trade with the present teachings of the Experiment Station

regarding the requirements of Kentucky soils. As nearly as I have been able to ascer-

tain, this dissatisfaction began in 1909, with the publication of a bulletin on the

subject of commercial fertilizers by Professor Roberts, in which it was pointed out that

the farmer was paying for phosphoric acid, nitrogen and potash in the shape of commercial

fertilizers, a great deal more than those materials were worth and a great deal more for

each of these constituents of complete fertilizers than the price at which they could be

bought separately and that the lower the grade of commercial fertilizer, the higher the

price charged per pound for the several elements of plant food. This bulletin went

further to state that there can be no doubt that large sums of money are wasted in this



Tune 9, 1915




 



MINUlTES OF T'HE, BOARD OF T::UST1EES



State in the purchase of fertilizers containing low percentages of nitrogen and

potash. These small percentages of nitrogen end potash add a great deal to the cost

of the fertilizer and do not give returns at all commensurate with their cost. This

bulletin further points out that ten times our annual expenditure could profitably

be made for fertilizers, but it should be made generally for phosphate and potash salts

to supply deficiencies and in the growing of leguminous crops to furnigh (furnish)

humus and nitrogen. our fertilizer manufacturers need to recognize the truth of this

statement and begin at once to supply these materials in unmixed condition to the

farmers at the lowest possible prices.  The immediate cause of this present dissatis-

faction on the part of the fertilizer trade with regard to the teaching of the Experiment

Station regarding the use of fertilizers and soil amendments has grown out of the recent

teachings of the county agents respecting the use of acid phosphate instead of complete

fertilizers. As a matter of fact it is well known to all who have ever investigated

this subject, that outside of the blue grass region, the soils of Kentucky are poor

in phosphorus. In a sense, phosphorus is the limiting factor of plant growth in soils

outside of the blue grass region. The problem, therefore, resolves itself into a lib-

eral application of acid phosphate or ground rock phosphate with a crop rotation con-

taining one of more leguminous crops for the purpose of maintaining organic matter

(humus) and available nitrogen, or in the return of the manurial equivalent of the crop

removed. Obviously, these teachings are objectionable to the fertilizer trade for the

reason that they strike a blow at the use of complete fertilizers and at the use of

potash salts of which we have an abundance in all of the soils of the State and against

the use of organic nitrogen which is entirely too expensive to be used by the farmer for

general fertilizing purposes. From present indications, I am inclined to think that an

effort will be made on the part of the fertilizer industry in Kentucky to repeal the

tax of fifty cents per ton on all fertilizers manufactures (manufactured), sold or

offered for sale in the State, on the ground, first, that this tax is in excess of that

which is charged by other states for the carrying on of this work, and, second, on the

ground that their industry has been attacked by the teachings of the Experiment Station



JTune 9, 19115




 




                MINUTES 0F THE BOARD OF TRHUSTES      -      June 9, 1915

 in these matters. I greatly regret that this controversy has been precipitated. That

 it has been precipitated has really resulted from no attack of mine. At the same time,

 the Experiment Station cannot afford to stulify itself in matters of this kind for the

 purpose of maintaining friendly relations with the fertilizer industry, and if this

 thing is to come, the probabilities are that the sooner it is settled and definitely

 understood, the better for all parties concerned.,

     I have made this long excerpt from Dr. Kastle's report for the purpose of setting

 forth plainly the real controversy between him and the manufacturers of fertilizers, and

 to commend, in the strongest possible way, his position in the matter.   It is undoubt-

 edly his duty to give to the people of the Commonwealth the last word in science on

 any given proposition in which they cre interested, and it is not for him to consider

 whether or not the thruth (truth) of science will make or mar the fortunes of special

 interests. I join with him in the regret that the teachings of the Station are supposed

 to be contrary to the momentary interests of the manufacturers of fertilizers, but as

 long as his teachings are the truth, it is not for any manufacturer to set up a vested

 interest in the ignorance of the people and call for the suppression of the teachings.

     In conclusion, I desire to impress upon you the great need of this University for

more money in order that it may develope into its full stature of usefulness as an

educational institution, and also in the largest possible way to administer to the de-

velopement of every material interest of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. We are in need

of new buildings to accomnodate the greatly increased number of students, of which I

have spoken. We need more and better equipped laboratories, more gymnasium room and

equipment (the girls are practically without a gymnasium), and unless we get more in-

come, we have all the students for whom we can care.

     I do not believe that a University that can care only for fourteen or fifteen

hundred students, can minister to the growing needs of the Commonwealth of Kentucky

in higher education. One of the greatest handicaps that this institution has suffered,

in the past, is the popular belief that the Legislature has lavished great sums of money

upon it. In good truth the State of Kentucky has been exceedingly niggardly towards




 




YINUTES OF =ts    C ARD OF TPRUSTEES



the University. For instance, the State of Wisconsin gives its University two million

dollars ($2,000,000.00) a year; Nebraska gives hers eight hundred and fifty thousand

dollars ($850,000.00); Missouri one million dollars (1,000,000.00); Ohio one million

one hundred thousand dollars (1,100,000.00); Michigan one million seven hundred end

fifty thousand dollars l$1,750,000.00); California one million six hundred and seventy-

five thousand dollars ($1,675,000.00); Minnesota, two million one hundred and fifty

thousand dollars ($2,150,000.00).  In other words, Wisconsin, Illinois and Minnesota

each give their state university annually, as much as Kentucky has given hers in the

last thirty-three years, to-wit: two million one hundred and ninety-nine thousand two

hundred and fifty-three dollars and ninety-eight cents ($2,199,253.98); and yet the

State University, if the work it has done and is doing, is understood, is the best

asset that the State has, as a paying investment from a monetary stand point. I do not

speak, now, of that abstract value supposed to result from cultivating the minds of

young men and young women, and returning them to the bosom of society, learned, cultured

and patriotic citizens, sound in mind, sound in body and upright in character.   That

there is a value to this part of the work of the institution, everyone will admit, but

this value of State University I will expressly waive, and rest its claim for recog-

nition at the hands of the Representatives of the people upon the issue whether or not

the institution pays, looking at it alone from a monetary standpoint.

     I will not go into all the details of the benefits which the teachings of the

University are conferring upon the material interest of the State. I will take just one

item relating to the Agricultural interest. I will consider corn for example. Corn is

the best money crop that Kentucky produces. Indeed, it is worth, in money, all the

other annual crops which are produced from the soil of kentucky. Add wheat, oats, rye,

barley, hemp, tobacco and potatoes together, and the value of the corn crop will amount

to from two to five millions dollars each year more than their sum total.   The average

corn crop in the State of Kentucky is about twenty-seven (27) bushels per acre. Little

boys, under the supervision of scientists from the State University, produce seventy-five

(75), one hundred (100) and one hundred and twenty-five (125) bushels per acre. The



June 9, 1915




 



DfItMTES OF =TE BCARD OF ThUSTE~Su 1



farmer, by following the directions of the scientists, can certainly equal the crop

of fifteen thousand (15,000) boys, or, sixty (60) bushels to the acre. The sum total

of the value of the corn crop year before last, as I rember (remember) it, was fifty-

two million dollars ($52,000.00) ($52,000,000.00).  This sum was reached by an average

of twenty-seven (27) bushels to the acre. Plant the same acreage and produce sixty

(60) bushels to the acre, the sum total will be double or one hundred and four million

dollars ($104,000,000). One per cent of this increase amounts to five hundred and

twenty thousand dol ars ($520,000.00), or two and one-half times the total income of

the University from all sources.

     It is very discouraging to contemplate the fact that the people of Kentucky,

through their representatives, will pour out the public's money, without stint, for the

benefit of all sorts of charitable interests, the building up of eleemosynar7 institu-

tions, for asylums and reformatories, and yet relatively give such small sums for the

benefit of higher education.

     I will bring this report to a close by quoting from a memorial I drew up in the

interest of State University to the last General Assembly of the Commonwealth of

Kentucky, in which I undertook to set forth the great service of the institution to the

State and its great needs for a larger endowment, in which I especially called their

attention to the readiness with which money could be voted on sentimental reasons, and

how hard it was to get proper equipment for its great State University. On this subject

I said:

     "Before I conclude may I not call your attention to some of the beneficiaries of

the State's money? The first item is that of pensions to indigent Confederate soldiers;

this costs the State from five hundred thousand to six hundred thousand dollars per

annum. I do not criticize these pensions. The superb courage of these men for the

lost cause demands and receives the admiration and sympathy of all who admire the splen-

did qualities of the soldier. But we must admit that it is a misfortune to the State

that these old soldiers are poor and needy; their misfortune is the misfortune of the

State. Every dollar given for pensions is a burden, cheerfully borne, it is true, but

still a burden. Every pauper father who has an idiot born to him, may, after it reaches



June 9, 1915




 



MITNUTES OF al{- BOARD OF T7USTSr 1



the age of eight years, show that the idiot is a pauper, and seventy-five dollars

($75.00) a year is given for the support of the idiot. Men frequently qualify as the

committee of several pauper idiots and then sublet the job of caring for them at a

sum less than seventy-five dollars ($75.00), each, and pocket the difference. Ken-

tucky is one of the few states where idiots are reared for profit. Every poor person

who becomes insane from whatever cause, is entitled to be adjudged insane and sent to

an asylum and tenderly cared for by the State until they either recover or die. If a

child of poor parents is born deaf and dumb, it can be sent to the deaf and dumb in-

situte (institute), and be cared for and educated at the State's expense. If born

blind, a similar course is followed. If they are juvenile criminals, they are sent to

a reformatory, educated, cared for and taught a trade or calling.

     I make no criticism on the wisdom of spending some of the State's money on these

eleemosynary institutions and their inmates, but I do feel constrained to ask: Why is

it necessary first to practice economy on the poor man's son and daughter, who are

straight of limb, clear of eye and sound of mind? No body feels that it is extravagant

to pour money out on the blind and the deaf or the insane and the criminal, but the safe

and sane children in whose faces poverty has closed the door of opportunity, are to

be left in ignorance and want. Is this good policy?   Is it a good business principle?

What is the most valuable possession of the State? Is it houses