xt76hd7nqg9d https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt76hd7nqg9d/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1930 journals kaes_circulars_227 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 227 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 227 1930 2014 true xt76hd7nqg9d section xt76hd7nqg9d ‘ A COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE “
* Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director . (
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     i 4·»:s¢Il ;i>·E { UD-i l {EO adm {LES
. V A 1 Lbs. r i ’ I
Poor cows ................ I Up to 150 $86.20 $65.18 $21.02 $1.32 76
Fair cows ................ |151 to 250 139.84 85.99 53.85 1.62 61
Good cows ........,....... `251 to 350 196.53 93.95I 102.58 2.09 48
Excellent cows ...... 351 to 450 257.73 106.77 150.96 2.41 41
Note 1.—Members in this association sold milk wholesale.
V 2.-Do not confuse "return above cost of feed' with "profits."
Table 1 shows that it pays to feed good cows liberally.
Altho it cost about one and one-half times as much to feed good
cows as it cost to feed poor cows the income above cost of feed
was $21.02 per cow for the poor cows and $102.58, or nearly
five times as much, from the good cows. The cost of feed is the
largest single item in the cost of producing milk and butterfat
andthe realtive efficiency of dairy cows can well be measured by
the income above the cost of feed. Many owners of small herds
of relatively poor dairy cows believe that only the dairyman
with higlrproducing cows is faced with a feeding problem. The
above table shows that this is not true. The owner of poor cows
spent 76 percent of the income from his cows for feed as com-
pared with the owner of good cows who spent only 48 percent of
the income from his cows for feed. The lower the average pro-
duction of the cows in the herd the more difficult is the feeding
Feeds are not of value to a cow merely because they satisfy
her appetite. Feeds contain certain groups of chemical com-
pounds which aid in supporting animal life. These are referred
to as nutrients. _

 Feeding Dairy Cows For Profit 5
_Ove_ Protein. Lean meat or muscle tissue and the vital organs of
29_ the body are made up largely of protein. Protein in the feed
__ builds new tissues and repairs worn out tissues. Milk is about
E _ 3.3 percent protein and a dairy cow must have sufficient protein
¤?i'.¤ in her feed to keep her body in repair and also enough in addi-
gg tion with which to produce milk. Feeds containing more than
Q ,__ 20 percent of protein are referred to as protein concentrates and
E are usually high in price. See Table 2. Farm-grown grains are
usually low in protein and for this reason protein is most likely
76 to be deficient in the dairy cow’s ration.
61 Carbohydrates and Fa-is. These two nutrients furnish heat
ii and energy for the animal body. A reserve of heat and energy
is stored in the form of body fat. 100 pounds of milk contains
` about 5 pounds of carbohydrates (sugar) and 4 pounds of fat
" (butterfat). A hard-worked dairy cow needs a generous allow-
ance of carbohydrates and fats in her feed to provide for these
my nutrients in her milk and to furnish her with the energy to do
Pod her work and warm her body. Farm-grown feeds are usually
iced rich in heat and energy producing nutrients.
  O Wafer. All feeds contain some water. Early pastures_con-
fiat tain as high as 80 to 90 percent of water. Pasture and silage
[bv are referred to. as_suceulent feeds because of their high water
brd; content. Milk is Sl percent water and the cows body 1S nearly
one-half water. Suceulcnt feeds are valuable for their cooling,
gil; laxative effect which isidue largelyto the water they contain.
OWS VVar1n weather land high production increase the. need for
water. A cow in milk requires about 12 gallons daily. Cows
ET; prefer cool, clean water, but if it is too cold some of the heat
and energy furmshed by the feed must be used to heat it to
  body temperature. -\\TEll'111, stagnant water is often distasteful,
° and due to the fact that cows are less inclined to drink it, this '
may severely limit milk production. The riclmess of the milk
~ is not aifected materially by the amount of water consumed.
lsfy Ash. This is the mineral part of the feed. Bones are made
0m" up largely of lime and phosphorus. High-producing cows and
Ted cows which are heavy in calf require feeds which are relatively
rich in these 1ninerals. See Table 2. Milk also contains these

 . _· 6 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 227
i same minerals and this fact accounts to some extent for the food
value of milk to young growing animals. A
I t should be economical. This is unquestionably the most
important requirement of a ration. Plenty of good pasture and
home-grown legume hay contribute to the economy of a ration
_ for dairy cows. As much corn and other feed grains as possible
should be raised on the farm and only such feeds should be
purchased as will most efficiently supplement what can be
grown. A balanced ration is most economical because it pro-
vides an allowance of feed for twenty-four hours which contains
. the digestible nutrients in such proportion that the needs of the
cows are supplied with no waste. The closer the "balance" the
less waste there is in feeding. The high-protein feeds are
usually the most economical source of digestible protein in spite
of their high cost. The cost of a pound of digestible protein
in purchased feed is very important to the feeder who is choos-
ing a feed to supplement home-grown grains.
It should be palatable. Feeds vary greatly in palatability.
Sec Table 2. Some dairymen report that they have difficulty
getting their cows to eat sweet clover when first turned into it.
Later they 1·eport that their cows have learned to like it. It is
rather commonly believed among feeders that even tho cotton-
seed meal is usually an economical source of digestible protein
and for this reason very valuable as a dairy feed, some cows do
not like it. When it is found that certain feeds are unpalatable
they should be used in relatively small quantities and then
thoroly mixed with feeds that are known to be palatable such
` as corn and wheat bran. Badly weathered or dusty hay is un-
palatable to cows as is also silage that is in any way spoiled.
Moldy or musty grains or hay may be harmful as well as dis-
tasteful to cows and for these reasons should not be fed.
It should vary. Sufficient variety may be insured by
selecting first-class ingredients for a feed mixture from three
or more plant sources. For example, a mixture of corn, wheat
bran and cottonseed meal would be suitable. When the same

 Feeding Dairy Cows For Projit 7
. feed is used for several months it may become very monotonous
to the cows but changes of the ingredients can be made which
will alter the taste without materially aifecting the digestible
nutrient content of the mixture. Such changes will often stimu-
late greater production.
It should have a desirable effect ou the cow. Feeds which
contain much water (succulent feeds) usually have a cooling,
laxative and thoroly beneficial edect on the cows. A sudden
change from dry feed to rich, fresh green pasture in the spring
may cause bloat. Spoiled, moldy feeds are fortunately so un-
palatable that cows usually refuse them. Many molds are
harmless. Certain others when eaten may have a harmful eifect,
especially if on silage that has been exposed to the ai1· and has
become somewhat dry. Under certain conditions cows that have
received sweet clover hay for several weeks during the winter
have been known to become "bleeders." Some feeds are laxa—
tive and others are inclined to have the opposite effect. See
Table 2.
It should uot have a harmful ejfeot ou the milh aud butterfat.
Milk and butterfat are easily affected by the flavor and odor of
feed. The presence of wild onions in Kentucky pastures causes
a great loss to dairymen in the state during the early pasture
months. Feeds rich in fat such as linseed meal or cracked
soybeans have a tendency to produce a soft butterfat, if used
in excess. An excess of cottonseed meal in the ration has the
opposite effect.
A Useful Classification of Feeds
Fresh green pasture l Corn (most pa1atable)| Cane molasses
Corn silage and roots] Wheat bran I Linseed meal
Legume bays in good] Oats Hominy feed
condition I Corn gluten feed i
Fresh green pasture ‘ Wlieat bran Soybeans
Corn silage and roots Linseed meal ` Soybean meal
Legume hays in good] Molasses |
con@n I- I —

I _   Kcmtizicky Extension G'iv·cuIm· N0. 227
Constipating _
All non—legume hays ' ‘
Corn stover *
I Straw I ·
High in Digestible Protein .
' All legume hays as I Cottonseed meal I Corn gluten feed
compared with non- I Soybean meal 5 Corn gluten meal
I legume hays ' Linseed meal I Brewers’ dried grains
I Soybeans Corn distillers’ grains
Low in Digestible Protein
_ Non-legume roughages Corn ` I Molasses
as compared with Hominy feed I Oats
legume roughages I I Barley
I Rich in Minerals
Rich in Calcium I Rich in Phosphorus
All legume roughages I Wheat bran
Linseed meal I Cottonseed meal
Corn stover I Soybeans
Suggested Feed Mixtures* to Use With Good Quality Legume Hay
Alone or Abundant Early Pasture.
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aé aé sz sz szIaz
About 12 per cent of protein I Lbs. I Lbs. I Lbs. I Lbs. I Lbs. I Lbs.
Cracked corn (Dent No. 2) ........ 100 200 100 100 200 300
Wheat' bran .................................... 100 100 .100 100
Ground oats .................................... 100 200
Commercial mixed feeds I
16% straightmixed feed. N t " ` 100 .
20% straight mixed feed. yglow _ 100
24% straight mixed feed.) mg _ 100
*A'llXtll1‘€S Nos. 1, 2 and 3, Table 3, should not be interpreted as a sug-
gestion that a 12 percent special purpose mixed feed be manufactured for
dairy feeding. Dairymen are warned against the purchase of low protein,
yellow tag, adulterated mixed feeds.

Feeding Dairy Cows For Prahfpn - Q
suggested Feed Mixtures to Use With Good Quality Legume Hay and
Siiage or Substitute, or Abundant Mid-summer or Faii Pasture. A
5-< $-• $-• H I-< 5-•
B »-i \ EN B co \ Bw E me Eu:
2 - 2 - 2 - >-¢ · :·< - 2 -
¤ 22 22 22I22 22 Eg
- I I I I I I
About 16 per cent of protein I Lbs. I Lbs. I Lbs. I Lbs. ILbs. ILbs.
Cracked corn (Dent N0. 2) .......... 400 300 300 100 100
Wheat bran .................................... 200 200 100 100
Ground oats .................................... 200 I
Cottonseed meal (41%) ................ 100 100 I V
r Linseed meal (O. P.) .................... 100
Commercial mixed feeds
16% straight mixed feed. wot I straight
20% straight mixed feed. Qgllgxv 200
24% straight mixed feed. tug I 100
` TABLE 5.
Suggested Feed Mixtures to Use With Mixed Hay or Medium Quality
Legume Hay, With or Without Corn Silage or Substitute
or Fair Pasture
I I I .
¤> <1.> I cv I ¤> cu I as
E: I 2 2 I 2 ’·* ’·*
. sensei .:¤¤I.·:=** Bm IBB
.’2‘I.?$‘ .?$' P2' .5* .*36
22I22I22 22I22 EZ
About 20 per cent of protein I Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. I Lbs. I Lbs. ILbs.
Cracked corn (Dent N0. 2) ........ 200 200 200 100
Wheat bran .................................... 200 300 100
Ground oats ._,................................. 200 I 100 I
Corn gluten feed .........,.................. 100 *100
Cottonseed meal (41%)I _,,......... 100 100 100 »
Linseed meal (O. P.) .................. 100 100 100 I
Commercial mixed feeds I' 4
` 16% straight mixed feed"' Y t 300 .
20% straight mixed feed.. §§11ow I _ . I i straight  
24% straight mixed feed.. tag I _ ` ‘ _ ' _ ` V   300I.
- T   ` _ 1 I I I

 10 Kentucky Extension Circizzlar N0. .227 A
_ TABLE 6.
Suggested Feed Mixtures to Use With Non-Legume Roughages Such as f
I Timothy Hay or Corn Fodder, With or Without Corn Silage or 3
Substitute or Short, Poor Pasture. t
A   (
2 I 2 2 2. 2.. 2
2iI2s 22 22 22 22 ‘
ééiéé E2 E2 22 E2 {
About 24 per cent of Protein   Lbs.  Lbs.  Lbs.  Lbs. 1 Lbs. ll Lbs. 1
Cracked corn (Dent No. 2) ........ 100 | 200 l - ,
Wheat bran ,.__................................ 200 100 300 100 100 `
Ground oats .................................... / 100 J 200 200 } ) {
Corn gluten feed ............................ 100 100 I ‘
_ Cottonseed meal (41%) ................ I 100 200 200 I ]
` Linseed meal (O. P.) .................. 200 200 200 I 200 200 I j
Commercial mixed feeds .
16% straight mixed feed} Not ‘ 200 I l
20% straight mixed feed. yellow 400
24% straight mixed feed. mg straight ’
p *The most common source of protein in special purpose mixed feeds is
cottonseed meal. To avoid the danger of feeding too much cottonseed meal
it is recommended in mixtures Nos. 4 and 5 that linseed meal or soybean .
meal be used to supply the protein which is lacking in the inferior roughage.
First—Choose the table in which the roughage that is avail-
able may be classed. For example, during April, May and June
when much fresh green pasture is available refer to Table 3.
Later, as the pastures become somewhat dried, choose a feed
mixture from Table 4 or Table 5, depending on the condition of
the pasture. A dairyman who has a sufficient quantity of good
quality legume hay so that his cows can have what they will eat
twice daily without any other roughage, should select a feed
mixture from Table 3. If corn silage is fed with good quality
legume hay a mixture should be chosen from Table 4. The use
of first quality legume hays such as alfalfa or soybean enables
the dairyman to feed grain mixtures which cost less per hundred-
weight. l

 A Feeding Dairy Cows For Pro/it 11
Sec0ml——Based on the feeds that have been grown on the
as farm and the local prices of ingredients which must be purchased
a careful selection should be made of the feed mixtures in a single
table. Wlietlier or not a dairyman should mix his feed at home
— or purchase a special purpose straight mixed feed should depend
,, on the relative cost of the ingredients, the amount of home grown
2 grains, and the cost of mixing it on the farm.
_ Third-—Mixtures Nos. 1, 2 and 3 in each table may be mixed
S‘ from single ingredient feeds. For example, Mixture No. 1, in
l Table 4, is made from 400 pounds of cracked corn, 200 pounds
of wheat bran and 100 pounds of cottonseed meal. Mixtures Nos.
4, 5 and 6 in each table suggest a method for combining special
purpose mixed feeds of different protein content with common
feeds in order that the resulting mixture may be suited to the
needs of the cows. Under the conditions indicated at the top of
Table 4, mixture No. 5 suggests that 200 pounds of a 20-percent
it straight mixed feed should be mixed with 100 pounds each of
_ cracked corn and wheat bran.
  F0iwrHi—The percent of total protein which appears at the
Q]? top of each table of feed mixtures corresponds to the statement
of protein content on a feed tag. This must not be confused with
the percent of digestible protein in a feed or mixture. See Table i
B Fifth—There are many other combinations of feeds which,
_ based on the digestible nutrients they contain, would be ex-
[ pected to give equally good results. Several modiications which
E may offer a feeder an opportunity to greatly reduce the cost of
i the mixture which he chooses in accordance with local feed
, prices are suggested with a few words of caution to be observed
V in making such substitutions. _
i 1. A part or all of the cracked corn may be replaced with
* an equal weight of corn and cob meal, hominy feed or ground
2. A part of the wheat bran may be replaced with an
equal weight of ground oats.

 12 Kentucky Extension Circular N 0. 227
3. An equal weight of brewers’ dried grains or dried corn ‘ mz
distillers’ grain may be substituted for corn gluten feed. pa
_ 4. It is not considered a safe practice to feed a cow more idu
V than two pounds of cottonseed meal a day and it should not
l constitute more than 25 percent by weight of the feed mixture. gl-;
Soybean meal, linseed meal, gluten meal, our cracked soybeans 16;
may be substituted for all or a part of the cottonseed meal in a m;
feed mixture. V in.
5. The best method of feeding cottonseed meal is with la
_ corn silage. nc
6. When corn silage is not available for winter feeding it tu
is necessary to increase the allowance of grain 15 to 20 percent. pi
· p be
1. Feed grain according to production. See snnwner
feeding and winter feeding for details. There is no more im-
portant rule in profitable dairying. 4
2. Feed with ·hay all the corn silage the cows will eat
without wasting. This will reduce the consumption of hay N
about one-half. A 1000-pound cow will eat about 30 pounds 2
of silage in two feeds. 6
3. Feed all the good quality hay the cows will eat without `
wasting after they have eaten their grain or grain and silage.
This will average about 15 to 20 pounds daily for a 1000-pound
cow during the winter when corn silage is not available. The xg
amount eaten will vary with different cows and with the kind d
and quality of the hay. tz
` An abundance of rich, succulent pastures and moderate
temperatures during the early summer make the feeding prob-
lem very simple. In Kentucky conditions are ideal for high
production at a low cost of feed during April, May and June. -
The skillful dairyman makes every eifort to imitate these con- » _
ditions thruout the year. The pasture should be given an
opportunity to get a' good start before the cows are turned in. °
Early pasture may contain 80 to 90 percent water but the dry ‘ d

Fcedirlg Dairy Cows For Prom? 13
mu ` matter which it contains is relatively rich in protein. Wliile
pastures are good, grain should be fed only to the highcr-pro-
me ducing cows. ,
not During August and September many Kentucky dairy farm-
U`<’=· ers have little or no pasture unless they have sown a mixture of
3115 legumes or a catch crop of sudan grass. Production can be
H a maintained to some extent with spring freshening cows by feed-
ing green corn, alfalfa or other green soiling crops, but much
rith labor is involved in this practice which may make it unece-
nomical. More grain must be fed to take the place of the pas-
; it ture which is gone, but nothing can take the place • abundant
int. pasture fo1· economy. Cows which are bred to freshen in Novem-
ber and December should be dried up during the dry pasture
  When Good Pasture is Available Feed
I To Jerseys and Guernseys | To Holsteins and Other
éat I Producing I Breeds Producing
lay No grain   Less than 15 lbs. milk dailyI Less than 20 lbs. milk daily
ids 2 lbs. grainI 15-20 lbs. milk daily   20-25 lbs. milk daily
4 lbs grainl 20-25 lbs, milk daily I 25-30 lbs. milk daily
6 lbs. grain] 25-30 lbs. milk daily I 30-35 lbs. milk daily
·ut   _
§€- wmrsn FEEDING
Hd A combination of legume hay and corn silage during the .
IN winter very effectively duplicates the ideal conditions that exist
nd during early summer. Choose a feed mixture from the proper
table based on thc roughages that are available.
During the Winter Feed
,b_ To Jerseys and Guernseys I Holsteins or other breeds
Th 1 lb. of grain to 2% to 3 lbs. ofI 1 lb. of grain to 3 to   lbs. of ·
¤ ` milk produced daily I milk produced daily
le. . ` 1
m » Elie above suggestions are helpful guides for feeding dairy
IL eows but no rule ca-n,take the- place of common sense. The con-
.y . dition of the individual cow and the period of lactation must

 3 ‘  
. 14 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. .227 °i
be taken into consideration. This also applies to the feeding of *`o    
. fresh cows to gradually bring them to high production four t0$~‘ WJ, 
I six weeks after freshening and the liberal feeding of the provwn_®q·
. high-producing cows during the six to eight weeks dry period, UI _ fj.
There are some very good as well as some very inferior  
special purpose mixed feeds on the market. In Kentucky most '— g
special purpose mixed feeds are classed as 24 percent, 20 percent  
or 16 percent protein feeds. Tables 3 to 6 offer practical sug-
i gestions for the economical use of such mixtu1·es. VVhen used
as supplements to farm grown feeds the value of these mixtures r
· is about in proportion to their protein content because farm-
I grown feeds are most likely to be low in protein.
The Kentucky Feed Stuffs Law requires that each sack of  
concentrate feed sold in the state must carry an official tag 
bearing the signature of the Director of the Experiment Sta-  
tion. This tag must give the following information which is the
manufacturers guaranty to the state.
1. Net weight of contents of bag.
2. The brand name of the feed. No word or phrase may
V be used in naming a special purpose mixed feed which may lead `
a purchaser to believe that it is a dairy feed unless it contains
at least 16 percent protein, 3.5 percent fat and not more than
15 percent Hber. It must also contain a sufficient variety of f
first-class ingredients which are suitable for dairy cows.
3. Name and address of manufacturer or dealer.
4. Minimum percent of total protein.
5. Minimum percent of total fat.
6. _Maximum percent of crude fiber.  
7. The specific name of each ingredient used in the mix-  
8. If a material of little or no feeding value is used such
as cob meal, oat hulls, cottonseed hulls, mill sweepings, weed
seeds, etc., the percent must be given.

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” 16 ‘ Kentucky Exteiisimi Circular N0. 227 ‘ » if A
A 9. If screenings are used the percent 1nust be given and mz
the statement whether ground or unground. A . _ C0]
i i T The percent of protein and fat shown on a feed tag repre.  
s sents a chemical analysis. Not all of this is digestible andit is Slf
only the digestible part of the feed that benefits the cow. Whe1·e mi
first-class ingredients are used in home-mixed feeds ori iu Ck
special purpose mixed feeds about 75 to 85 miieemt of the
nutrients are digestible. Aihigh percent of crude fiber indicates g
. lower percent digestibility. Purchasers of feed should keep
. — these facts in mind.
In addition to the information printed on the official tag
which is very valuable to the feeder, purchased feeds are further
’ classified according to a color scheme of tags.
' 1. A manilla tag printed in black letters indicates a feed
product or by—product made of one grain or plant such as wheat i
bran, cottonseed meal, alfalfa meal, linseed 1neal, etc., commonly
known as straight feed.
2. A manilla tag printed in red letters indicates a feed
made of the product or by-product of two or more grains, or
‘ cereals. This is straight mixed feed.
3. A yellow tag in blael.; letters indicates that the feed
contains a material of little or no feeding value such as oat
hulls, cottonsced hulls, cob meal, screenings waste, etc. Such
feeds are known as adalterated er yellow tag feeds. Yellow .
tag feeds are usually cheaper per bag but they are most ex-
pensive when the dairyman considers their actual worth. The
suggestions for using ready mixed feeds in Tables 3 to 6 do not
apply to yellow tag feeds.
Some special purpose feed manufacturers sell "open
formula _fceds." In addition to the information previously
mentioned printed on the official tag which is required by the I 8
state law the same tag on a bag of open formula feed states
the amount of each ingredient used in the mixture. This in-
formation is very valuable to the dairyman and represents all V
effort on the part of the feed manufacturer to inform the dairy- `

ii Feeding Dairy Cows For Prom? 17
and man as completely as possible regarding the feed that he is
contemplating purchasing. The purchase1· of feed must real-
pm ize, however, that the value of such a feed depends to a con-
it is siderable extent on the quality of the ingredients used in the
dere mixture and the integrity of the manufacturer the same as
.‘ in closed formula feeds. ·
lllc $100 penalty for using this tag second time
atcs I
iher '—
deed Incorporated
l€"i -———
l'lV er en
° Protein ,................................... . ..... 24.00
Fat _______________,_,..,_._..._ . _....,.,.... . ........ 5.00
wl Fiber ....................................... . ...... 11.00
100 lbs. Old Process Linseed Oil Meal
300 lbs. VVheat Middlings
G 300 lbs. Choice Cottonseed Meal
o€(l 300 lbs. Corn Gluten Feed
340 lbs. Distillers Dried Grains
Oat 100 lbs. Ground Corn ·
200 lbs. Ground \Vhite Oats
mh 20 lbs. Steamed Bone Meal
20 lbs. Calcium Carbonate
.0W 20 lbs. Fine Salt
GY 300 lbs. VVheat Bran
{ This sale of this package is authorized
llc spbpkecg; to the provisions of the feeding
s u s aw.
wt Kentucky Agricultural
Experiment Station,  
Lexington, Ky.
105/29 Director
ily Common stock salt should be before the cows at all ti1ne in
he a sheltered box, preferably near the water tank. I
tes A
all There are many COllllllCl'Cl21l millcral mixtures 011 the market
ry_ . winch contain a wide assortment of ingredients, the majority

i 18 Kentucky Extension CiJrculcw· N0. 227
of which are of little or no benefit to the cows. Where feeds
which are low in calcium and phosphorus (See Table 2) are
p being fed, high-producing dairy cows may need calcium and C
· phosphorus in some form added to their ration. In sections of 4
  the country where calves are born with "big neck" or "goiter"
or pigs are born without hair it is evidence that there is a lack
7 of iodine in the soil and water in that section. So far as is
known there is no such section in Kentucky. Calcium and phos-
phorus are more likely to be lacking in the dairy ration. Bone
meal in the form of raw bone meal, steamed bone meal or special
steamed bone meal contain both calcium and phosphorus in ap-
proximately the proportion they are needed in the animal body.
High-grade ground limestone is rich in calcium but in some in-
stances it contains magnesium in such quantities as to make it
C unsuitable for feeding, High—producing cows, cows that are
advanced in pregnancy and cows that are receiving feeds that A
are lacking in minerals should have free access to bone meal in
a sheltered box or it may be mixed with the salt at the rate of
one part salt to four parts bone meal. Cows will eat only about
y one ounce daily. It will do them no harm and may be of real
. benefit especially to the high-producing cows.
Digestible Nutrients Required for Body Maintenance and Milk
Adapted from Morrison’s Feeding Standard
l i Digestible Car-
Digestible Pro- bohydrate Equi-
For Body Maintenance of 1,000- tein, Pounds valent pounds
Pound Cow i .70