xt76m901zk12 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt76m901zk12/data/mets.xml Tuttle, Charles R. (Charles Richard), b. 1848. 1874  books b92e81t962009 English C. A. Wall : Chicago, Ill. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Indians of North America --Wars. History of the border wars of two centuries, embracing a narrative of the wars with the Indians from 1750 to 1874. text History of the border wars of two centuries, embracing a narrative of the wars with the Indians from 1750 to 1874. 1874 2009 true xt76m901zk12 section xt76m901zk12 


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FROM o TO 1874.












THIS 'VOLUME States 1874. from The the i s s i m p l y w h a t its t i t l e p a g e fall of C a n a d a , in in 1 7 5 9 , to West indiand in of a the c a t e s     a history of the including the Indian B o r d e r W a r s of the U n i t e d t h e far

troubles e ast o f

narrative opens w i t h a brief history the M i s s i s s i p p i , a n d the appeared at of the outposts of b o t h c o l o n i e s as t h e y T h e n follows, i n

t he I n d i a n N a t i o n s short description lish and French


c lose o f ' t h e F r e n c h w a r .


able d e t a i l , a n a c c o u n t o f t h e Massacre LK f ort. from the

Pontiac W a r , which in northern Warfare the

i ts d e s o l a t i n g m a r c h s p r e a d t h e h o r r o r o f m u r d e r a n d C a r o l i n a s to t h e m o s t F r o m this desperate struggle the reader is

conducted t h r o u g h the tempests of B o r d e r

i n i ts f u r i o u s m a r c h a c r o s s t h e C o n t i n e n t , f r o m

A l l e g h a n i e s a n d t h e l a k e s to t h e d a n g e r o u s l a v a - c a v e ambuscades of the M o d o c s , in A r i z o n a , a n d the w i l d s of the Pacific slope. A t the proper point the n a r r a of the outposts t i v e is i n t e r r u p t e d to g i v e p l a c e to a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f

the I n d i a n tribes, a n d a description

of c i v i l i z a t i o n west of the M i s s i s s i p p i . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e h i s t o r y t h e r e a d e r is p r e s e n t e d


w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g a n d a u t h e n t i c s k e t c h e s o f t h e l i v e s ot Chiefs Pontiac, Brant, Tecumseh, Black H a w k , Captain Jack, and figured the great Indian warriors who have made agreed these conspicuously in Border Warfare in N o r t h

A m e r i c a ; the various treaties that have been and b r o k e n , the b o u n d a r y lines that have been f or the time, either prevented or promoted

upon a n d i n v a d e d ; in short, a l l the events that have, w a r s , a r e f u l l y a n d t r u t h f u l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , so- t h a t t h e r e a d e r , after c a r e f u l l y p e r u s i n g t h i s V o l u m e , w i l l , i n the absence of any o p i n i o n expressed by the author, b e a b l e to j u d g e i n t e l l i g e n t l y for h i m s e l f o f t h e m e r i t s of the treatment w h i c h the native tribes have received at the hands of the U n i t e d States g o v e r n m e n t . T h e d e m a n d for t h i s w o r k cannot be questioned.

T h e r e is n o t a s i n g l e p e r s o n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w h o h a s n o t felt t h e w a n t o f a reliable H i s t o r y of the W a r s between his c o u n t r y a n d t h e I n d i a n s ; a n d i t is w i t h a v i e w to s u p p l y t h i s w a n t t h a t t h i s b o o k i s p r e s e n t e d to t h e p u b l i c . It has been complete, c o m p i l e d a n d w r i t t e n from the most reliable sources, a n d , i t is c o n f i d e n t l y b e l i e v e d , w i l l b e f o u n d authentic and interesting. to w h i c h the perfection cations and reports w h i c h have been of indebted, require something more T h e various books, p u b l i consulted, and than a passing the t h i s V o l u m e is l a r g e l y In compiling and writing most of

notice in this introduction.

a v o l u m e s u c h as t h e f o l l o w i n g , w h e r e


5 connected conto this



have been, in some way,

w i t h o t h e r b o o k s , i t is i m p o s s i b l e , i n t h e c o u r s e o f the n a r r a t i v e , to g i v e p r o p e r c r e d i t sulted ; and, in order that uted to the perfection of to the authors may know I first take the r e a d e r this work,

w hat e x t e n t b o o k s h e r e t o f o r e p u b l i s h e d

have contrib-

o p p o r t u n i t y o f m a k i n g the n e c e s s a r y e x p l a n a t i o n . Mr. Francis W ars e ast o f P a r k m a n deserves the o n the mention. Indian the to F r o m his valuable w o r k s materials w h i c h make Indians and

the M i s s i s s i p p i , has been gathered make this reference

u p t h e first p a r t o f t h i s b o o k ,

a n d it is o n l y n e c e s s a r y t o

e s t a b l i s h t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f m y h i s t o r y o f the P o n t i a c w a r , for t h e r e is n o m o r e a b l e , c o m p l e t e , o r i n t e r e s t i n g narrative of this terrible b o r d e r w a r t h a n that by M r . P a r k m a n , w h o s e w r i t i n g s are j u s t l y as a n o r n a m e n t to A m e r i c a n l i t e r a t u r e . In that p a r t of the n a r r a t i v e w h i c h gives an account of H a r m a r ' s , S t . C l a i r ' s a n d gathered piled by much the from former Western Harrison's campaigns against the Indians, i n c l u d i n g T e c u m s e h ' s war, I have the w o r k s of Messrs. James H . and revised by the latter     frequently acknowlPerkins and J . M . Peck     a volume originally comentitled " T h e Annals." I have this given regarded

given this v o l u m e credit i n the course of the n a r r a t i v e ; b u t , i n a d d i t i o n , I w i s h to m a k e e d g m e n t h ere. M y account of the dependent upon B l a c k H a w k w a r is m a t e r i a l l y valuable little book Mr. Upham's



w h i c h is e n t i r e l y d e v o t e d t o the life o f t h i s w a y w a r d c hief. I I n this volume, the author takes occasion, a n d censure the acts for n e e d l e s s l y of the United the Sacs of the De His North proper John f reely irritating t h i n k , j u s t l y , to

States authorities

t o t h i s b l o o d y o nset. In the brief account of the Wolf Mississippi, which Indian wars the I n d i a n tribes west history of precedes m y

in the same t e r r i t o r y , M r . C h a r l e s

B r o w n e l l is t h e m o s t v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t o r .

s t a n d a r d w o r k , e n t i t l e d the " I n d i a n R a c e s o f although the usual credit is given in the

a n d S o u t h A m e r i c a , " has b e e n f r e e l y c o n s u l t e d , a n d , p laces, I c a n n o t f a i l t o m e n t i o n i t here. In m y account of the adventures of C o l o n e l C. Fremont, and Christopher Carson, I have

u sed t h e official r e p o r t s o f t h e f o r m e r , t h e " L i f e a n d E x p l o r a t i o n s of F r e m o n t , " and other shall not undertake to enumerate volumes, but I all the official west of

r e p o r t s a n d d o c u m e n t s w h i c h h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e thrilling catalogue of book. dred of wars and adventures the M i s s i s s i p p i , w h i c h constitutes the last part of this I t w i l l s uffice to s a y t h a t s o m e f ive o r s i x h u n these have been d i l i g e n t l y consulted and

a l w a y s w i t h g o o d r esults. A description conquest of relieve "The the of the p r i n c i p a l battles has of been current and its Indian during warfare, I have the is no

Mexico, which general


i n to

l a r g e l y dependent u p o n a neat little v o l u m e Mexican W a r Heroes."



7 t h e a u t h o r of t h i s I

m eans


k n o w i n g t h e n a m e of

volume, since it has not been a t t a c h e d to its pages.

ought also to m e n t i o n " T h e L i f e a n d A d v e n t u r e s of K i t Carson," by C o l . D e W i t t C. Peters, w h i c h came into m y h a n d s a few d a y s b e f o r e t h i s v o l u m e I t is a d e e p l y that reflects the famous authentic upon the work, scarcely was less given to the publishers. strictly honor name of interesting, mountaineer labors and work labor the

than credit u p o n his b i o g r a p h e r . of this author. T h e brief account

Several important of the Seminole

p assages i n t h i s w o r k h a v e t h e i r o r i g i n i n t h e

w ar, w h i c h c loses t h i s v o l u m e has b e e n c o m p i l e d entitled, " T h e E x i l e s o f F l o r i d a , " a n eat l i t t l e

written from M r . Joshua R. G i d d i n g s ' valuable book of surpassing interest. I w i s h to c l a i m for m y s e l f o n l y t h e e a r n e s t of a compiler, a n d i n presenting this book to

p u b l i c , I d o so i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s h a v e b e e n s o a r r a n g e d as t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e m o s t and satisfactory h i s t o r y of the wars w i t h the of the U n i t e d States been w r i t t e n . CHARLES
CHICAGO, March, 1874.

complete Indians yet

a n d T e r r i t o r i e s t h a t has R.










LAGES A ND F O R T S     T H E W A R P A T H     F E S T I V A L S AND

B E F O R E e ntering upon an a ccount o f the scenes a nd incidents of the Border Wars of the Northwest, I w i l l g ive the reader a f aint g limpse of the condition of the Indian trihes of the lake r egion a bout t he date at which: our narrative commences     1700. The territory east of the Mississippi was occupied, e xcepting where the whites had intruded their colonial settlements, by three great families, differing from each other by a r adical p eculiarity of language. They were c alled the Iroquois, A lgonquin and Mobilian nations. The Mobilians embraced the confederacy o f the Creeks and the Choctaws, but as they t ook no active part i n the ensuing narrative, I w i l l a void any details of their history. B u t the Iroquois and the A l g o n q u i n nations, b eing conspicuously identified w i t h the last great struggle of the savages a gainst civilization, demand a closer a ttention.

F oremost i n e loquence, w ar and intellect stood the Iroquois. T o use their own words, they " were a m ighty and warlike



p eople," and they extended their conquests from Q uebec to the O arolinas, o n the seaboard, and to the M ississippi on the west. E verywhere i n this broad country they established their name a nd p ower, and, indeed, throughout the country they were the t error a like o f whites and Indians. In the south they had ' conquered the Delawares, and were, at this time, forcing them to a heavy tribute; i n the north, they had completely subjected t he "Wyandots, and prohibited them the xise of arms; i n the west they exterminated the E ries, a nd i n the east " a single M ohawk w ar cry was sufficient to terrify a l l the Indians i n New England." B u t the Indians were not alone i n terror of the Iroquois. A l l C anada trembled beneath their infuriated onset. More t han once C hamplain fled w i t h h is troops to the forts for r efuge, leaving his pursuing conquerers to destroy and plunder t he defenseless French settlements. C ertainly t he history of s uch a p owerful nation should not be slighted, yet to trace it b eyond the dark border of the discovery is beyond the power o f human penetration. A s we glance at them i n 1700, we f ind t heir central government located w ithin t he present l imits o f the state of N e w Y o r k , w here, i n the Y a l l e y o f the Onondaga, the chiefs of the s everal t ribes of this great family held their c i v i l a nd m ilitary c ouncils for many generations. The Iroquois nation consisted of, f irst f ive, and, at a later period, six tribes, called the M ohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, the Senecas a nd the Tuscaroras. These tribes were bound together by a loose confederacy, being, i n a s mall m easure, subject to a g eneral congress, but each tribe had its own organization, and i ndependent t ribal g overnment. E ach t ribe had several sachems, who, w ith t he subordinate chiefs and p rincipal m en, r egulated a ll its c ivil a nd m ilitary a ffairs; but when foreign p owers were to be consulted, or important treaties made, all t he sachems of the several tribes convened i n general assembly a t t he great council house     the Iroquois capitol     i n the v alley o f the Onondaga. Here the Congressmen of the Six N ations were received, the great council fire k indled, t reaties m ade and difficulties settled. H e r e the simple Iroquois




sachem sat and listened to the eloquent speeches o f the leading c hiefs, who spoke their honest sentiments i n accordance w ith the most ancient usages of their nation. W hen J acques C artier first visited the St. Lawrence he found the savages of the Six Nations occupying the country along the north hank of the river, and, as early as 1535, he discovered a town of the Huron-Iroquois, consisting of about fifty h uts, near the present site of the .city of Montreal. This v i l lage was situated i n the midst of large fields of Indian corn, a nd m ust, even at this early day, have been a place of considerable importance, or, to use the words of another, " t h e m etropolis of the neighboring country." M r . S tone, i n his able writings on the Indians of the Six N ations, g ives the following description of this village: " I t was surrounded by palisades or trunks of trees set i n a triple r ow. The outer and inner ranges of palisades inclined t ill they met and crossed near the summit, while the upright row between them, aided by transverse braces, g ave to the whole an a bundant strength. W i t h i n w ere galleries for the defenders, rude ladders to mount them, and magazines of stone to t hrow down on the heads of the assailants. A single entrance was secured w ith p iles and stakes, and every precaution adopted against sudden attack or seiffe. The town consisted of about fifty oblong houses, each fifty feet i n length by twelve or fifteen i n breadth, built of w ood a nd covered w ith b ark. Each house contained small chambers built round an open court i n the centre, i n which many fires were k indled. T he inhabitants were devoted to husbandry and fishing, and the lands i n the v icinity w ere well cultivated." A ccording to the history of Cartier's voyage, the Indians of H ochelaga   now Montreal   were unusually civilized, for barbarians, a nd greatly i n advance of their nation a century afterwards; but i n 1600 no trace of this village could be found. A ccording to their own traditions the p eople o f the Six N ations o riginally came f rom the north, but they date the p eriod of their migration a long number of centuries back. C usick, t he Tuscarora author   and the only Indian who has w ritten u pon the subject   dates the event more than five hun-




d red years before the discovery by Columbus, but his writings are not generally accepted. The tradition of the Senecas, the f ifth o f the Six Nations, is that the original p eople o f their N ation b roke forth from the earth, from the crest of a mountain at the head of Canandaigua L ake. T he mountain which gave t hem b irth i s called Ge-nun-de-wah-gauh, or the great h i l l , a nd for this reason the Senecas are sometimes called thegreat hill people, a nd, I believe, this was their original t itle. T he Ge-nun-de-wah-gauh has been held, by them, sacred as b eing their birth-place. I t was for many years the place of h olding the councils of this tribe, and was the hallowed place o f their religious services. A s w ith the Senecas so w ith a ll the tribes of the Six Nations. T hey have no written history of their origin, nor can one now be produced. O ne of the principal supports to the confederacy of the Six; N ations, a nd one of the strongest ties which bound them t ogether was the system of totemship. I n the Six Nations there were eight totemic clans. T he Iroquois believed that Taounyawatha, the G o d of Waters, had descended to the earth to teach them the arts-of savage l ife. T hey claimed further that this God, seeing the evils by w hich t heir various tribes were beset, u rged them to form a g reat confederacy for their common g ood a nd defence. B u t before the p eople c ould be collected together this Messenger t ook h is flight, promising, however, that another should be sent to instruct them i n the principles of the proposed league. " A n d a ccordingly," says the glowing pen of Francis P a r k man, " as a band of Mohawk warriors were threading the funeral l abyrinth of an ancient pine forest, they heard, amid its b lackest depths, a hoarse v oice c hanting i n measured c adence; a nd f ollowing the sound, they saw, seated among the trees, a m onster of so hideous an aspect that, one and all, they stood b enumbed w ith t error. H i s features were w ild and f rightful. H e was encompassed by hissing rattlesnakes, which, Medusalike, h ung w r i t h i n g from his head; and on the ground, around h i m were strewn implements of incantation, and magic vessels f ormed of human s kulls. R ecovering from their amazement,

O K,



t he warriors could perceive that i n the mystic words of the c hant, which he s till p oured forth, were couched the laws and p rinciples o f the destined confederacy. The tradition further declares that the monster being surrounded and captured, was p resently transformed to human shape; that he became a c hief of transcendent wisdom and prowess, and to the day of his death ruled the councils of the united tribes." The last of the p residing sachems at the councils at Onondaga inherited from h im t he honored name of Atotarho. Such, according to I ndian t radition, is the origin of the great Iroquois confederacy. B u t i f the reader is shocked w i t h t his preposterous legend, what must be said of their tradition regarding the epoch w hich preceded the auspicious event of their union. I n these e vil d ays, according to the same authority, the scattered a nd d ivided Iroquois were beset w ith e very form of p eril a nd d isaster. G iants, cased i n armor of stone, descended on them f rom the mountains of the north. H u g e beasts trampled d own their forests l ike fields of grass. H u m a n heads, w ith s treaming h air a nd glaring eyeballs, shot through the air l ike meteors, shedding pestilence and death throughout the land. T he waters of Lake Ontario were troubled. F r o m the b osom o f the boisterous lake a horned serpent of mighty siae rose u p a lmost to the clouds. The p eople fled from before h is awful presence, and would not have escaped his open jaws had not the t hunder b olts of the skies driven h i m down into his watery home at the bottom of the lake. A r o u n d the infant Seneca v i l lage on M o u n t Genundewahguah, already spoken of, a twoheaded serpent coiled himself, of size so monstrous that the perishing p eople c ould not ascend his scaly sides, and perished i n m ultitudes. A t length the monster was mortally wounded by the magic arrow of a c hild, a nd, w r i t h i n g i n the agonies of d eath, he uncoiled himself from the mountain h ome o f the Senecas, and rolled into the lake below, lashing its black waters i nto a b loody foam, and allowing the few remaining wretched I ndians to flee from the place of their long and disastrous confinement. The serpent sank to the bottom of the lake, and d isappeared forever. A ccording to the fancy of the Iroquois, the S pirit o f T h u n -



der dwelt under the F alls o f Niagara, and when, amid the b lackening shadows of the approaching storm, or the sharp, q uick flashes of the lightning, they heard his broad, deep v oice p eal along the heavens, they " h i d themselves from the face o f the angry S p i r i t . " These legends, although unworthy of much consideration, are grand evidences o f the superior intellectual p owers o f the p eople o f the Six Nations. It is true that their imaginations were assisted by the dismal v oice o f the wind, the unfathomable darkness of the gathering thunder storm, or the low, deep s ound of the tossing lake waters; but, even i n view of these m ysteries, their traditions, when compared with those o f other n ations, grandly demonstrate the p ower a nd capacity of the I roquois mind. B u t with all their intellectual superiority, the arts o f life among them had made no advance from a barbarous c ondition. Their implements of war, and other products of t heir g enius, were not very flattering to them. There was a r ough, unfinished appearance to everything a rtificial a round t hem. Their huts, pottery and the c onveniences o f life combined to attest their untidy inactive genius. A l t h o u g h behind t heir race i n these things, they were largely i n advance of i t as h usbandmen. Their beautiful fields of Indian corn and squashes a nd t he ancient apple-orchards which grew around their settlements, captivated the invading army of Count Frontenac i n 1696. T heir d wellings and works of defense, a lthough rough, were, however, well adapted to their wants, and were g ood evidences o f their great industry. B u t these, which were scattered along the St. Lawrence and around Lake Ontario, were leveled to the g round, never to rise again, i n 1687, by D e Nonville, and, nine y ears, later by Frontenac. " A l o n g the banks of the Mohawk, among the h ills and hollows of Onondaga, i n the forests of Oneida and Cayuga, on the r omantic shores of Seneca Lake, and the r i c h b orders of the Genesee, surrounded by waiving maize fields, and encircled f rom afar by the green margin of the forests, stood the ancient s trongholds of the c onfederacy." T he l ittle v illages were surrounded by palisades, and were otherwise well fortified with





magazines of stones, and w ith w ater conductors, which were efficiently used i n the event of a f ire. I n h abits of social life the Iroquois were thoroughly savage. D u r i n g the long winter evenings, men, women and children gathered near the log fires i n their rude huts, and, while the cold storm was beating the lonely forest without, the storyteller o f the tribe recounted the history of his nation and deeds of ancient heroism. The curious pipe was passed from hand to hand, and, by the nickering firelight, each half-naked warrior, w rought up by the superstitious narratives of the t alker, seemed to pass the hours i n pleasure. T he war path, the race of p olitical a mbition, and the chase, a ll h ad their votaries among the p eople o f the Six Nations. W hen t heir assembled sachems had resolved on war, and when, f rom their ancient Council House a hundred light-footed messengers were sent to the distant tribes to c all t hem to arms, i n the name of their great chief, then from Q uebec to the Carolinas, and from the A t l a n t i c to the M ississippi, t housands of w arlike hearts caught up the i nvitation w ith g lad enthusiasm. B y f asting and praying, by consulting dreams and omens, and by ancient usages, the warriors sought to ensure victory for t heir a rms. W h e n these singular performances had been concluded, t hey began their secret progress towards the defenseless w hite s ettlement. Soon followed the news of some b loody massacre which, exaggerated i n its flight from settlement to s ettlement, was swiftly borne to the ears of the older N e w E ngland t owns. W h i l e these places were f illed w ith e xcitement over the shocking tidings, the victorious warriors returned to their villages w ith t he unfortunate captives, to celebrate t heir m erciless triumphs. A s they approach, the sound of the w ar-whoop is heard, and hundreds of savage women and c hildren r u n out w ith s ticks and stones to m eet t he company. T heir h ideous yelping, warns the prisoners of increasing danger, but they have no power to t urn b ack, and, resigning themselves to an awful fate, they regard a pelting from these f oolish w retches, as necessary to prepare them for the tortures that m ust follow. A n d now the black arches of the forest g row blacker as the smoke, slowly c urling u pward from the



fires o f death, forms itself i n clouds above t hem. W i t h firebrand a nd torch the excited multitude circle round their a gonizing victim, u n t i l t he slow tortures have ended i n death, w hen the charred corpse i s thrown to the dogs a nd the cruel c eremony is ended by clamerous shouts to drive away the s pirit o f the captive. Such were the most exquisite enjoyments of the cruel Indians of the Six Nations. L eaving t his remarkable people, let us t urn to the other m embers of the same great family. The A l g o n q u i n p eople o ccupied a large tract of territory surrounding the Six Nations. I t was the Indians of this family who first greeted C artier, as h is l ittle fleet ascended the St. Lawrance; it was Algonquins w ho welcomed the pioneer settlers of V i r g i n i a . T hey were A lgonquins w ho, led on by Sassacus, Pequot and P h i l l i p o f M ount H ope, harrassed the settlements of the N e w England c olonies; who under the great tree at Kensington, made the c ovenant of peace w ith W i l l i a m P e n n ; and when French missionaries and fur-traders explored the Wabash and the Ohio, t hey found " their valleys tenanted by the same far-extended r ace." A s civilization progressed, they were driven from these eastern strongholds, u n t i l o nly a few remnants of their once great and powerful nation were clustered around the S trait o f M ackinaw. T he Delawares were the most powerful tribe of the A l g o n q u i n f amily. According to their traditions, they were the p arent tribe from whence sprung all the other divisions of this p eople. They were called Delawares, probably from the fact t hat, w hen the European Colonists flrst visited that section of c ountry, their l odges were found thickly clustered along the waters of the Delaware and its tributary streams. They were, i n a s mall measure, an a gricultural people, although they mainly depended upon fishing and the chase as a means of subsistence. A s already mentioned, they had been subjected by the fierce w arriors o f the Six Nations, and when the Quakers first came a mong them, they oft'ered but few evidences of m ilitary s kill or    courage. B u t as civilization pushed them westward, beyond t he reach and power of the Iroquois, they revived their warlike s pirits, a nd were s oon f ound to be formidable enemies.

' OK,





D uring t he old French W a r , they had so far recovered from the suppressed condition into which their enemies had forced t hem, t hat they resumed the use of arms, and while their ancient conquerors espoused the cause of Canada, they b ecame the fast and fierce allies of the E nglish. A t the beginning of the Revolution, they publicly declared their emancipation from I roquois b ondage, w hich was acknowledged by the Councils of the Six Nations; and ever since that period they have occupied a h igh position among the Indian nations of N o r t h A merica. I ndeed, at a s till l ater day, when the Iroquois people had disappeared from the border battle-fields, the American p ioneer settlers found their most unconquerable enemies i n the Delaware Indians. " Their war parties," says an eminent w riter, " pierced the fartherest wilds of the Rocky Mountains; and the prairie traveler would often meet t he Delaware warrior r eturning from a successful foray, a gaudy handkerchief b ound about his brow, his snake locks fluttering i n the wind, his r ifle r esting across his saddle-bow, while the tarnished and b egrimed equipments of his half-wild horse bore w itness that the unscrupulous rider had waylaid and plundered some u nfortunate trapper." N ext i n order among the tribes of the A l g o n q u i n family were the bold Shawanoes. A t an early day they occupied the V alley o f the Ohio, but i n 1672 they were defeated by the Six N ations, a nd fled to escape d estruction. F o l l o w i n g the Ohio down a l ittle f arther, the traveler would next c ome t o the v i l lages of the M iamis, a nd the Twightwees. Their huts were clustered along the banks of the Wabash and its branches. T hey were also l i v i n g i n terror of the Iroquois when Europeans first c ame a mong them, but, as w ith t he Delawares, they were l iberated b y the progress of Colonial power. The I llinois I n d i ans, who i n the early days were located along the banks of the r iver w hich was given their name, were also of the A l g o n q u i n f amily, a nd, l ike t heir brothers, were sorely harrassed by the I roquois. A t one time their numbers exceeded t welve thousand, b ut so complete was the subjection and total their defeat, w hich t hey received at the merciless hands of the Six Nations, that they were reduced to a few small villages. The Illinois 2



I ndians were, perhaps, the most licentious and slothful savages o f the A l g o n q u i n family. H a v i n g l ost their prestige as a w arlike people, they sought to gratify their vicious natures by t he most extravagant indulgences. They spent a greater part o f the year i n the pursuit of g ame w i t h w hich the prairies of t heir c ountry abounded i n great plenty, but there were seasons w hen nearly all of them were gathered together at their p r i n cipal v illage, merry-making, feasting, and, when liquor could be obtained, d rinking to excess.

T he Ojibwas, Pottawatomies, Ottawas, Sacs, Foxes, M e n omonies and the N o r t h e r n Knisteneaux were also members of t his g reat family. They were scattered throughout the lake r egion i n detached villages, and, i n common w ith t heir k insmen, h ad, at an earlier period, fled from the eastern country to escape t he fury of the Iroquois. The Ojibwas, Ottawas and P ottawatomies were bound together by a sort of confederacy, h aving for its object t heir common defense a nd m utual w elfare. T he former tribe, which was the most numerous of any of this confederacy, was located i n the Lake Superior v icinity. T hey w ere a barbaric, rude people, l i v i n g i n a loose a nd imperfect state. H u n t i n g a nd fishing were their favorite pursuits, and a griculture was but slightly encouraged. They were, w ithal, a n i mprovident, reckless tribe. A t one season they were feasting, w ith an abundance on every hand, and at another they were famishing. Y e t , w ith a ll this uncertainty touching their s upplies, t hey never manifested a single prudent t rait. T hus I have hurriedly noticed the location and condition of t he Six Nations and A l g o n q u i n family of Indians, at the period i n w hich our narrative opens. The reader has, no doubt, a lready observed that of these two distinct families, the I roquois were by far the most intellectual and elevated, nevertheless some o f the greatest warriors and orators belonged to t he Algonquin nation. Even Pontiac and Tecumseh, the subjects o f this work, boasted its blood and language. A point t hat has not failed to elicit attention, however, is that w ith t he a dvance of Colonial power, the prestige of the Six Nations d eclined more rapidly than that of the tribes which they had c onquered.




B efore passing on to the opening events of the narrative, I w ill s top to glance, for a moment, at the Wyandotts and the N eutral N a t i o