xt76m901zk2n https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt76m901zk2n/data/mets.xml Kercheval, Samuel, 1786-1845? 1833  books b92f232s5k318332009 English Samuel H. Davis : Winchester, Ky. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Indians of North America --Wars --1750-1815. Indian captivities. Indians of North America --Wars --1775-1783. Shenandoah River Valley (Va. and W. Va.) --History. A history of the valley of Virginia. text A history of the valley of Virginia. 1833 2009 true xt76m901zk2n section xt76m901zk2n 

to general john smith.

JLike Nestor of old, you have lived to see " two generations pass away, and now remain the example of the third." ' You saw Dunmore's war against the Indians in 1774; you witnessed the war of the revolution and the war of 1812, with the haughty Briton. In all these great struggles of our country you have given the most conclusive'evidence of unbending virtue and uncompromising patriotism. The author has had the gratification of knowing you for a full half century. When a small boy he frequently saw you, though he was then too young to attract your notice, and it was not until he entered upon the active duties of life that he had the high satisfaction of a personal acquaintance.

The author disclaims every thing like insincere flattery, and feels assured that your candor will readily pardon him for the freedom he uses in this dedication of his History of the Valley to you. To you, sir, is he indebted for much of the valuable information detailed in the following pages. In you, sir, he has witnessed the calm, dignified statesman and philosopher, the uniform and consistent republican, the active and zealous officer, whether in the field or councils of the country. He has witnessed more: he has seen you in high pecuniary prosperity; he has seen you in later years struggling with adverse fortune; and in all, has discovered the calm, dignified resignation to misfortune, which always characterizes the great and good man. Yes, sir, you have spent at least fifty years of your valuable life in the service of your country; and when you go hence, that you may enter intothe joy of your Lord, i3 the fervent prayer of


Introduction   - Page 8

Chap. 1. Indian wars..... 47

2. Indian settlements        -      -      - 54

3. First settlement of the valley -      - 64

4. The same continued       -    . -

5. Religion, habits and customs -      - 78

6. Breaking out of the Indian war     - 88

7. Indian incursions and massacres    - 93

8. The same continued     -      -      - 110

9. The same continued     ... 123

10. Dunmore's war with the Indians - 145 Doddridge's account of Dunmore's war 148 Jacob's account of Dunmore's war 157

11. War of the revolution   - 187

12. Mode of living of the primitive settlers 203

13. Northern Neck of Virginia - - 209 Faulkner's report  - 215

14. Laying off the counties        -      - 233

15. Establishment of the towns   -      - 238

Doddridge's Notes.

1. Indian warfare     - 254

2. War of 1763       .... 258

3. The death of Cornstalk -      -      - 267

4. Wappatomica campaign -      -      - 270

5. Gen. M'Intosh's campaign     -      - 272

6. Moravian campaign      ... 276

7. The Indian summer     ... 289

8. Gen. Crawford's campaign     -      - 291

9. Attack on Rice's fort     -      -      - 302

10. Expected attack on Doddridge's fort 307

11. Coshocton campaign     - 310

12. Captivity of Mrs. Brown       -      - 312

13. Lewis Wetzel      -      -      -      - 315 


Chap. 14. Adam Poe..... 318

15. The Johnsons - 323

16. Settlement of the country     -      - 326

17. House furniture and diet      -      - 333

18. Dress ------ 337

19. The fort..... 341

20. Caravans    - - 343

21. Hunting    ----- 345

22. The wedding - 350

23. The house warming    - 355

24. Working..... 357

25. Mechanic arts     ...      - 359

26. Medicine..... 365

27. Sports..... 371

28. Witchcraft -      -      -      -      - 376

29. Morals..... 381

30. Slavery..... 386

31. Civilization - 394

Surprising Adventures    - 411

Appendix     .      -      - 447

  r3=The author of this work has endeavored to observe, in the printing, the orthography of our distinguished countryman, Dr. Webster. Such observance does not of course apply to the literal transcripts of old documents which are inserted ; and there may be some other departures from it, occasioned by inadvertence. 

origin of the indians in america.

From what particular part of the old world the aboriginals found their way to this continent, is a question which lias given rise to much philosophical and learned disquisition among- historians. It however appears now to be the settled opinion that America first received its inhabitants from Asia. Mr. Snowdcn, in his History of America, advances many able and ingenious arguments in support of this opinion. After citing many great revolutions which have from time lo time taken place in various parts of our globe, Mr. Snowden states:

" In the strait which separates America from Asia, many islands are found, which are supposed to be the mountainous parts of land, formerly swallowed up bj (earthquakes : which appears the more probable, by the multitude of volcanoes, now known in the peninsula of Kamlschatlca. It is imagined, however, that the sinking of that land and the separation of the new continents, has been occasioned by those great earthquakes, mentioned in the history of the Americans; which formed an era almost as memorable as that of the deluge. We can form no conjecture of the time mentioned in the histories of the Toltecas, or of the year 1, (Tec-pat 1,) when that great calamity happened.

"If a great earthquake should overwhelm the isthmus of Suez, and there should be at the same time as great u scarcity of historians as there were in the first age of 2 


the deluge, it would be doubted in three or four hundred years after, whether Asia had ever been united by that part to Africa; and many would firmly deny it.

" Whether that great event, the separation of the continents, took place before or after the population of America, it is impossible to determine; but we are indebted to the above-mentioned navigators,* for settling the long dispute about the point from which it was effected. Their observations prove, that in one place the distance between continent and continent is only thirty-nine miles; and in the middle of this narrow strait, there are two islands, which would greatly facilitate the passage of the Asiatics into the new world, supposing it took place in canoes, after the convulsion which rent the two continents asunder.

" It may also be added, that these straits are, even in the summer, often filled with ice; in winter irozen over, so as to admit a passage for mankind, and by which quadrupeds might easily cross, and stock the continent. But where, from the vast expanse of the north-eastern world, to fix on the first tribes who contributed to people the new continent, now inhabited from end to end, is a matter that has baffled human reason. The learned may make bold and ingenious conjectures, but plain good sense cannot always accede to them.

" As mankind increased in numbers, they naturally protruded one another forward. Wars might be another cause of migrations. No reason appears, why the Asiatic north might not be an officina vivomm as well as the European. The overteeming country to the east of the Riphean mountains, must have found it necessary to discharge its inhabitants: the first great increase of people were forced forwards by the next to it: at length reaching the utmost limits of the old world, found a new one, with ample space to occupy unmolested for ages; till Columbus, in an evil hour for them, discovered their country; which brought again new sins and new deaths to both worlds.   I-t is impossible, with the lights

* Cook and oilier?. 

which wc have so recently received, to admit that America could receive its inhabitants (that is, the bulk of them,) from any other place than Eastern Asia. A few proofs may be added, taken from the customs or dresses, common to the inhabitants of both worlds. Some have been long extinct in the old, others remain in both in full force.

" The custom of scalping, was a barbarism in use with the Scythians, who carried about them at all times this savage mark of triumph. A little image found among the Kalmucs,* of a Tartarian deity, mounted on a horse, and sitting on a human skin, with scalps pendant from the breast, fully illustrates the custom of the ancient Scythians, as described by the Greek historian. This usage, we well know by horrid experience, is continued to this day in America. The ferocity of the Scythians to their prisoners, extended to the remotest part of Asia. The Kamtschatkans, even at the time of their discovery by the Russians, put their prisoners to death by the most lingering and excruciating torments ; a practice now in full force among the aboriginal Americans. A race of the Scythians were named Anthropophagi, from their feeding on human flesh: the people of Nootka Sound still make a repast on their fellow creatures.

" The savages of North America have been known to throw the mangled limbs of their prisoners into the horrible caldron, and devour them with the same relish as those of a quadruped. The Kamtschatkans in their inarches never went abreast, but followed one another in the same track: the same custom is still observed by the uncultivated natives of North America. The Tun-gusi, the most numerous nation resident in Siberia, prick their skins with small punctures, in various shapes, with a needle; then rub them with charcoal, so that the marks become indelible: this custom is still observed in several parts of South America. The Tungusi use canoes made of birch bark, distended over ribs of wood, * The Kaluiuc Tartars are now subjects of Russia. 
   intro diction.

and nicely put together: the Canadian, and many other primitive American nations, use no other sort of boats. In fine, the conjectures of the learned, respecting the vicinity of the old and new world, are now, by the discoveries of late navigators, lost in conviction; and in the place of an imaginary hypothesis, the place of migration is almost incontroverlibly pointed out."

sketch of the first settlement of virginia.

Having given the foregoing brief sketch of the probable origin of the Indians in America, the author will now turn his attention to the first settlement of Virginia, a brief history of which he considers will not be unacceptable to the general reader, and as a preliminary introduction to his main object, i. e. the history of the early settlement of the valley of Shenandoah in Virginia.

On the 10th of April, 100(3, James I. king of England, granted charters to two separate companies, called the "London and Plymouth companies," for settling colonics in Virginia.* The London company sent Capt. Christopher Newport to Virginia, December 20th, 1605, with a colony of one hundred and five persons, to commence a settlement on the island of Roanoke, now in North Carolina. By stress of weather, however, they were driven north of their place of destination, and entered Chesapeake Bay. Here, up a river which they called James river, on a beautiful peninsula, they commenced, in May, 1607, the settlement of James town. This was the first permanent settlement in the country.

Several subsequent charters were granted by king-James to the company for the better ordering and government of the colony, for the particulars of which the reader is referred to Hening's Statues at Large. "And in the year 1619, the first legislative council was convened at James town, then called ' James citty.'" This council was called the general assembly. " It was to assist the governor in the administration of justice, to

* Ilcning's Statutes at Large, vol. i. page H7. 


advance Christianity among Indians, to erect the colony in obedience to his majesty, and in maintaining the people in justice and christian conversation, and strengthening them against enemies. The said governor, council, and two burgesses out of every town, hundred or plantation, to be chosen by the inhabitants to make up a general assembly, who are to decide all matters by the greatest number of voices; but the governor is to have a negative voice, to have power to make orders and acts necessary, wherein they are to imitate the policy of the form of government, laws, customs, manner of tryal, and other administration of justice used in England, as the company are required by their letters patents. No law to continue or be of force till ratified by a quarter court to be held in England, and returned under seal. After the colony is well framed and settled, no order of quarter court in England shall bind till ratified by the general assembly."*   Dated 24th July. 1621.

"Instructions to governor Wyatt. " To keep up religion of the church of England as near as may be;   to be obedient to the king and do justice after the form of the laws of England; and not to injure the natives; and to forget old quarrels now buried :t

"To be industrious, and suppress drunkenness, gaming, and excess in deaths; not to permit any but the council and heads of hundreds to wear gold in their cloaths, or to wear silk till they make it themselves:

" Not to offend any foreign princes; to punish piracies ; to build fortresses and block-houses at the mouths of tlie rivers:

" Hening's Statutes at Large, vol. i. p. 113,114.

t It appears that at a very enrly period of the colony, tliey were desirous of cultivating a friendly understanding with the nativesof the country. Unfortunately, however, for our ancestors, and for the Indians themselves, this friendly disposition was never of long duration.

It is a melancholy truth, that both the while settlers and red natives were often blamablc lor the causes of the furious and disastrous wars with which our history abounds from its earliest period. The whites were continually encroaching upon the Indian territory ; and this unfortunate race of people always yielded reluctantly their rightful inheritance. 

"To use means to convert the heathens, viz: to converse with some; each town to teach sonic children lit for the college intended to be built:

"After Sir George Yeardley has gathered ihe present year's crop, he is to deliver to Sir Francis VVyatl, the hundred tenants belonging to governor's place: Yeard-ley's government to expire the 18th November next, and then Wyatt to be published governor; to swear the council:

"George Sandis appointed treasurer, and he is to put in execution all orders of court about staple commodities; to whom is allotted fifteen hundred acres and fifty tenants. To the marshall, Sir William Ncwce, the same. To company's deputy the same. To the physician five hundred acres and twenty tenants; and the same to the secretary:

"To review the commissions to Sir George Yeardley, governor, and the council, dated 18th November, 161S, for dividing the colony into cities, boroughs,  43,) " was remarkable for n massacre of the colonists by thu Indians, which wan executed with the utmost subtility, and without any re-ard to ago, sex, or dignity.   A well coneertod attack on all the settlements estroyerl in one hour, and almost at the same instant, 317.pcrsons who wero delcnscless and incapable of making resistance." t Melting's Statutes at Large,\o\. i. p. l'.'J. 


himselfe or suffer others to spend powder unnecessarily in drinking or entertainments,