xt76m9020q2v https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt76m9020q2v/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1939 journals kaes_circulars_298 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 298 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 298 1939 2014 true xt76m9020q2v section xt76m9020q2v   Z `A . I
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4-H Clubs
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U g Extensmn D1v1s10n
* THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
Lexington, Kentucky 4
June, 1939
mmpoufbuihed iii COIIHECUOII with the agricultural extension work ca1‘1‘i0d Ou by CDODOFB-
Agricunu " Culleg? OIT Agriculture, University of Kentucky, with the U, S, Departxncnt of
of May arigigd d1SEI‘1bl1ted in furtherance of the work provided for in the ACL Of COIIETPSS
ll I

 j . .
t The object of the dairy project is to teach boys and girls approved ·
, methods of selecting, feeding, breeding, and managing dairy cattle.
The dairy project covers three or more years and includes work with
A the heifer, the cow and the call`. It may begin with any one of these.
A certificate will be given for satisfactory work at the end of eatlt
project year.
` ,-fgc. The member must be at least ten years of age before the _ `
close of the project year and under lf} on _]anuary l of the project ml
year. ln c
T ()wnr·rs/ti];. Animals must be owned by the member. Registered mm
animals must be in the member`s name; the ownership of grades sur]
must be confirmed by the club leader and county agent.
.\'11n1/Jer of £f}If}I'l(lf.\`. ()ne or more animals may be owned. l”`U'
_ mil
" Care. Animals must be cared for by the member, on the farm jicj
where the member resides.
I’m(’/icc.r. Members must follow the instructions ol` the lotitl (tm
. club leader and the county agent. [llc
{fx/11`/zils. Members are expected to exhibit their animals in { _
the county show and, if selected by the county agent, in the distrit! dm
and state shows. [lm
Record. Members must keep, on the forms in this circular, tt are
record of all work done on the project and of all receipts and ex· tim
penses. The record must be approved and signed by the cotmty typ
agent. liei
, . , . itllx
Income. The member should receive the net income from the ·
Cfttfi Meetirtgs. To get the most development out ol ~f-H Club in
work, a member should attend all meetings of his club and tukc mg
part in its activities. rec

 Circular N0. 298
tretl 4;
MCI Revised by George Harris
raclt ""*
my (J/mice of Il Breed. There is little or no difference in efficiency
`jm inthe production of human food, between the breeds of dairy cattle.
ln choosing a breed it is well to consider:
lm] l. What breed is most common in the community? Use of the
lm most popular breed makes it easier to get breeding stock and sell
i surplus.
2. \\’hat are the market demands for dairy products? Any dairy
breed is satisfactory if the product is to be sold as cream or as whole
milk. lf the milk is to be retailed a breed which produces fairly
mlm rich milk may be preferred.
  Which breed does the member prefer? lf several breeds are
’>c;tl (`Ullllll()ll in the community the l1l€1lllJCl"S personal liking may be
the best guide in choosing a breed.
L in Rcg‘i.sIcred or Grade. A registration certificate shows that the
Am., illlimal is registered in a recognized breed association, which means
that its sire and dam were registered animals of the same breed.
Registered animals of good type and capable of high production
11 J are more valuable than grade animals capable of the same produc
CN` llllll. Registered animals are more inclined to transmit Cl€si1`E1l>lC
llllli UPG and production to their offspring; therefore, since the first
heifer purchased may be the foundation for the future herd, it usu-
mg ally is advisable to purchase a registered heifer.
Age. Usually it is advisable to purchase a heifer between six
lluh llllll l\\’ClVe months of age Younger animals lllfly dC\'Cl0[> (l€f€Cl$
aku lll WPC l3LC1` in life that make the animal llll(lC5ll`Hl)lCZ lll ]>·U1`Cll2\S·
mg older animals there is more danger of getting one which has ,
recently become infected with contagious abortion. However, rt
heifer eighteen to twenty·four months of age gives the best indica-
tion of her future development and the club member has to wait

 #1- Ixlenittcky [jx/ension Cf‘1`("llf(l1`Af(). 298
, bttt a short tinte for a returt1 o11 tl1e investment. The age of lllf 1]11C1
( heifer should be decided by cottsidering tlte heifers attd tlte ZllI1()ll1ll 11,111
of money available. It is always better to buy a good calf 1111111 Ll lm
C()llllll()H y€2Il`lll1g. fI1]*l]’
· Pedigree of the Animal. A pedigree is a short history of the 11-1111
accomplisltments of the animal’s ancestors. The poit1ts of intpor- 1111,1.
tance in tl1e pedigree of any animal are: \
. 1. Records of half-sisters a11d full sisters. 1t_g1
· 2. Record of tl1e dattt. 111,111
3. Records of sisters to tl1e sire attd datn. 11crc
1 4. Records of tl1e grand-dams. s5 11
. ()ftet1 pedigrees are confusing. For example, if tlte dant ol tt ]
calf has no production record tlte following tttay appear beneath llllll]
tl1e clrtn1’.s name. "Her dam is a sister to Butterfat Queen with 5111 heal
pounds of btttterfat it1 305 days at 3 years." 111 this ittstattcc the 11 1111
record is 011 a great aunt of the calf in question. This tells prztcti· 111111
cally nothing about the dam of tl1e calf. .~\ red pencil mark shttttltl disc;
be drawn tltru such inforntation to remove tlte uttitttportattt facts I
f1`()lll a pedigree. 11ei1`1
Popular families and blood lines usually are ()\'C]`-C11]l)l12lSllL'll. zttttl
lt is tnttclt ntore important to secure a lteifer whose ancestors ltayc siste
beett of good type and have been good producers than to select one 111111
for tlte popularity of tl1e family to which slte belongs. ttlost
IIICHY/féfllllfllfjl and Prodttetimt Records. A dairy cow ltayittg ·t lflll
straight back, a deep body and a large, long udder extending well 110*1
forward, with teats far apart, usually is capable of good procluctitttt ‘l"“'
over a long period of time. Milk a11d butterfat production is, 111111*- Cl
ever, the real measure of a cow’s ability to produce. A cow that I
produces 400 pounds of butterfat on twice-a-day 111i1ki11g, in tw [lh
montlts, is the type which every dairy club member needs T11? lm;
fOllOWlHg facts are given to assist in comparing production 1`CC01`d~>· M 1
A tw0—year-old COW produces approximately 70 percent as 11111Cll mis
milk and butterfat as a mature cow; a three-yea1—-old, 80 percettti H IW
four—year-old, 90 percent, and a ftve—year-old, 100 perce11t. A ttm- I
Y€€lI'·OlCl COW that p1`O(luCe$ 350 pounds of butterfat in a yC?11` NW IIN
be expected to produce 500 pounds of btttterfat when she is 0** W1
years old. .—\ cow lllllliC(l twice daily attd given good farm care [)1`0· thc

 lr)/lI~7'>’ Projerxt for -/—H Clubs 5
the duces about 70 percent as DlllCl1 as sl1e would if milked [l11`€() or
mt lour ti111es daily, wl1en given all tl1e leed sl1e CHI] consume and tl1e
1 a hest ol care. A cow producing 420 pounds ol butterlat under good
larm conditions is capable ol producing 650 to 700 pounds ol l)ll[·
the terlat under tl1e best conditio11s. Most cows produce 15 percent
·or- more milk and butterfat in 365 days tl1an in 305 days.
\\’hen Holstein records are given in terms of butter, multiply by .
0.8 to get the amount ol butterfat. (500 pounds butter X .8 ; ~l00
pounds ol` butterlat.) \tVhen jersey records are stated i11 butter the
percent ol butterlat i11 the butter usually is given. (500 pounds ol
S5 percent butter equals 425 pounds of butterfat.)
la [·`recd0m from Di.sease. The in1portance ol selecting healthy
ath zuiimals cannot be overemphasized. lt is easier and cheaper to buy
3—lll healthy animals than to get rid of diseases, once tl1ey l1ave gained
the a Iloothold in tl1e llCI`(l. Buy animals subject to physical inspection
(ll- as to general l1ealtl1 and to approved test lor tuberculosis and P>ang`s
ttld disease.
t<‘l~ Vrtltmlimz. The price which a club 1l1€1]1l)C1` sl1ould pay lor a
heiler depends on tl1e type ol` heiler, l1er age, l1er growth lor age,
ed. and tl1e production a11d type ol her ancestors. A heiler whose hall`-
are sisters 21l1(l Clillll have not bee11 tested 1nay or may not be a good
me producer and SllOLll(l be bought at a lower price lllilll OIIC whose
close relatives have good l)1`()(lll(ZllOll records. A l1igl1—prod11cing cow
y A will pay lor hersell more quickly tl1a11 a low producer a11d the calves
;ell ll`<>l11 a cow ol good type will be more valuable than those l`l`<)lll it
ion tow ol equal producing ability but of poor type.
  _ ]"<*t’€llllg. Heilers [rom 8 months to 2 years ol age neeil plellly
.h€ lll ytwrl roughage, They do not need grain il given abtlnilant ]>2lH·
dbl llll`0. l>lll il the pasture is only poor to [air, they should l)C letl l\\'U
mh "’.l0l\l` pounds ol` grain a day, depending on their COnCllLl0ll. :\
·n sauslactory mixture is 200 pounds ol` cor11—and-cob meal a11d 100
(10- ]lUllIl(lS ol bran or oats. ,
lm lll l\`llll(`1`, heilers ol` this age should receive all tl1e legllnle ll1\}'
iw lm`? \\'lll clean tip, with ]() to 20 pounds ol` silztge. rlllle Zllllfllllll ol
my illyllll llU(·`CSS21l`}‘ depends on the Condition ol the hetlcfs ah \\'Cll 2l>
t quality and kind of tl1e rougl1age they are receiving. \\’hen

 i 1 _
li I{m1!11c}ey lixle21.v1`m1 Circular No. 298
t . plenty ol legume hay and silage are available it is not necessary to
, leed grain except to heilers that are thin in condition. ll grass (non-
legutne) hay is led with either silage or lodder. a grain mixture I,
should be used, made of [wd
` 200 pounds corn-and—cob meal Hm
200 pounds wheat bran muy
100 pounds cottonseed meal or W
' The amount ol grain required will be 3 to 5 pounds a day. .-\lter
i the heiler is bred the grain must be increased so that she will he in
good condition belore lreshening. I-leilers on good pasture need at
V small amount ol grain during the 6 weeks previous to lreshening. will
` Salt should be provided at all times and, il non-legume hay is led.
they should have steamed bone meal at will.
Atlrntrzgwzizerzl. Heilers ol this age need shade in summer. ht
winter they need a shed with dry bedding. Unless the cows in the ism.
herd are lree lrom contagious abortion it is best to raise the heilers mix
separately because they may contract the disease any time alter they g U,
start to come in heat and especially alter they are bred. ml,
jerseys. 15 to 18 months, 500 to 575 pounds {ml
Holsteins, 19 to 23 months, 700 to 800 pounds (
Guernseys, 17 to 20 months, 550 to 625 pounds ztt 1·
Ayrshires, 18 to 21 months, 600 to 075 pounds gent
The normal gestation period lor a cow is 283 days. Cows that plat
lreshen in the lall, September 1 to December 1, yield the highest zt sh
production and are dry during the busy, hot season; (C()1lS(f(]l1Cl1ll\ ever
it usually is best to breed heilers between November 20 and l·`el>1`l¤· wut
ary 20. To breed lor the shows, remember that senior yearlihw wily
show best when springing. Older cows show best a week hel¢>t‘<‘ out
lreshening. the
Cllfmilng rt Sire. The heiler must be bred to a purebred 11101 mn"
.·\n aged bull which has sired liiglrproducing daughters el 2"""l mm
WPC l$ l’€$l· \Vh€¤ 21 g<1<>¤`¤'>1¤ 1"’l“l$ H5 1`€§?U`¤l$ UPC and breeding which were <1iscll>~¤‘Sl1`i1S. lf it fails to breathe, regular pressure a11d release of
ll1t` llle 1`oreribs may start breathing. lf tl1e cow fails to lick tl1e calf an A
.se11 1111111* alter it is l)()l`1l rub it u11til it is dry. Disinfect tl1e 11avel witl1
l11(l1IlC. 'l`11e calf should be l1e1ped as S()()l1 as it wants 111 suck be-

 I A .
S K(’}1fI((`f€}’EKf(?7I5f()}l CircuIr1rNo.298
, I cause the colostrum (hrst milk) is necessary to its health. The cow will
y should be given as much warm water as she may care to drink after wht
calving and may have hay to Cal at will. tab
Breakizzg I/ze Heifer to Mil/c. Gentleness and patience are ner
‘ essary in milking a heifer the first few days. Handled roughly at ilu, mil
time a heifer may be made permanently nervous which will prevent ’ Cal,
her from yielding her best possible production. lt is not advisable
· to milk a cow dry for 48 hours after freshening as this lessens the mo
danger of milk fever. Heifers freshening the hrst time, liowever, Th
rarely have milk fever. lf the udder is badly inflamed milking sev um
“ eral times a day is helpful. After each milking massage all the lm
· quarters in a downward direction. Applying mentholated vaseline lm
makes the massaging easier and helps to irritate the skin, thus draw- nm
ing a larger blood supply to the udder. The massaging of the udder the
by the calf when sucking is of some help in removing congestion. lf
the inflammation continues to be severe bathe the udder with hot my
water   hot as the hand will bear) for 30 minutes once or twice mi]
daily. Following the hot applications dry the udder, apply men- PW
tholated vaseline and rub it in thoroly. Kee]; the uclder warm after
using hot applications. Regularity in time of milking does mudt it h
to eliminate udder troubles and is of prime importance in getting ml
good production. Get Kentucky Extension Circular No. 227, "l’et·tl- my
ing Dairy Cows," for instructions on feeding cows in milk. I
Feedirzg I/ic Heifer. lf heifers under 8 months of age are turnetl dr;
on l>Zl$lLl1`C, grain feeding should be continued until they arch um
months of age. One pound of grain a day with good pasture tt wh
sufficient. mc
lf skim milk is not available, dried skim milk may be ttsrtl um
instead. Mix one pound of dried skim milk with 9 pounds of trarttt mg
\\'2llCl` and feed at blood temperature (lf)0 to 103 degrees l·`.i). (il111|l§<` Sm
from whole milk to remade skim milk at the same age and in the
same manner that the change is made to skim milk. Neither skim
milk ll<>l` Tenlilde skim milk need be fed in amounts over l·l ]><>ll|lfl` [hc
21 day. They may be discontinued at three months. .\ grain mixture if I
of Cm
1 pound of cracked com 1 pound of wheat bran lm
1 pound of ground oats 1 pound of linseed meal Of

 Dairy Project for 4-H Clubs 9
ow will be most satisfactory for the period from 3 to 6 months of age,
ter when no milk is fed. The mixture recommended in the preceding
table is satisfactory at other times.
M General Feeding Rules. Feed whole milk immediately after
hi.~ milking. Milk from low—testing cows usually is most satisfactory for
Em T calves.
hlc Teaching the Calf to Drink. After the calf is taken from its _
thc mother   or el days of age) allow it to go l2 hours without feed.
scr. _ Then place 2 or 3 pints of milk in a pail, back the calf into corner
.ev» and stand straddle of its neck. Hold the pail with one hand and
fhf let the calf suck the Hrst two hngers of the other hand. Lower the
mc _ hand until the calf’s nose is in the milk. Remove the hngers slowly
iw- and when the calf raises its head repeat. The calf usually drinks
tlcr the third feed without assistance. Patience is all that is needed.
hm ' Keep brig/it, palatable hayhbefore calves at all times. hlixed
_ timothy and clover is most sat1sfactory wlule calves are receiving
icc milk. \*\’hen the calf is no longer receiving milk, legume hay is
Nh To teach calves to eat grain at 10 days to two weeks of age, place
iw it handful of grain in the bucket immediately after feeding milk or
ui rub some grain on the calf’s nose. Keep clean water and salt before
calves at all times.
[wd Care. Keep the calf in a clean, well-bedded stall, free from
C Q drafts. lf two or more calves are put into a pen, keep them tied
.   until their noses are dry, after feeding milk. This prevents sucking
i lh which ruins many udders. Feed calves at a regular time, night and
wl m0YI1illg, in buckets which are washed at least Once daily. C21lV€s
gm U¤d€1“ 6 months of age should not be turned on pasture. They g1`OW
nw m0Y€'1`&p1dly if kept in the barn during the day and turned Out {OY
my exercise at night.
kim Removing Extra Teats. Extra teats should be removed while
mls the heifer is young. She should be thrown and the udder bathed in
nre il mild disinfectant, Alcohol may be used for this pU1“pOS€. TIN V
extra teat or tents should be clipped as closely as possible with a
pair of scissors. The wound should then be painted with tincture
of iodine.

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 Dairy Project for 4-H Clubs ll
Removing Horns. Calyes, particularly of the Holstein breed,
are often dehorned. This should be done when the calf is three to
ten days old. The hair should be clipped and yaseline applied
around the horn button, which should then he rubbed with the
dampened end of a stick of caustic potash until blood appears.
Paper should be wrapped around the dry end of the caustic stick
when handling it.
Disease l Cause or symptoms   Treatment
a.aY?..-4l_._.._--.. .-...,,.1. t,,,s _ _a_ A
C¤m¤¤°¤ $°°*”S overreedmg, com mak, dirty Reduce mine one-rmi;. Di-each with
buckets, irregular feeding. 2 ozs. castor oil. In severe cases
_ follow with 1 teaspoonful of salol
twice daily. Increase milk slowly.
Ringworm Round, hairless spots covered Remowe scalidaily byspeagiigtitii
with grayish scab. a damp cloth. Paint with tincture
of iodine.
Lice Calf rubs, especially the neck Summer.   or wash with one of
and hind quarters. the cresol solutions on the market.
Repeat in eight days. Winter. Use
some commercial louse powder and
disinfect the pens.
Pneumonia Exposure in wetmweatlierror Reduce feed and feed branwalone.
in damp pens in draft. Calf Give a laxative tl to 3 ozs. of cas-
loses appetite. has high tem- tor oil1. Blanket the calf, keep it
peratnre,* breathes rapidly, is from drafts and call a veterinarian
constipated. for further suggestions.
Bloat A rapid accumulagoiiof gras Tlace a stick in the calf's mouth
l inthe paunch or first stomach. to keep it open, using it as a bit,
t and walk the calf. If this treat-
ment fails give the calf 2 ozs. of
mineral oil; a yearling Xg pint, or
a cow I pint.
White scours Caused by disease gerlnswliieli rtlse regular scours treatment. Then
are in the calf‘s body at birth clean and disinfect all stalls and
or enter soon after birth. In- pens to avoid a recurrence of the
dicated by a white dysentery trouble. If the disease recurs in
soon after birth, and extreme other calves see a veterinarian.
weakness. 1
' The normal temperature of a cow is about 101 degrees F. The normal pulse is 40 to
50 beats per minute and the normal respiration is 10 to 20 breaths per minute.
A dairy cow may be compared to a machine which produces milk
and butterfat. If one machine is much more efficient or can perform ,
more service than another the less efhcient one is discarded. So it is
with dairy cows that fail to produce enough to be profitable. \\'1th
htttterlett selling at 35 cents the cow producing 138 pounds of butter-

 j .
- 12 Kentucky Extension Circular No. 298
A { fat (the average cow in the state) does not pay for her feed. The Thc
cow producing 400 pounds of butterfat can give her owner a nice bdjii
return at this price. Since a cow is more or less a machine the I
materials taken into her body must furnish her with enough food to HCS}
. nourish her body and provide for production. Project members need mg
records of production each year to determine the ability of their mi.
cows as producers, and thus to be able to feed them for the best and [.-01.
, most economical production and to know their value as foundation
s cows. A production record combined with proper information on
feeding will indicate the amount of feed a cow should receive per
- day. A record of both daily and monthly production will also indi- 1.-M.
. cate whether a cow is maintaining good production. Project mem-
bers also need records to show them which feeding practices give
the best and most economical results. Occasionally a member may
select a heifer which is not a profitable producer. If a cow is un- A
prohtable one cannot afford to keep her, whether she be registered hug
or grade, regardless of her type. Over a period of years production um)
records are needed to End those cows whose daughters are high vari
producers and to Hnd whether daughters of certain herd sires pro- mai
duce more or less than the cows to which those bulls were mated. fi
A herd sire which, when mated to high-producing cows, sires and
daughters that produce more than their dams, is very valuable and wit]
should be kept in service as long as possible. Daily milk weights one
may be kept, the milk may be weighed three times a month, or it vida
may be weighed once a month and this weight used as a measure of fail:
the milk production for the month. The milk from both milkings tl1e
should be tested for butterfat once each month. The dairy record “"f
book affords space for both production and feed cost records. See ~
your club leader and county agent in regard to keeping such re<:0rd> wh
when your heifer freshens.  
FITTING Fon ExmB1T1oN ;i'l’“
TUNE. ThE Httillg period should be six weeks to two 11101Nh* Imc
and during this time calves should be kept blanketed in the l>111`|l~ Im.
YCZlI"lil1gS 21l1(l C()\VS may be allowed on pasture during lllC Nlgllf ,,[`
but Should be kept iu the barn under blankets during tl1 A
hy "l` 12h¤>111~s belore leeding, lt will take up about 3 tunes tls \\‘C1gl1i
_ Ul “'?il€1`. lieed calves ~l io 6 pounds a day ol the soaked l)CC1 ]>Ul]>-
ll. ‘<`¥!1`liugs6 to l0 pounds and cows 10 to 1~1 p0lll1(l$·

 . 14 Ken/ttr/ky [fx/mtsiott Circtt/ar N0. 298
l»’V(ttm·. Animals being fitted [or show should be watered twice bet
I daily. It is best to water them out of a bucket lor several days belttre V sidt
j they leave the [arm. Loose salt may be [ed at will in a small box. sho
I oth
· V f . inc
YW _
_ last
. ‘ _ on
— V ‘ · ttte
. {gt _ _¢___ b. ° the
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_ jx `;_~    ‘ _ t . ·  ij. but
  j `_  *4   lyyl W ji l at? j wh
» L; 4 » wr; t   m  I  ·      · , — stl
P'! L .     ..... ..  i   ».ta t Mt     et '
y.     ~· ¢»»·· , - . - ·· =— _ _   bot
     i    -t ., ° {   ....    ~`   -  
  ·‘’·’ 5V ,f&i~§4    W c _ __.' _V       bla
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 ..% * <         r   I  w V  i. l-Q?  Ph
 M. t  ·-'   `   ''·` .     T.     ‘`‘` ~         ‘`»‘ .,*¤·‘ ‘-°:· J `,'v .»  “i F ‘‘·· t’ *
                  ‘‘.Vt‘       *: 1
•_'*` *.;*4,:   Q: V_.A, L": ,· `       1 r5,`%.‘!   #1 » ‘_ ; ;§l]    .
  "      "l `      " .... tf    .5   may be used, lastened at one end and the other end hlrllttb brt
to UIC blanket, as in the illustration, or two straps may be llwd- l" tltt

Dairy Project for 4-H Clubs 15
twice be tied together. Two straps hold the blanket from shifting to either
nefore side, one to pass on the inside of each hind leg. One end of each
>x. should be sewed to the inside of the blanket at the flank (e), the
other end snapped or tied to the rear edge of the blanket (f), 8
inches below the pin bones. Tho 11ot necessary, one strap may be
extended underneath the body back of the front legs (g), and he
fastened on the inside of the blanket 6 inches from the lower edge ·
on each side. After a pin has been placed at each of the positions
mentioned the blanket may be removed, other sacks added to make
{ the blanket of two thicknesses and the sewing done. Old overall
suspenders make good straps. Note in the illustration at (f) that
buttons may be used for easy removal of the blanket. At each place
where a strap is to be sewed to the blanket a piece of denim 6 inches
  square should be sewed to the burlap (cl) and the strap sewed to
my both, using harness thread or other extra heavy thread. lf a sweat
  blanket is desired, a piece of old bed blanket placed under the sack
  blanket does very well. \Vhen the blanket is put on it should be
  placed 2 or 3 inches too far forward and pulled to the rear. .~\ heavy
  canvas blanket may be purchased. Most herdsmen prefer the type
  without lining, using a piece of bed blanket when a sweat blanket
  is desired. l
ll’t1.s/tizzg. The animal should be washed at the time blankettng
"‘l°"· is started. Use tar soap. If the weather is warm, cold water is satis-
factory. Pour water over the animal, then rub the soap on one
Wm , side umil a thick lather is formed. Scrub with a coarse brush. then
nm Yiiise thoroly. \tVash the other side in the same manner and wash
r_dg_l_ the switch. jerseys and Guernseys should not be washed alter the
fbi . ltrst washing. Holsteins may be washed two or three tim