xt76ww76t713 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt76ww76t713/data/mets.xml Doddridge, Joseph, 1769-1826. 1824  books b92f516d632009 English Printed at the office of the Gazette : Wellsburgh, Va. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Indians of North America --Wars --1750-1815. Frontier and pioneer life --Ohio River Valley. Ohio River Valley --History. Notes, on the settlement and Indian wars, of the western parts of Virginia & Pennsylvania, from the year 1763 until the year 1783 inclusive. Together with a view of the state of society and manners of the first settlers of the western country. text Notes, on the settlement and Indian wars, of the western parts of Virginia & Pennsylvania, from the year 1763 until the year 1783 inclusive. Together with a view of the state of society and manners of the first settlers of the western country. 1824 2009 true xt76ww76t713 section xt76ww76t713 
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   iy the statu sf sntkltj mid inumien iji'lic fcsiteulcr.} -oj Hie Western Country.




   8>IiJfiIi>T  OP  flROlKU, WEST   F THE ALLEGHENY mcuntain, to Wit".

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the twenfy-fourih day of May [A, D. 1824,] in the forly^ eighth year of the Independence of the Uuited Skates of America, Joseph Docdribge of the   aid district hath deposited in this office the title o# a book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor 'sn the words following to wit:

''Notes on the settlement and Indian wars of the Western pans of Virginia and Pennsylvania,, from the year 1763 until the year 1783 inclu-  ive. Together with a view of the state ofc society, and manners of the first settlers oi the Western Country. By the Rtv. Dr. Doddridge."

lu conformity to the act of the Congress of'the-United States, entitled " An act for the encouragement oflenrning by securing 'be copies of maps^ charts and books to the authors and proprietors of sreb copies during the times therein mentioned." And also loan act entitled, "An act supplementary to an act, enti;led an act for the encouragement of learning by securing the copies of map?, charts and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times (herein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."

In testimony whereof I John Webster Clerk of the said court, have hereto set my hand and affixed the seal of my office the date above men-

J- WEBSTER Clerk, U. S. distrig ft l s.    Court Wml   jthe fflr.gUny mountain. 
   FIRST PART. Chapter. Pag2  -

I. The Wilderness.......IS

II. Antiquities   - ..... -25

III. Aborigines -   --   --   --   - 43

IV. Weather.........59

V. Birds and Beasts......C7

VI. Serpents.........76

VI. Wild Fruits........83

VII. Hermit.........9i


VIII. Settlement of the Country    -   - - 9"9

IX. House Furniture and Diet   -   - . - 10T

X. Dress    -   -         ...... 113

XI. The Fort   -....... 117

XII. Caravans........ 12&

XFII.   Hunting.....-   -   - 128

XIV. The Wedding....... 12$

XV. House Warming...... l3  

XVI. Working......... 13S

XVII. Machanic Arts       -   - -   -   - 1 j0

XVIII. Medicine....... 147

XIX. Sports......... loo

XX. Witchcraft....... 161

XXI. Morals ]67

XXII. Slavery........ 174

XXIII.   Civilization 18& 

XXIV. Indian Warfare

XXV. War 1763    - -

XXVI. Dunmore's War

-   - - 28*


XWII.   The Death of Cornstalk   -   - 237

XXVIII. Wappatomica Campaign   -   - 241"

XXIX. Gen. M'In'osh's Campaign   -   - 243

XXX. The Moravian Campaign   -   - 243

XXXI. The Indian Summer - - - - 265 XXXIF. Crawford's Campaign - - - 268 XXXIII. Atiack on Rice's fort - - - 281 xxxiv. Expected attack on my fathers fort 28T Xsxv. Coshocton Compaigu - - - - 291 sxxvi. Capture of Mrs -Brown - - - 29t xxxvn.   Lewis Wetsel   -   -   -   -   -   - 298

xxxviii.   Adam  Poe......301

xsxix   The Johnsons   -     .*.   807



By] iht atiMr

   TO  TRE ftl&MVEfr

After considerable delay, I have fulfilled my en^ gagement to the publick, with respect to the his* tory of the settlement and wars of the western parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania. The causes of the delay of the work were unavoidable, and a reciial of them can be of no service.

Whether the "Notes" are well executed, or oil:*, erwise, must be left to the candid decision of my country, and 1 am well aware the decision will ppeedilybe made.

It will be the opinior. of some readers, that I have bestowed too great a portion of the book, on the primitive 3spect of the cowry, rnd tie his'cry of the 6tate of society and maimers of its early in-feabitan's.

My reason, for having bestowed so much atten   tion cn these subjects is this, these matters of odf early history, which, if faithfully preserved,- will hereafter be highly interesting, are fa?t hastening into oblivion, and in a Jew more years would fee totally lest. On the contrary, the events of ths war are much longer remembered.

Kad we a similar history of- the early state of any of the European countries, to that which is here presented to the world* of our own. With how mueb interest would this record be read by all classes of people?' For instance, had we the memorials of the people, who erected those rvde monuments which are scattered over our country, the record would give a classic character to every JSCtloo tu iiie       world; but in evnry region k'X 
   to Tlffi reader;

tie world except our own, the commencement oi' the period of their history was long posterior to that of their settlement; their early history is therefore buried in impenetrcble. oblivion, aud its piece is occupied by immense regions of fable and conjecture.

To the two first parls of this history, it is presumed,no great additions will hereafter be necessary. Future generations will be. competent, to mark any changes which may take place in the physical condition, and in the scientific and moral state of our country, fr >m the data here given, and unquestionably, the changes which are to take place in all those departmentfjin the progress of time, will be great indeed.

The history of our Ind-an wars, is in every respect, quite, imperfect. The very limited range of the war, which I bad in view, in this work, is not fully executed. The want of health, and in some instances, the want of proper information, have prevented the relation of several events which took place in this section of the counlry, in the course of our conflicts with the sons of the forest, aud which, altho' of minor importance in their final results, would nevetheless form an interesting portion of the history of those conflicts.

The various attacks on Wheeling fort, and the fatal ambuscade near Grave Creek have been omitted,for want of a correct account of those occurrences.

The  e omissions are the less to be regretted as Noah Zane Esqr. has professed a determination to give the publick, the biography of his father CoL Ehenezer Zane. the first proprietor and defender of the important station of Wheeling. This work, 'Vs'iW be no snore than a measure of justice, to th'G 
   TO the reader.

memory of a man who held such an important and* perilous station, as that which fell to the lot of Col.-Z-ine, and who filled that station with so much honor (o himself and advantage to our infant country, aB he did. This biography will contain a* accurate account of all the attacks on Wheeling, as well as all other events of the war which took place in its immediate neighbourhood.

A well written histoiy of the whole of out1 wars with the Indians in the western regions, would certainly be available acquisition to our-literature. It would, however, be a work of time* and considerable labour, as its materials are* scattered over a large tract of country and, i   point of time, extend through half a century.

TU% whole gtaotart:   f>-,ur present memorials^ pfthis widely extended warfare-consist merely of detached narrations, and these ate for tie most part but badly written. In many instances, they are destitute of historical precision, with regard to the order of time, and the succession    f facts, so that they are read only as anecdotes, and of course with but little advantage to science.

This work is desirable, on many accounts. The bravery, victories and sufferings of our forefathers, ought to be correctly and indelibly recoided. Those who have lived, and died for posterity,, aught to be rewarded with imperishable fame, in the grateful remelnbTance of their descendants. The monuments, conferred on moral worth, by the pen of the historian, are more durable than those erected by the chissel of the sculptor.

A measure of justice is certainly due to our barbarian enemies themselves. For whatever of system, prudent foresight and arrangement, tbwf,- 


   observed in (heir wars with us, titer ought I; Omar have full credit.   For the full amount of all thtlf our patriotic  motives by which  these   ti fortune; ation people were actuated in their bloody confliclAith t they deserve our sincerest commiseration.        Heir h The wars of these people, are not to be regard-fay hi ed as'wholly the offspring of a savage thirst for rows blood.   They fought for their  native country,'In tl They engaged in the terrible war of 1703, with uth, a view to recover from   the possession of the >ses white people, the whole of the  western settle- the ments. jtory ; Their continuance of the War, after the conclu- sumt sion of our revolutionary contesi, had for iis object grat the preservation of es much of their country, as ler ( they then had in possession.______.__ to; f

--- t-vi in? parrortTie"mo'st'intet;irgerif cfflie In- ave

dian chiefs, they  fought from a motive of re- lcen

venge and with a valor inspired by desperation. ave

They foresaw the loss of their country end the ^ ar

downfall ef their people, and therefore resolved tn's on vengeance for the past, and the futute wrong?

to be inflicted on fbem. recl

There is yet another reason for the work un   cei

.der consideration.   The present generation are !'the

witnesses of both the savage and civilized stats PDes

of mankind.    Both extremes are under Our in- [mat

spection.   To future generations, the former wilt *noul

exist only in history.   The Indian nations are tory

now a subjugated people, m d every feature of tanci

their former state of society must soon pass a- tinue

way.   T!> v will exi^t only through the medium the v

of their admixtures with the white people.   Such n in

has been ;hf fcu oi many nations.   Where are laid:

dow the Assyrians, Chaldeans, & Romans?   They icau,

..jio longer exist; and jtt the English, French and 
   TO THE reader.

jtaiians are.' in part descendants of the ancient tomans.   Such will be the fate of the aborigines, 'our country.   They will perish, or lose their ional  character and existence, by admixtures ith their conquerors.   To posterity therefore history will be highly acceptible.   Indeed it ay be said of all history, that like good wine ft 3ws better by age.

In the execution of this work, I have aimed at and nothing but truth. Impartially, imps no restraint on my pen; for independently the circumstance, that the contents of this itory, in general, interfere with no party; I am lumbered with but few individual obligations, gratitude. To political party, religious and ler communities, I owe no obligations of any id; for any benifits confered on me, so that ave felt fully at liberty, to speak the truth teeming all classes of our people, and I trust ave done so.

f any material facts, in the historical parts this work have been ommitted, the omission ^happened from want of information, In-rect statements, if there be any, have takea in consequence of improper information, ther case, I am not blameahle, as I have done Dest my circumstances allowed, in collect* {materials for the work, iould my humble attempts, at writing the ary  of  my country, meet  with good ac-tance   among  my fellow citizens.   I shall tinue to collect, from all quarters, the materials the work herein recommended, as adesider-". in the literature of our country, aids in this work, I earnestly invtte com-  ti  as from all tho'se geatlemea wtioj pou- 
   T.0 THE reader.

  ess a knowledge of occurrences which took plajl during our Indian war, and not narrated in this work. I am particularly anxious to obtain the; history of the settlements of the Dunkards, oai: Dunkard Creek,and the Dunkard bottom on Chejj liver.


Welhburgli, June 17, 1824. 
   E H E    A C IL

FOR some years past, I have had it in view to write the notes on the settlement and Indian wars of the western parts of Virginia, and Pennsylvania, which are now presented to the public: At times I was deterred from commencing the work by an apprehension of my inability to execute, a task of so much labour and difficulty: a labour; not of compilation as most histories are, but consisting mainly of original composition from memory of events, which took place when I was quite young.

Encouraged, however, by the often repeated 'solicitations of those whose friendship I esteem, and whose good opinion I respect, I concluded that, as with my forefathers, I had toiled amongst the pioneers of our country in "turning the wilderness into fruitful fields," I would venture to act in the same character, as an historian of that part of the western country with which I am best acquainted, and whose early history has never yet, to any extent, been committed to record in hopes that having saved the principal materials of this history from oblivion, some abler hand may hereafter improve upon the work, by giving it any en* largement, different arrangement, or embellishment of style, which it may be thought to require*

Many considerations present themselves to the generous, and enlightened mind of the native of Wt west, to induce him to regard a work of thi? 

land, as a    sacred duty to his country, and his an -ceetofs, on the part of him who undertakes to execute it, rather than a trial of literary skill, a toil for literary fame, or a means of procuring gain.

Something is certainly due to the memory of our brave forefathers, who, with but little aid from the collonial governments before the revolutionary war, and with still less assistance from the confederation, after the declaration of independence, subdued the forest by their persevering labour, and defended their infant country by their voluntary and unrequited military service, against the murderous warfare of their savage enemies.

The extensive catacombs of ancient Greece, and Palestine, the pyramids of Egypt, and even the rude sepulchral monuments of our own country, serve to shew the sacred regard of generations of remote antiquity for the remains of the illustrious dead.

This pious regard for the ashes of ancestors, ia Slot without its useful influence on the morals, and piety of their descendants: The lettered stone, and sculptured monument contain the most impressive lessons of biography, because the mournful remains of the subjects of those lessens are so aear at hand, when they are presented to us oe the sepulchres where their ashes repose.

Is the memory of our forefathers unworthy of historic, or sepulchral commemoration? No people on earth, in similar circumstances, ever acted more nobly, or more bravely than they did: No people of any country, or age, ever made greater aacrafices for the benefit of posterity, than those which were made by the first settlers of the western regions, What people ever left such noble legacies to posterity, as those, transmitted by our forefathers to their descendants?   A wilderness 
   Ranged into a fruitful country, and a government the best on earth. They have borne the burden and heat, of the day of trial. They have removed every obstacle from our path, and left every laudable object of ambition within our reach.

Where shall we now find the re.nr.ains cf the valiant pioneers of our country, eo deserving the grateful remembrance of their descendants? Alas-many of them, for want of public burying grounds, weie buried on their own farms, which their la-hour had ravished' from the desert. The land La-passed to other hands, and the fragile wooden enclosures, which once eurrounded their graves have fallen to decay, and never to he replaced? The swells which once designated the precise spot of their interment, have sunk to the common level of the earth. In many instances the earthy covering of their narrow houses will, if they have not already, be violated with the plow-share, and the grain growing' over them, will fill the reaper's sickle or the grass the mower's scythe. Ungrateful descendants of a brave, and woithy people, to whom yoir owe your existence, your country and your liberty, is it thus you treat with utter neglect, the poor re-mains of your ancestors?

In how many instances has the memory of far less moral worth, than the amount possessed by many of the fathers of our western country, occupied the chissel of the sculptor, the song of the poet, and the pen of the historian; while the gloomy shade of impenetrable oblivion is rapidly settling over the whole history, as woll as the remains, of the fathers of our country.

Should any one say "no matter what becomes-of the namcsj'or remains of these people," it is ah?' 

swered, if such be your insensibility to the calls of duty, with regard to the memory of your ancestors, i! is not likely that your name will, or ought to live beyond the grave. You may die rich; but wealth will be your all. Those worthy deeds which spring from the better, the generous feelings of our nature, can never be yours; but must the well earned fame of the benefactors of our country, perish as quickly as a prodigal offspring may dissipate your ill-gotten estates? No! This would be an act of injustice to the world. They lived, toiled and suffered for others; you on the contrary live for yourself alone: Their example ought to live, because it is worthy of imitation; yours on the conir.-ry, as an example of sordid avarice, ought to perish forever.

The history of nalional origin has been held sacred among all enlightened nations, and indeed has often been pursued beyond the period of the commencement of history far into the regions of fable. Among the Greeks the founders of their nation,.and the inventers of useful arts were ranked among the gods, and honored with anniversary rites of a divine character.

The Roman b whose origin was more recent, and better known were not slow in recording the illustrious deeds ot the founders of tieir empire, and bestowing anniversary honors upon their memory.

The benefits of the histories of those illustrious nations were not confined to themselves alone:   . They gave light to the world. Had they never existed what, an immense deduction would have been made from the literary world. The fabulous era would have been drawn nearer to us by at least two thousand years. National history is all important to national pat- 
   riotis'hv, S9' it places be/ore us Itic Dest     examples     of our forefathers. We seethe wisdomj-uf -jihsir councils, their .pernevsrah.ee in action, their.sufferings, their bravery in war, and the great,, and useful result*i'o'Ptheir united wisdom and labours. We see in succession every act of the great drama which led us from infancy to maturity, from m v to peace, and from poverty to wealth, and in proper-' tion as we are interested in the results of this dra-'jna, we value the examples which it furnishes;    Even the faults which it exhibits are not without their uue.

History gives a classic character to the places to which it relates, and confers upon them a romantic value, as scenes of national achievements'. What would be the value of the famous city of.J.urusai were it not for the sacred history of the (.dace? It is a place of no local importance in any respect whatever. Palestine itself, so lamous in his'.ory, is but a small tract of country, and for the must part poor, and hilly. The classic character of Greece, and Rome has given more or leas inipor-tance to almost every mountain, hill,.and vaib-yj Jake, and island, which they contain, on . c.-of their having been the places of some great, a t-chievements, or of their having givi.-n birth to illtis    -trious personages.

Classic scenes, as well ns classic rnonumea's, and persons, constitute an impressive pu_ Bo vomits forth its smoke, flame and lava in sub-?jme3 but destructive grandeur.  Eyen those eor- 

ttohcof this valley which in ages nasi, were ifre beds of lake?, but have been drained by the sink'   ing of the rivers, present a rich vegetable, maould,*

This great country seems to have teen designed by divine Providence for the last resort of oppressed humanity. A fruitful soil, under a variety of climates, supplies abundantly all the wants of life, while our geographical situation renders us unconquerable.   From this place of refu