xt770r9m3j77 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt770r9m3j77/data/mets.xml Suffolk and Berkshire, Henry Charles Howard, Earl of, 1833-1898. 1893  books b98-40-41900199 English Longmans, Green, : London : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Horse racing Great Britain.Craven, William George, 1839-1906. Coventry, Arthur. Lawley, Francis Charles. Watson, Alfred Edward Thomas, 1849-1922. Racing and steeple-chasing  / racing, by the Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire, and Mr. W.G. Craven, with a contribution by the Hon. F. Lawley. Steeple-chasing / by Arthur Conventry and Alfred E.T. Watson. Numerous illustrations by J. Sturgess. text Racing and steeple-chasing  / racing, by the Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire, and Mr. W.G. Craven, with a contribution by the Hon. F. Lawley. Steeple-chasing / by Arthur Conventry and Alfred E.T. Watson. Numerous illustrations by J. Sturgess. 1893 2002 true xt770r9m3j77 section xt770r9m3j77 










gee    3abininton  41Abrarg
               OF



SPORTS AND



PASTI MES



EDITED BY



HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF BEAUFORT, K.G.
    ASSISTED BY ALFRED E. T. WATSOtN








         RN4CING
             LVA'D



STEEPLE- CH4SING

 


























            Bibliographical Note.
   First Fdilion March i886; Second Edition
(rep-int) F1eba-ziay 1887; Third Edition (reprint
with  slicht corrections) Afarch  XSS9; Fourth
Edition (thorozhly ARevised) July 1893.

 This page in the original text is blank.

 


































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RACING AND STEEPLE-CHASING


                  RACING
                    BY THE
 EARL OF SUFFOLK AND BERKSHIRE, AND W. G. CRAVEN



  WITH A CONTRIBUTION BY THE HON. F. LAWLEY

      STEEPLE - CHASING
                BY
ARTHUR COVENTRY AND ALFRED E. T. WATSON



NUMERO US ILL USTRA TIONS y 7. STURGESY

   fourtf4 (EitionD torougNlo rbisrb

          LON DON



LON GMANS,



GREEN, AND
1893



All rights reserved



CO.



    7 ,,  T
IJ ,    "
-                        0    
                        I i"r
                      II
       ll 

 This page in the original text is blank.

 

DEDICA TION



                       To

  H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES.




                          BADNINTON: October iSS.
HAVING received permission to dedicate these volumes,
the BADMINTON LIBRARY of SPORTS and PASTIMES,
to His ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE OF WALES, I
do so feeling that I am dedicating them to one of the
best and keenest sportsmen of our time. I can say, from
personal observation, that there is no man who can
extricate himself from a bustling and pushing crowd of
horsemen, when a fox breaks covert, more dexterously
and quickly than His Royal Highness; and that whcn
hounds run hard over a big country, no man can take a
line of his own and live with them better. Also, when
the wind has been blowing hard, often have I seen
His Royal Highness knocking over driven grouse and
partridges and high-rocketing pheasants in first-rate

 

d                 DEDICA TION.

workmanlike style. He is held to be a good yachtsman,
and as Commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron is
looked up to by those who love that pleasant and
exhilarating pastime. His encouragement of racing is
wvell known, and his attendance at the University, Public
School, and other important Matches testifies to his
being, like most English gentlemen, fond of all manly
sports. I consider it a great privilege to be allowed to
dedicate these volumes to so eminent a sportsman as
His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, and I do so
with sincere feelings of respect and esteem and loyal
devotion.
                                     BEAUFORT.

 












JBADMINTON.



               PREFACE.




A FEW LINES only are necessary to explain the object
with which these volumes are put forth. There is no
modern encyclop-dia to which the inexperienced man,
who seeks guidance in the practice of the various British
Sports and Pastimes, can turn for information. Some
books there are on Hunting, some on Racing, some on
Lawn Tennis, scme on Fishing, and so on; but one
Library, or succession of volumes, which treats of the
Sports and Pastimes indulged in by Englishmen-and
women-is wanting. The Badminton Library is offered
to supply the want. Of the imperfections which must
be found in the execution of such a design we are con-

 



scious. Experts often differ. But this we may say,
that those who are seeking for knowledge on any of the
subjects dealt with will find the result of many years'
experience written by men who are in every case adepts
at the Sport or Pastime of which they write. It is to
point the way to success to those who are ignorant of
the sciences they aspire to master, and who have no
friend to help or coach them, that these volumes are
written.
   To those who have worked hard to place simply and
clearly before the reader that which he will find within,
the best thanks of the Editor are due. That it has been
no slight labour to supervise all that has been written he
must acknowvledge; but it has been a labour of love,
and very much lightened by the courtesy of the Publisher,
by the unflinching, indefatigable assistance of the Sub-
Editor, and by the intelligent and able arrangement
of each subject by the various writers, who are so
thoroughly masters of the subjects of which they treat
The reward we all hope to reap is that our work may
prove useful to this and future generations.



THE EDITOR.



PR:EFACE.



viii

 


               CONTENTS.




                   RA CING.
CHAPTER                                       PAGE
  I. HISTORY OF HORSE-RACING.   .   .   .  .  3
        HORSES OF ANCIENT BRITAIN .           7
  II. THE PROGRESS OF THE SPORT .   .   .      40

  III. HISTORY OF THE JOCKEY CLUB. .   .   .    53
  IV. RACING OFFICIALS.   .  .   .   .   .   . 6o
        CLERK OF THE COURSE.      .       . .6
        THE STARTER  .   .   .   .      .     6
        THE JUDGE  .   .   .  .                6 3. .
        THE CLERK OF THE SCALES  .  .   .      65
        THE HANDICAPPER.   .   .  .   .   . . 67
        THE STAKEHOLDER  .   .   .   .  .   . 70
        THE STEWARDS   .   .   .          . . 70
  V. NEWMARKET    .  .   .   .   .  .   .   . 73

  VI. RACING IN THE 'PROVINCES'.   .   .   . . 89

  VII. RACING SERVANTS: OLD STYLE AND NEW.  . 97

VIII. BREEDING    .   .   .   .   .  .   . . III

IX  TREATMENT OF YEARLINGS .   .   .   .   . 120

  X  EARLY TRIALS  .   .   .   .  .   .     130

 


x                 CONTENTS.
CHAPTER                                       PAGE
XI. THREE-YEAR-OLDS .   .   .  .   .   .  . 149

XII. OVER A DISTANCE OF GROUND.   .   ,  ..  178

XIII. UPON TRAINERS  .   .   .   .  .   .   . z96

XIV. UPON JOCKEYS  .   .   .   .  .   .   . . 223

XV. BETTING  .   .   .  .   .   .  .   .   . 250





             STEEPLE-CHASING.

   I. THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMIENT OF STEEPLE-
        CHASING.   .   .   .  .   .   .   . . 281

  I T. THE SELECTION OF THE CHASER. .   .   . 293

  III. SCHOOLING    .   .  .   .   .   .    . 302

  IV. FENCES AND FENCING    .  .   .     .  . 313

  V. RIDING THE RACE   .   .  .   .   .   . . 324

  VI. HURDLE-RACING         .      .   .    . 339

VI I. LOCAL MEETINGS. .     .     .  .      346

VIII. FAMOUS CHASERS AND THEIR RIDERS   .     356


APPENDIX                                      391



INDEX .   .   .  .   .   .   .  .   .          4



425

 



ILL USTR4 TIO NS

       BY JOHN STURGESS.

       (EXECUTED BY G. PEARSON.)



TROUBLESOME YOUNGSTERS.
                 (VYizrnete on Tite
CObMING FROM THE BIRLCAGE, NEwVMA1
HERDS OF HORSES   .
BITS FOR TROOPS: SNAFFLES FOR DisPo
WEAKNESS AND STRENGTH
A LONG JOURNEY BY ROAD
ELIS ON THE ROAD TO DONCASTER
Too MUCH ON THE TURN
THE INFANT PHENOMENON .
EXERCISE GROUND, NEWMARKET
CHANCE OF BEING KNOCKED DOWN
A CROSS .
TAN GALLOP AT NEWMARKE-r.
RACING ON HORSEBACK .
'IT'S ALL FORDHAM'S KID!'  
THEN HE IS STEADIED
TtIE FORLORN DIVISION
JUBILANT STABLE-BOyS
HORSE CLOTHING: OLD STYLE AND Ni
GROUND PLAN .OF NEW STABLES, CHEI
     NEWMARKET.
ELEVATIONS OF DITTO.
CHILDREN OF THE DESERT
STALLIONS AT EXERCISE
YLARLINGS ON THE ROAD



                   PAGE
                 Froni.
Page.)
LKET                 3. .  3
11E   .   .   .  .93
                     9
ORT .   .   .   .   i8
                    34
                  40
                   42
                    49
                   51
                . . 73
                   ,63


    . . . . . 73
                    73
                    7j
                   79
                  83


                   87
E .       .   .   . 100
TWYND HOUSE,
                    . og
                  . 110
                . . 112
                  .. 18
                . . 120

 


ILL USTRA TIONS.



' THEY FIGHT LIKE BULLDOGS'
DRIVEN WITH LONG REINS.  .
' GET OFF AS BEST THEY CAN'  .
RIDING THEM OUT   .    .   .
THE CuP (EFomn an engravin-)
THE WHIP .    .   .    .   .
TRAINED LIGHT AND RUNNING BIG
'MANY A FOAL WORE ALL THE APPEARANCE OF A
FANTASTIC TRICKS.   .   .   .
PATERNAL INSTRUCTION  .
ENERGErIC AND QUIET STYLES  .
HOW THE DERBY IS GENERALLY WON.
WITHOUT WHIP OR SPUR    .   .



         PAGE
      . . 122
    .  . 126
      ..  x6o
    .  . x81
      ,. 193
          194
  . . 210
i EARLING'. 218
      . . 226
        . 230
      . . 236
        . 238
      . . 243



FIRST AT THE POST .    .   .   .
CAREFULLY LOOK IT OVER IN THE PADDOCK.
'SOmrETIMES THE HORSE CARRIES THE HURDLE AWAY WITIL
     HIM ' .
A CHASER    .   .
A STEEPLE-CHASER         .     .   .   .
'DWELLING' AND 'GETTING WVELL AWAY' .



A CLUMSY RIDER     .       .
'STEADYING' AND 'DRIVING'  .
AN OPEN BROOK.    .
BADLY BEATEN
A CAREFUL EYE OVER THE HORSE
LET GO ONLY TO BE PULLED UP .
FIGHTING FOR HIS HEAD
REFUSING
JUMPING SIDEWAYS
FINISHING   .   .   .   .   .
' HE TOOK UP HIS WHIP AND STOPPED HIS HORSE'
GLIDING OVER.   .
' BEAT HIMSELF JUMl'ING'.
CLEARING THE WAY
SHARING HIS LEADER'S ACCIDENT    .



      - 309
  . . 315
       317
    v 324
  .   . 327
    . . 329
  . 331
-.    3 3 3
      335
    . . 336
      337
    .. 34'
      - 344
     . 367
  .   369



xii



. 244
. 264



. 276
a 294
. 301
 IO1



I'

 




















          RACING

                BY

THE EARL OF SUFFOLK AND BERKSHIRE
                AND
           W. G. CRAVrEN


 WITH A CONTRIBUTION BY THE HON. F. LAWLEY

 This page in the original text is blank.

 

     CHAPTER I.
HISTORY OF 11ORSE-RACINIG.



Corning from the Birdcage,
     Newmarket.



                           BOOK on the subject of horse-
                           racing can well exclude some
                           more or less brief comments on
                         the history of the sport; and here it
                       is obvious that the writer has no al-
                       ternative but to go over ground which
                    has already been traversed. No more
                  difficult, more well-nigh impossible task
could be assigned, even to those who have the greatest modern
experience of horse-racing and its congener horse-breeding,



B 2



 V::

 



than that of compiling a volume on these subjects which shall
contain even a small portion of original matter in that part
which relates to turf history.
   We are necessarily driven to research in old writings, and
here we are bound to accept the outlines, whatever amount of
credence we may accord to the minor details. So far, there-
fore, as history goes, it is our intention to confine ourselves
to extracting such information from other authors as has
received some sort of confirmation, or is at least reason-
ably possible. The bare history of the turf is not so very
recondite, for the introduction into this country of the various
strains of blood which have parented our present thoroughbred
stock is duly recorded in works the majority of which were
written by men of high position; but when we come gravely to
consider what we are asked to believe as to the feats accom-
plished by horses even one hundred years ago, the spirit of
distrust grows strong within us. If anyone should exclaim
against such incredulity, let him, if at all posted up in turf
matters, read for one week his contemporary racing literature
and reflect thereon by the light of his own knowledge; then let
him try to imagine himself his own great-grandson, perusing
some century hence the statements of to-day, and he will
readily arrive at the conclusion that his illustrious descendant
will do well to accept with some reservation the published
accounts of ancestral sporting performances.
   We do not think that we shall unduly tax the credulity of
readers when we come to contemporary affairs, and after the
legends of the turf have been summarised we may unhesitat-
ingly promise matter which at least has the claim to absolute
freshness. Through the kindness of the owners and trainers
of several of the most famous horses that have run during
recent years, we are able to afford readers peeps behind the
scenes, which we hope and think can scarcely fail to prove
instructive; for what these famous horses were asked to do at
home, and how the capacity which they publicly displayed was
privately gauged, will be set forth. Readers will see how some-



RACINVG.



4

 

HISTORY OF HORSE-RACING.



times horses ran up to their trials and how sometimes they
failed to do so; and if no other explanation be deducible, at
least a lesson as to the uncertainty of the turf may be learnt.
   When we come to discuss the breeding of racehorses, we
are once more beset with difficulties. For there seems in very
truth, as far as the science has gone at present, to be no ' royal
road' to breeding. All men who have devoted themselves to
this study have their individual hobbies. Many preach what
they do not practise; while others who put their theories into
practice do more harm than good, the theories relating rather
to the immediate pecuniary advantage to be derived from sale
than to ultimate improvement in the quality of the stock.
   It is the study of every breeder to find that ' nick' of blood
which will produce winners; and after infinite care, thought,
study, and experience the ' nick' is sometimes found and the
winner produced. The breeder rejoices. His toil seems to
be rewarded. His calculations have proved accurate. In the
youngsters the faults of the sire have been, let us say, corrected
by the dam. His stamina joined to her speed results in the
appearance of a racehorse far removed from the common.
Eagerly the breeder tries the combination again, and what is
the result Almost as often as not a worthless animal.
   The union of Dutch Skater and Cantiniere gave birth to
that excellent mare Dutch Oven. The combination looked
promising and proved notably successful; but the next child
of these well-mated parents was Prince Maurice, a handsome
colt truly, and thoroughly sound throughout his career, but
unable to gallop and valueless as a racehorse. Again, the result
of sending Devotion to Hermit was Thebais, a mare of the
first class, winner of the One Thousand and Oaks, possessed of
speed and exceptional stoutness. Devotion visits Hermit again
and gives birth to St. Marguerite, a delicate mare which never-
theless wins the One Thousand Guineas. Clairvaux, a wonder-
fully speedy colt, is another success so long as he can be trained.
Again a foal is born to these two, a colt, St. Honorat, which is
bought for 4ooo guineas and reluctantly parted with; but he



5

 



proves worth less than 4,000 pence for racing purposes. Similar
instances might be multiplied. We are, however, not without
hope that by the careful study of the Stud Book, jointly with
the Calendar, some few facts may yet be gleaned tending to
throw a light on this vexed question.
   A comparison must also be instituted between the ancient
and the modern systems of racing, though, in endeavouring to
lay before our readers what we believe to be the truth, we must
confess that we approach a delicate subject with considerable
misgivings; for, in order to adequately describe the racing of our
present time, we must freely express our views, not only on the
sport itself, but also on all the influences, good, bad, or in-
different, which are brought to bear upon it, and during this
process we may chance to tread upon toes more used to
administer kicks than to feel admonitory pressure.
   We had begun by ransacking old volumes and by having
recourse to the shelves of the British Museum, but when we
had already gone far into our subject, our attention was called
to a work, written, so far as history is concerned, in much the
same strain as that which we proposed to adopt.
   Our space being limited, we shall be forced to abridge
much of the detail which those who care to peruse will find in
the 'History of the British Turf,' by James Christie Whyte,
published in i840, a book which gives a complete record up
to that date of matters connected with racing in this country.
The author has compiled a mass of interesting material from
ancient writers, and we propose to borrow largely from his facts
and occasionally to quote his ideas thereon. Like Mr. Whyte,
we feel that we cannot better begin our essay than by taking
the historical record which appeared in the ' Sporting Magazine'
of 1792. The conciseness of the article will be readily ap-
preciated.
   It runs in the following strain:



6



RACING.

 

HIS TOR Y OF HORSE-RACING.



             HORSES OF ANCIENT BRITAIN.
   Before the time of Julius Caesar, the inhabitants of these
islands certainly had horses which served as beasts of burden
and also drew them in their chariots; but history does not
furnish us with any account of them in these early years. We
are informed by the Venerable Bede that the English began to
saddle their horses about the year 63i, and he has remarked
that at this period the people of rank first distinguished them-
selves by appearing frequently on horseback. Whyte says on
this subject, 'However this may be, we find on Caesar's in-
vasion of Great Britain that the landing of the Roman troops
(B.c. 55) was opposed by bodies of horsemen, besides chariots
and infantry;' and as the fact is well established by the testi-
mony of many Roman historians, we are inclined to take it in
preference to what is advanced by Bede, who assigns the year
631, in the reign of Edwin the Great, as the earliest period at
which the English used saddle-horses.
   In the reign of Athelstane horses were held in high esti-
mation, and those bred in England were supposed to be so
much superior to those of other countries, that a law was made
to prohibit their exportation. It is remarkable also that in
this reign horses were imported into England from the Conti-
nent.
   Whyte says, 'The earliest mention of racehorses or, as
they were called in those days, running-horses, in our nationa
annals, are those of the ninth century ('Malms. de Gest. Reg.
Angl.' lib. ii. cap. vi), sent by Hugh, founder of the Royal
House of Capet, in France, as a present to King Athelstane,
whose sister, Ethelswitha, he was soliciting in marriage.'
   When William the Norman conquered this country the
breed of horses was considerably improved. Many were
brought from Normandy and other countries. Roger de
Belesme, Earl of Shrewsbury, in particular, rendered this nation
essential services by introducing the stallions of Spain into his



7

 



estate in Powisland. From these a breed was cultivated whose
perfections have been celebrated by Giraldus Cambrensis and
Drayton. This race was calculated for the purposes of war
and for pageantry or grand solemnities.
    In the reign of Henry II. tournaments and horse-races
began to be frequent exhibitions; and Smithfield, which was
the first market in England for every denomination of horses,
was the theatre of these sports and exercises.
    FitzStephen, the chronicler of this time, says: ' When a race
is to be run by this sort of horses and perhaps by others which
in their kind are also strong and fleet, a shout is immediately
raised, and the common horses are ordered to withdraw out of
the way. Three jockeys, or sometimes only two, as the match
is made, prepare themselves for the contest . . . The horses,
on their part, are not without emulation; they tremble and are
impatient, are continually in motion. At last, the signal once
given, they start down the course, and hurry along with un-
remitting swiftness. The jockeys, inspired by the thought of
applause and the hope of victory, clap spurs to their willing
horses, brandish their whips, and cheer them with their cries '-
by no means, we may add, the modem idea of an artistic finish.
   Again in Richard L's reign the popularity of racing was
no doubt very great, and Sir Bevys of Southampton, in his
' Metrical Romance,' thus describes the sports in the Easter
and Whitsuntide holidays:
            In somer time at Whitsontyde,
            When knights most on horsebacke ryde;
            A course let they make on a daye,
            Steedes and palfreye, for to assaye;
            Which horse, that best may run,
            Three myles the cours was then,
            Who that might ryde him shoulde
            Have forty pounds of redy gold.
   In a romance written to celebrate the deeds of Richard I.
we find that swift running-horses were much esteemed by the
heroes who figure in it. Speaking of races in the camp:



RA CIING.



8

 

HISTORY OF HORSE-RACING.



             Two steedes fownde King Richard,
             That Von Fazell, that other Syard,
             Yn this worlde they hadde no pere;
             Dromedary, rabyte, ne cammele
             Goeth none so swifte without fayle,
             For a thousand pounde of golde
             He shoulde the one be solde.
   Edward II. was particularly fond of horses, and the war-
like genius of Edward III. induced him to procure supplies of
them from distant countries. Historians inform us that this
valiant prince was at one time indebted to the Count of Hain-
ault 25,000 florins for horses which he had furnished.



   Edward III. bought
'running-horses' at the
price of x31. 6s. 8d. each  
-equal to i6oW. it money           Herds of horses.
of the present day. He
received a present of two fencing horses from the King of Na-
varre, and gave ioo shillings to the person who brought them.
   In this age horses were divided into the managed, or those
disciplined for war, and into coursers, amblers, palfreys, nags,



9

 



and ponies. When chivalry prevailed, no knight or gentleman
would ride a mare-it was thought dishonourable and disgrace-
ful. No satisfactory reason has ever been assigned for this
absurd prejudice, but some imagine it was because the clergy
had in some measure appropriated the use of mares from a
pretended principle of humility, as they were less spirited than
horses.
   In the reign of Henry VII. the English had large herds of
horses in their pastures and common fields, and when the
harvest was gathered in, the cattle of different proprietors fed
promiscuously together, on which account the horses were
castrated. This was therefore the age of geldings; for the
entire horses which were kept for breeding were confined in
stables or on lands which were enclosed.
   Under the succeeding Prince particular attention was paid
to the raising of a strong breed of horses, and laws were in-
stituted to enforce the completion of that design.
   To secure size and strength in the progeny, it was thought
necessary to select the sires and dams of a certain proportion,
size, and mould, and not to permit any mare or stallion to breed
except under these restrictions. A law was accordingly pro-
mulgated for that purpose. The Act ran thus:
   ' By the 32 Henry VIII. c. 13 it is enacted that no person
shall put in any forest, chase, moor, heath, common, or waste
(where mares and fillies are used to be kept) any stoned horse
above the age of two years, not being fifteen hands high, within
the shires and territories of Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, Buck-
ingham, Huntingdon, Essex, Kent, South Hampshire, North
Wilts, Oxford, Berks, Worcester, Gloucester, Somerset, North
Wales, South Wales, Bedford, Warwick, Northampton, York-
shire, Cheshire, Staffordshire, Lancashire, Salop, Leicester,
Hereford and Lincoln; nor under fourteen hands in any other
county on pain of forfeiting the same.' But by the 21 James I.,
C. 28, f 12, Cornwall is excepted.
   By the 8 Elizabeth, c. 28, the statute of 32 Henry VIII.
shall not extend to the marshes in the counties of Cambridge,



RA CING.



10

 

HISTORY OF HORSE-RACING.



Huntingdon, Suffolk, Northampton, Lincoln, and Norfolk;
provided that the horses be of thirteen hands.
   By the statute of 32 Henry VIII. c. 13, 'Any person may
seize any horse of under-size, in manner following: he shall go
to the keeper of such forest, or (out of such forest) to the con-
stable of the next town, and require him to go with him, to
bring such horse to the next pound; there to be measured by
such officer, in the presence of three other honest men, to be
appointed by the officer, and if he shall be found contrary to
what is above expressed such person may take him for his own
use. And any such keeper, constable, or other of the three
persons who shall refuse to do as aforesaid shall forfeit 40s.'
   Also by the same statute: ' All such commons and other
places shall, within fifteen days after Michaelmas, yearly, be
driven 'y the owners and keepers, or constables respectively,
on pain of 40s., and they may also drive the same at any other
time they shall meet. And if there shall be found in any of
the said drifts any mare, filly, foal or gelding which shall not
be thought able, nor like to grow to be able to bear foals of
reasonable stature, or to do profitable labours, by the discre-
tion of the drivers1 or the greater number of them, they may
kill and bury them.'
   Even infected horses are prohibited from being turned into
such commons by the same Act, whereby it is enacted that ' No
person shall have nor put to pasture any horse, gelding, or
mare infected with the scab or mange, in any common or
common fields, on pain of xos., and the offence shall be en-
quirable in the leet, as othet common annoyances are, and the
forfeiture shall be to the Lord of the Leet'
   This statute had the effect which might naturally be ex-
pected, and furnished the kingdom with many stout and useful
horses. Carew, in his 'History of Cornwall,' supposes this
Act of Parliament to have been the occasion of losing almost
entirely the small breed of horses which were peculiar to that
county. It is also known to have had the same effect in the
Principality of Wales, where the little breed once so abundant



I1I

 



is now extinct; its scarcity is proof of the astonishing changes
which air, food, and a mixture of blood can produce in the
animal world.
   The loss, however, of these pigmies which Mr. Carew
regrets was well repaired by a race of larger and more able-
bodied creatures; for the small animals, however pleasing and
useful in their own craggy mountainous country, could not
extend their merit beyond its boundary, being inferior for the
task of war, the swiftness and fatigue of the chase, the splen-
dour of tournaments, and the magnificent pageantry of the
times, which, particularly in the reign of Henry VIIL, all
writers agree was excessive.
   Henry VIII., from his excessive fondness of pomp and
ostentation, even obliged under penalties all orders of men to
keep a certain number of horses in proportion to their rank and
circumstances.
   The archbishop and every duke were enjoined to keep
seven trotting stone horses for the saddle, each of which was to
be fourteen hands in height. Every clergyman possessing a
benefice to the amount of one hundred pounds per annum, or
a layman whose wife should wear a French hood or a bonnet
of velvet, was to keep one trotting stone horse, under the
penalty of twenty pounds; and there were other regulations
equally singular and minute.
   Henry VIII. did not confine his attention merely to the
establishment of a generous and serviceable breed of horses;
he was solicitous to provide from different countries skilful and
experienced persons to preside in his stables, in order that by
their means the rules and elements of horsemanship might be
circulated throughout the nation.
   In Sir N. H. Nicolas' work, entitled 'Privy Purse Expenses
of Henry VIII.,' we find items to the keeper of the ' Barbary
horse' for his board for so many weeks; to the same keeper
again-by ' way of reward,' with a reward also ' to the boye that
ranne the horse,' with other charges, including ' a bath for the
horse.'



RACING.



12

 

HISTORY OF HORSE-RACING.



   A nobleman's steed about this time is described in Whyte,
and is taken from the regulations and establishments of
Algernon Percy, the fifth Duke of Northumberland, in 1512.
   ' This is the order of the chequer roul of the nombre of
horsys of my lordys and my ladys that are appointed to be in
the charge of the hous yerely, as to say, gentill horsys, palfreys,
hobys, naggis, clothsek hors, male hors.
   ' First, gentyll horsys, to stand in my lord's stable, six Item,
palfreys of my ladis, to wit, oone for my lady, and two for her
gentillwomen, and oone for her chamberer. Four hobys and
nags for my lordys oone saddill-viz. oone for my lorde, and
oone to stay at home for my lorde.
   ' Item, chariot hors, to stand in my lordis stable yerely.
Seven great trottynge horsys to draw in the chariott, and a nag
for the chariott man to ride, eight. Again, hors for Lord Percy,
his lordship's son and heir. A gret doble trottynge hors, called
a curtal, for his lordship to ride on out of townes. Another
trottynge gambaldyne hors for his lordship to ride on when he
comes into towne. An amblynge hors for his lordship to
journeye on daily. A proper amblynge little nag for his lord-
ship when he goeth on hunting and hawking. A great
amblynge gelding, or trottynge gelding, to carry his male.'
   'Gentyll' horse was one of superior cattle and made the
best chargers. ' Palfreys' were an elegant kind, mostly small,
and broken in to the use of ladies, and aged or infirm people
of rank. ' Hobys' were strong active horses of small size, and
are originally supposed to have come from Ireland. This breed,
being at one time in high repute, gave origin to the phrase by
which any favourite object is termed a man's ' hobby.'
   The 'clothsek,' or male horse, was one that carried the
cloak-bag, or portmanteau.
    ' Chariott' horses (derived from the French charette), were
waggon-horses.
    ' A gret doble trottynge hors' was a heavy powerful horse,
whose pace was a trot, being either too unwieldy in itself or
carrying too great weights to gallop.



13  

 



   So says Whyte, but ' double' in French is often used for an
'entire' horse as against 'ongre,' which signifies gelding. At
the same time a cob is often called a ' double pony,' though not
entire.
   A ' curtal' was a horse whose tail was cut or shortened.
   A 'gambaldyne' horse was one of show or parade-from
gambol, which is derived from the Italian ' gamba' (leg). An
ambler is called a pacer now-a-days.
   An ' amblynge' horse was one of much the same descrip-
tion, but whose more quiet ambling pace adapted him especially
to the use of ladies.'
   Edward VI., convinced that horses were now become more
valuable than they had been, was the first to make the stealing
of them a capital offence. By the x Ed. VI. c. I 2 it is enacted
that 'No person convicted for feloniously stealing of horses,
geldings, or mares, shall have the privilege of the clergy.'
   The deficiency of this statute being observed, inasmuch as
it ran only in the plural-to wit, horses, geldings and mares, a
doubt arose whether a person convicted of stealing one only of
each was not entitled to his clergy; but in order to remove this
doubt, the statute of 2 & 3 Ed. VI. was promulgated, wherein
it is enacted, that 'all and singular person and persons feloni-
ously taking and stealing any horse, gelding, or mare, shall not
be permitted to enjoy the benefit of clergy, but shall be put
from the same.'
   Both these Acts of Parliament are therefore still in force,
the latter being only supplemental to the former.
   Till towards the termination of the reign of Elizabeth, only
saddle-horses and carts were used for the conveyance of persons
of all distinctions. Elizabeth rode behind her Master of the
Horse when she went in state to St. Paul's; but this practice
was discontinued when Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, introduced

  I There is no record of