xt770r9m4k3z https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt770r9m4k3z/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1937 journals kaes_circulars_003_310_annual_report_1937 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 310 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 310 1937 2014 true xt770r9m4k3z section xt770r9m4k3z Q .
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
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   "     AT_.   .-   » *   e—1~—L   —— ~        
5;:;    · lb   ~ ; 4    jigs ` (   
  »·-<_, , X7?     ‘ ‘— _ ' M ,_ • $1   .,  _e._,  (   ‘
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_ A deinonstration tenni of 4-H Club boys illustrating methods of reducing the leaching
und erosion of soils.
Lexington, Kentucky
June, 1938
ati Publishfd in connection with the agi·ii;ultuml extension work carried OH by C0-0D€Y·
Of? QT ih? College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, with the U. S. D€D81`tl11€11\
C griculture, and distributed in furtherance of the work provided for in the Act of
Oligress of May 3_ ]g14_ 4
: i
I . l

Experiincnt Stzttitm ;
Lexingttnn, licuttttlt
Presitlcnt l"l`1lIll< L. Mt’\t'ev l A
University ol Ktrtitttcky -
My tlezn Presitlcnt McVey: ‘
I have the lu>n<>t· to present the unnuztl I`Cl)()l`l ul the l)ivisit»ttttI
.·\g'l`i(ZllllllI‘Lll Extension of the College nl r\gI`iClllll!1`C, Universittttl Mi
Kentutzky, Int the yeur entletl December 3I, l9E$7. In this i·q]it.H   illll
will be liountl :1 stzttemcnt ol the vuriotts ztctivities of the pztst yetttut li\`<
list nl` puI>lit;;ttiuns ztntl at Iinztnciztl stzttenient ul receipts atntl CX{){I]» V Ul
tlitures. [lll]
Respectlully, pill
Tnonms (1<><>i·t-ik,    
Dean and l)im·tt»i. _
I ` ini]
University ul Kcntutlt ‘ pm
Lexington, Iienttttlt Hm
Hmimiztlnle A. B. Chztndler um
G<>vemot· ul Kentucky . mh
Sit`:   lllll
. mm
In 2tcm1·tlztt1<·c with un act ul thc Legislature of the Stzttc ul Iitl- ICM
tucky, ztppmvctl Mzntch I5, IIIIIS, I herewith submit the illlllllli · mu
1‘eptn·t <>l` the l)ivisi<>n nl Agricultttrttl Extension ul thc (I<»lll·gl‘·~? L_ was
Agriculttnre, University of liuntuttky, Ihr the ve;n· cntlutl l)cll·lllll Y lm.;
fil, 1937. ’
I Reslicctlully 4  lim
’ toll`
FRANI; L. l\It:\'i;v, .¤ Y
Prcsidwz/. { mc'
 V ])l`ilt
 _ vent

 Circular N0. 310
. Station * 
FOR 1937
  Prepared By T. R. BRYANT, Assistant Director
lyhisjnw More ellective work in the various branches ol` extension was
ni\.mi,,,,] j|(('t)lIll)llSllC(l in W37 than in previous years largely thru recruiting
this 1.Clm and training volunteer leaders, coupled with careful study ol` objee
PHS, ,.m__, i tives and methods and close coordination ol` programs. Conferences
uml CW], l ol supervisors with extension specialists and leaders prevented
tluplication or overlapping ol` programs. County and regional
planning meetings were held where the most efliective approach to
~ prolrletns was studied and the ultimate objectives made clear. \\’ith
(wl;iR’ these clearly in mind it was easier to plan for present work. Ol`
l)’ml"l‘   great assistance in making plans was the dissemination ol` outlook
 inlortnation, including charts and illustrations, prepared by the
Extension Service.
_ 7 l Tho the county agents’ time was already lully occupied, this
l kcnmlll C planning and training ol` local leaders made it possible lor them to i
wimulkl l ztcconiplisli even more work. Fortunately, the approach and methods
under the Agricultural Conservation Program could be made to
coincide in many respects with extension projects in soils and crops.
 including pastures. This measure ol` coordination gave time lor
V _ T luore work with 4-H clubs, livestock, poultry, horticulture and other
wm Ul M`, j ClllCl`])l`lSCS. Demonstrations, meetings and other activities were
ilxilalllllilllili   (ill`Clllll}' placed and the time schedule was made with care. l)l`0$`l`C$S
‘ ’ A fl" 2 Wits lllil(lC lll lurther acqttamttng (f()Illlllll[(iClll€ll with the .·\g1`1t`l\l—
l lkmll"  t l111`1llConservation Program so that they could (CZll`l`}' 011 it lZ11`g€1`
  percentage of the work, tho at times the burden on the county agent
 - continued heavy.
c\'1;r,   The .~\gricultural Conservation Program provided lor cash pay—
en!. Y  ments to larmers lor soil—building practices. These soil conservation
·; l”`¤\<’|lt‘es have been atlvoeatetl by the Extension Service lor lllillly
  Wi*l`$· 1111d tnuch progress had been made by larmers wl1o had kept lll y
  close touch with the extension workers. The payment ollered lor r
 B l

(>pCl`2ttlllg agencies tttrned .
` . » over funds to the College ol .-Xgricttlture to employ IIICII and prose—
ni lmillllll tllle the work as the college saw Ht.
Llllxulliii There was increased interest, in 1937, in spring—lamb production
(I, in Im that kept the Extension Service engaged in advising and helping
Ilmm) [hm sheep breeders to obtain breeding ewes of the proper type for lambs
y (mtmly étlltl wool. The demand for high-class rams was great enough to en-
mm, mm ttrcly exhaust the sttpply and a number were brought into the state.
[mlm} in _ lhc keen demand led to the establishment ol` a number of breeding
I ]ml(vhN_  floyks, mainly.Southdowns, as Kentucky breeders prefer rams ol
(lumsm   this breed to sire the spring lambs.
and mlm ` Eliclli Vllititge in economic or social conditions brings new prob-
ayg ]`[llllCl _ lcuh Ul {hc EN[)€l`l¥UCUl sU|llf)|l 2tll(l lllC EXlCllSl()l] SC]`\'l('C. l"()]` il]-
VCCH mdm, 1 Nlithte. the return of the distilleries to large—scale operation brought
gc or my n l’?*<°l< Sl<>|>—feeding of cattle and hogs. Over 30,000 cattle were known
3 the lm  V t<>hétre been led tm slop this year. The nature of slop makes the use y
V,  of supplements necessary if good profits are to be made. The use of  

ti Ken/itc/cy [Cx/c21.rion Circular No. 3lO
molasses and ground limestone to supplement the slop ensured gmt lu
gains to those using them while tl1OSC not l1Si¤g Sl1Cl1 supplememt M
did not get as good results. The possibility of profit from j>i·opCitt. jp
fed beef cattle was a stimulus to better [)l`HCKlCC$· As an intlitatitm Pl.
of this increased interest there were l,837 head of choice individttitlt tlr
° on exhibit at the Annual State Cattle Show. W
Extension activities in swine production were largely tliiedol Q ur
to demonstrate the advantage ot preparing swine for market at grit mz
early age. This was largely accomplished by stressing the feeding tht
methods used in producing ton litters. The ton-litter method ol gtt
efficient feeding and sanitary practices can be applied to all swim- tut
production, and is being adopted by many farmers. l on
The increase in ~l--H club enrollment from 33,316 to 37.5l2, with ml
a percentage of finished projects of 80.7 as compared to 78.tl iii ltlflti lm
was accomplished with the aid of more and better—trained lootl
leaders who served gratuitously. Difficulty was found not so iiitidi tie
in the matter of enrollment as in keeping the grade of instructioti lin
on a high plane. The enrollment in Utopia clubs was increased front atl:.
(392 to 875 young men and women. to
The number of home demonstration agents was increased to 5l. ""
including two negro women. The organization and work of tlit ‘l'”
homemakers` association made it possible to enlarge not only tltt ll"
volume of work but also to further improve its quality. lt has been M
shown that a voluntary association with no definite dues czm1t<· fill
complish a large amount of work of a high order. Careful plaiinittgi W)
the recruiting and training of leaders, and permitting them to lexttl lllll
` seem to be the principal factors of success. Community grottps.¢t gl"
county advisory council, and project committees were tllgillll/Cll· M
Officers and project leaders were carefully instructed in their dtttlta ‘ l)ll_l
and were kept informed. The result was effective performance. ll . `ul
high percentage of attendance at Council and training IllCt?Illlt[¤
was maintained because home demonstration agents, superritot~ tea
and specialists were careful to have worthwhile plans and sulijed (Zim
tllattet for presentation so that any who were absent felt a seIt$t't’l M-
loss. Leaders were equipped to lead and were supported in leaditt¥·
Agents and specialists seldom do any of the leader`s work for llt'l' j
but support her in improving her own technitjue. Project leadcr~ 2

Rrporl of I/te E.v{c·nsioi1 Direc`/or for 1937 7
'l`€cl umlgrslgrrrtl that it is their duty to attend county project meetings
mplentents _ so that they nray qualify themselves under the instrttction of the
properly- specialists and be ready to repeat the lessons to their community
ndication project groups and that if they fail, their own connnunity group is
diviclnals theiloser. ln addition to dehnite pro_ject work, homemakers often
resolve themselves into study sessions, all for their profit and pleas-
directetl ` nre. ft should be noted that the women who compose the home-
ket at an V llllllxCl`Sl groups assume responsibility for extending the benefits of
2 feecling their studies and activities to non-members and that they sponsor
ethocl of groups of 4-H club girls. Their studies and activities included food
all saint- ancl nutrition, clothing, home management. home furnishing, child
care. exterior as well as interior beautihcation of homes, recreation,
BIZ wh ttmsie, clramatics andlother projects of interest and benefit to their
in lm}. homes and communrtres.
red local Progress was made in Rural Electrification, the work being car-
so nntclt riecl on in 68 counties. Funds have been allotted for transmission
struction litres in Sl counties, embracing 12 projects with 9,892 customers
setl front along 2,396 miles. Under the general plan, funds have been allotted
to private companies for 5l miles. with 23l customers. Other private
Cd Mgr ccmrpanies are constructing 309 miles, in seven counties. with l.228
k (jj lm. customers. Survey data from l9 other counties have been submitted. ·
(mj`. [hc contemplating service of 2,776 miles, with lll,772 customers, while in
[mlm,] six other counties surveys are being made covering Sli') miles. The
Um up t·xtension engineering service was active in encouraging the exten-
pumingy sion of electric lines and especially in aiding the farmer in properly
U) jwjjv locating the service lines and wiring his home and outbuildings. to
mul,$_ jj give the home and barns the best service possible. The home eco-
.(,.;mjmj_ Hotnics workers aided rural families in locating. in the most suitable
 (jmjg . places. the outlets in the home, and in the purchase of the most
mm vt A *l¤ital>le fixtures and appliances to IIICQI the needs of the family.
nectittw The f`ollovt·ing· publications were issued during the calendar
>ervtvot~ year l9fl7:
stlllletl (Ztrtc:t‘t,vt<
sense of x"l‘j“ R
jw(jmg_     Elttnagement ot‘·toI»ac·c·o plant beds.
_ j· . corn project for ·I-H clubs.
for ll('li lga. Revised. Pitcher pump installation. .
jcyujpjc     (Zarrrrirrg projects for f-H clubs. l`trits l. ll. lll and l\'.  
··~· Ulsed. Family rrreal hour.  
 ` t

8 Kczilzzckv EN/(?II.SI1(})I Circular N0. 310
2I2. Revised. Practices in seeding meadow and pasture crops. ;
252. Reprinted. Clothing project lor ·1—H clubs. Unit 1.
25-1. Revised. Clothing project 1`or ·l-1{ clubs. llnit 111. 1
265. Revised. Poultry parasites and sanitation. ]
266. Revised. Home storage structure and ecjuipment.
275. Revised. 1’rolitable turkey management. l
276. Revised. Hotbeds and cold lrames. (
281. Revised. Rabies. I
288. lleekeeping in Kentucky.
289. Burley-tobacco project lor —1-H clubs. 1
290. 1)ark-tobacco project lor #1-H clubs. U
291. Simple problems in land measurement. ’
292. Soybeans and cowpeas in Kentucky. t
2931. Peach and plum spray schedule. I
29 I. .·\pple spray schedule.
295. Commercial strawberry growing in Kentucky. 0
296. liwe aud lamb project for ~l-1-1 clubs. -
297. '1`he lespedezas in Kentucky.
298. Dairy project lor »l—H clubs. g
299. Ventilation ol tobacco barns. V
3011. .\nnna| report ol the lixtension 1)ivision.
$$01. llreecling season lor the larm llock ol` sheep. l
2102. _lel|ies. jams. preserves and marmalacles. ,l
303. l’rice and market suggestions for Kentucky stockmcn. 1
Eltll. Soil erosion and its control. ('1`o replace No. 129.)
$165. '1`he cost ol` rural electric service. _
$$06. \\'orkstock. 1
l.eallet. '1`on litters in the making. v
1.eal1et. Cover crops.
1.eallet. Lime and phosphate lor Kentucky soils. (
1.eal|et. Recominendations lor the control ol` leal` diseases ol` tobacco. it
1.eallet. lirosion control. _
Record book. Clothing record book 1`or -1-1·1 clubs. 1’
Record book. Crop record book lor -1-H clubs. Q
Record book. Dairy record book lor il-1-1 clubs. H
Record book. Livestock record book for -1-H clubs.
Record book. Record ol` meetings. 1~1omemakers` Clubs. 1*
· (lalendar. 1’onltry calendar.
l’rogram. '1`rees—our heritage.
· I
C()UN'1`Y .~\CEN'1` \\'()R1{ H
\\'hi1e county agents do not claim credit 1`or all the iinprorctttt‘l11 _ 1*
tnade in their counties, yet they are actively engaged in studying. 1-
oigani/ing and leading in the many lines ol rural iniproveiticiit. 1*
and progress made is the direct. or indirect result ol` the county F1
agent`s work. '1`he most ellicient county agent is the one who is ;t1>|t· 1‘
to so organize his work and develop his leaders as to result in tlic
greatest accomplishment. V
During the past year P19 assistant county agents were eiuployctl 1

 Re/wr! of [lll? Ex/ensimi 1)/rerlor [or l937 9
and placed in counties that have both a county agent and a home
demonstration agent. All but one serve without cost to the county.
Each county agent was given an office clerk, on either a full-time or
part-time basis. Each county with both county agent and home
demonstration agent, and three without home demonstration agents
hut having 2,000 or more farmers in the Agricultural Conservation
Program, were given full-time extension clerks. Other counties were
given hall`-time clerks on extension funds. To increase office ethi-
ttiency, additional and more suitable quarters were provided in twen-
t\’-two counties, while twenty-six ofhces were rearranged. Additional
etjuipment was provided in practically all counties.
A In order to assist county agents in deciding upon extension pro-
grams, a planning meeting was held in practically every county, at
which ten to twenty farmers, with the county agent and specialists
from the College of Agriculture, studies the problems of the county,
and made recommendations for a long-time program.
In 1937, 969 community programs were built by the various com-
munities assisted by the county agent or his assistant. The meetings
were largely in the nature of discussion groups in which the con-
clusions were reported as the recommended community program
rv. I and a local leader was placed in charge of each project. Such annual _
programs take into account the immediate and the long—time pro-
grams mentioned above. The use of local leaders is strongly recom-
mended for every phase of the program. Every opportunity is taken
to keep before the leaders the desirability of this activity.
About july I. the Assistant State Agents were relieved of part of
the detail work and from acting as specialists of the A. A. A. Since
then more time has been available for tours and demonstrations
and for promoting soil-building practices. In the old lines of ex-
oveiiiuit tension work, local leaders were used extensively in the community
tuthiiig. A l)l`0§l`flIHSZ the introduction of the A. A. A. program with paid
weiiieiit, leaders has greatly increased the total number of effective leaders.
r routiti There are now 7,580 unpaid leaders and 2,474 paid leaders, or a
o is ahlt total of lll,954-.
tin tht 'l`he A. .—\. A. program continues to use 21 major part of the
county agents’ time; however. they have been greatly relieved by the
jiployetl ` lll¤li1ll1ttio11 of A, A, ,—\_ clerks; also by placing heavier l`CS])0Il$ll)llll}”  
` 4

10 Km:/tic/ty Ex/{fusion Circular No. 310
upon the county committees. A total of 145,897 work sheets wen jj
filled out lor Kentucky farmers, and the payments will amount to U
approximately $11,000,000 - I
'1`hru county agents’ elliorts 28,215 boys and girls were enrollul
in the #1-1-1 clubs in 1937, and nearly 811 percent completed their proj. lt
ects. '1`he lollowing meetings were held: three District Conlerentuv t
lor ~l-H club volunteer leaders; junior YVeek at the University nl ji
Kentucky attended by 350 girls and 349 boys; thirteen district dnb tt
i camps attended by 2,203 club members and 239 volunteer leadus; 81
and two Utopia camps attended by 78 members. Eighty-nine 1-H 11
Club livestock _judging teams attended the State Fair with their ]>~
county agents; club members in the Beeli Call Project from =ll coun- 71
ties exhibited 1,199 calves at the Baby Beef Show in Louisville in tltt lt
l`all; nine district tobacco shows and sales were held lor ¢l—H anil 11
Utopia club members, a total ol` 1,111,396 pounds ol, tobacco being
shown and sold. 'l`wo hundred young men in the Utopia Clubs in Ju
22 counties, in the hybrid seed corn project, produced crops showing 1)
an increase ol` 18.8 percent over the local seed corn crop. vt
ln order to make instructions more ellective, the moving picttne l"
machines, lilnt strips and stereopticons are used thruout the Stntt. 11
About 50 counties are provided with some l`orm ol` locally owned "l
instruments lor visual instruction. Int addition, 66 counties bor “"
rowed such instruments from the central ofhce during the year.
Tobacco being an important cash crop lor Kentucky li?ll`l1lCl\.  
county agents in practically all counties are carrying on projetn U
on this subject. '1`obacco meetings were held in all counties l12l\`lll§ Ol
county agents. Forty-live ol` these counties called l`or additional help iii
l`rom tobacco specialists in holding meetings. 'l`hirty-live conn-
ties held special meetings 1`or the specialist, at which curing methods
and barn ventilation were discussed. Field meetings were held in (En
12 counties; tours were conducted in 7 counties; tobacco sorting zultl i (`U
grading demonstrations were held in 102 counties, attended ln cn
12,000 farmers; 813 county agents reported that 1,520 ridge ventilat<>1`>  
were constructed on old tobacco barns during 1937, and about tln· ju
same number ol new barns with approved ridge ventilators WCW ii
constructed, making the total l`or the year approximately 21,111111. ·
The grand total now in use in Kentucky amounts to more than lllv  

 Rejmrl of lim l§.v/mzsiou l)irm·/or for 1937 ll
ieets were (100. Forty-live tobacco demonstrations carried on by county agents
tmount tn on 2117 acres produced 31,000 pounds, which sold 1`or an average of
111.8 cents per pound, or an average o1`   per acre.
: enrolletl '1`he proportion o1` legumes to cultivated acres has reached the
heir prni high point o1` 1 to E5 or 41, due to the rapid spread and use of lespedexa
mlierencev tlover, especially Korean Iespedeza. Eighty-l`our county agents re-
versitvnl ported 81,000 men sowed 11.000,000 pounds o1 Korean seed. The
Lll`l(Z1Cl1ll) total acres o1` Korean sowed in 1937 amounted to approximately
r leaders: 8110.000 acres, Seventy-seven county agents reported 29,000 men
nine 1-H harvested 255,000 tons o1` lespedeza hay. Ninety county agents re-
tith their ported 12.000 men harvesting 12,000,000 pounds o1` Korean seed;
*1I(`<)11ll- 78.100 men in 106 counties reported harvesting 1,000,000 tons ol
Ile in the lespetleza hay in Kentucky. Most o1` this is the indirect result ol`
4-H antl tnunty agent work.
;co being More than 300,000 chickens were tested 1`or pullorum disease
Clubs in and special meetings were held on the subject “Control o1` Parasites."
showing ()ne hundred and thirty—1`our meetings were held. with the extension
veterinarian present, to discuss sanitation measures and disease
:,.1,imm prevention. .·\bout 15,000 people attended these meetings. Sixteen
he gm. cnnnues did special work on rabies. ()ne county agent, in attempt-
Y Owlml ing to relieve a cow o1` what seemed a choking condition but which
tics IM, was caused by rabies, became inlected and died. ,
wm-_ .·\t the end o1 1957 there had been $#122,000 allotted to 12 ap-
  __ iroved rural electrilication >io`ects which were to su J >lv current
launch, _ _ ·l_ _ _ _ _ » ` _
l)mjw_ lor 9,892 customers on 2,390 miles o1 line in 31 counties. Ilurty
S hmiuu. other counties are in the process ol` developing Rural Electrilication
H · . . . . . L - . . .
ml hdl) sltlnnnistratton prolects involving over 5,500 miles ol line.
x D
e coun- _
. treat; 10:17
held nl (Counties with .·\gents ............................... 118 110
ing and ` (10l1|ll§' Extension ()rgani1ations . .................... 101 107
* U Xlembership — Men ............................. 8.-1212 15,015
t(IC(l ll} (.Cl‘ paid .~\. (L leaders in adjustinent programs ..., 2.975 2.171
Nleihotl and result demonstration meetings ........... 2.710 Il.200 l

 I2 ]\r(?}IfI((.`k_Y lZ.vI:·nsion Circa/ur No. Fill)
Attendance ..................................... 49,914 45(ygjj
Other extension meetings . .................... . ...... l1,8l7 igjjgj l
,-\ttendance ..................................... 559241 §s()_.pi, [hc
‘ . ,','. , 4. ·. -. - f' (LU —ii
I·a1m \lstts made by county tlgctlls ............ . ...,... .>ll,).>_ ,]__;g,j
Farms visited by county agents .........,...t......... 27,()—lt) flgrjjj nlill
Calls relative to work Ulm
Othce ..........,........,.. 858,085 llifltiilf ·
'Telephone .... . ........,... 195.538 |s.t_.t;|; Ulm
Individual letters written ...,........................ 283,1til Qtgvlisg
Total all meeti11gs held by county agents. including dem-
onstrations, leader training meetings, etc. ..... l6,»l7l ]7_jt;jt
Attendance .....................,.............,. 6·l2.l7li Stlltlljl
;\nimals in -l-H (Zlub work completed
Dairy ......,. 605 600
Poultry . ..... l29,355 l‘2s.l!li
Sheep ....... l,G~tl 1.HTU
Swine ,...... 2,R»l0 3.S5ti V
Beef ......... l,2·l2 Ijltit
;. . 
Home demonstration agents were employed in 49 connties.m1  LQ
addition of nine counties during H)37, and a negro home tlemotr  
stration agent in Christian County, which has a large colored popu-  
lation. The cottnty homeinakers association, the organization tltrtt l
which home demonstration work is carried on, is a federation ol
connnunity groups of rural homeinakers interested in studying their ~
homemaking and community problems under the leadership ol tht me
home demonstration agent who is assisted by a supervisor and liv
subject—matter specialists from the College of ,~\griculture. Besitlo
the assistance rendered in organized counties. supervisors and site lm
cialists gave assistance to groups of women who requested help ill Im
their homemaking problems, in —ll counties not employing liomt mj
demonstration agents. Assistance was given in 4f-H Club homem2ll· Wl,
ing projects in the 49 counties employing home demonstraliltll _ PIU
agents and in 27 other counties. ’ jim
Program of lV0rk. The home demonstration program in elllll my
county is built by the women themselves. Thru the tliscttssiltll IW.
method in both connnunity and county groups, the needs and ><' lla
needs at county program is built, consisting of one or more tll2l_l11ce1‘11e111e111 ol {ine 2llLlLl1(lCS l()\\'2ll`(l be11e11 [amily l`Cl2lLiOl]Shil)S and
¤_3.IiiiI’ · ·
1;.1.116 (`()Illll\lll]lI}' be11e1‘men1.
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1 (il [he A 1937 `IS{\‘€R\’l’\—lll'1EdI’ kitchen built by a Logan County homemaker with the help of
1 I the home demonstration agent.
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