xt779c6rz66h https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt779c6rz66h/data/mets.xml Emerson, Edwin, 1869- 1906  books b92-202-30752302v2 English P.F. Collier, : New York : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. History, Modern 19th century.Miller, Marion Mills. Nineteenth century and after  : a history year by year from A.D. 1800 to the present (vol. 2)/ by Edwin Emerson, Jr. and Marion Mills Miller ; illustrated with eight colored plates and sixteen full-page engravings and two maps. text Nineteenth century and after  : a history year by year from A.D. 1800 to the present (vol. 2)/ by Edwin Emerson, Jr. and Marion Mills Miller ; illustrated with eight colored plates and sixteen full-page engravings and two maps. 1906 2002 true xt779c6rz66h section xt779c6rz66h 







cte Dtineteenti (Genturp

            anb       fter

    A. D. 1800 TO THE PRESENT

    By EDWIN     EMERSON, jR.
Member of the American Historical Association, New York
Historical Society, the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, etc.
             Litt.D. (Princeton)


           IN THREE VOL UAES

1 8 2 2-1 8 6 0








    COPYRIGHT 1906



EVENTS OF 1822 ............................................... 433

EVENTS OF 1823 ............................................... 444

EVENTS OF 1824 ............................................... 450

EVENTS OF 1825..     .      .     ...........       ....... 456

EVENTS OF 1826.                                            467

EVENTS OF 1827 .474

EVENTS OF 1828 .483

EVENTS OF 1829 .492

EVENTS OF 1830 .500

EVENTS OF 1831 ...............................................5 12

EVENTS OF 1832............                                 524

EVENTS OF 1833.............                                536

EVENTS OF 1834............                                 542

EVENTS OF 1835............                                 551

EVENTS OF 1836............                                 556

EVENTS OF 1837 .566

EVENTS OF 1838 .574

EVENTS OF 1839 .579

EVENTS OF 1840 .588

EVENTS OF 1841.                                             98

EVENTS OF 1842 .609

EVENTS OF 1843 .620

EVENTS OF 1844 .627

EVENTS OF 1845 .635

EVENTS OF 1846 .641

EVENTS OF 1847 .653

EVENTS OF 1848 .668

  XiXth Cenrun--Vol. Il-1



EVENTS OF 1849 ............................................... 709

EVENTS OF 1850............                                724

EVENTS OF 1851.                                           734

EVENTS  OF  1852 ............................................. .  743

EVENTS OF 1853.                                           753

EVENTS OF 1854 ............................................... 764

EVENTS  OF  1855 ............................... .............  777

EVENTS OF 1856 ............ .................................. 788

EVENTS OF 1857 ............................................... 797

EVENTS OF 1858 ...      ......................................... 814

EVENTS OF 1859 ............................................... 822

EVENTS OF 1860 ............................................     840



THE FIRST STEAMi RAILWAY ..........  ................... Frontispiece
    Reproduced in Color from a Painting by Edward L. Henry.

LORD BiRoN............................           Facing Page 450
    Reproduced in Black and White from a Painting by Maurin.

BEETHOVEN AND His ADMIRERS ...........................       474
    Reproduced in Black and White from a Painting by A. Grafle.

QUEEN VICTORIA TAKING THE OATH ............................ 570
    Reproduced in Black and White from a Painting by Sir George

AMERICAN INVENTORS.   .......... .............................. 642
    Reproduced in Black and White from a Painting by C. Schussele.

WAGNER AND LISZT............................................ 738
    Reproduced in Black and White from a Painting by W. Beck-

THE BATTLE OF INKERMANN ..............................       786
    Reproduced in Black and White from a Painting by Gustave

SOLFERINO ............... 834
    Reproduced in Color from a Painting by E. Meissonier.


 This page in the original text is blank.


                  EVENTS OF 1822

Greece Declares Independence Chios Rebels-Turks Massacre and En-
    slave Inhabitants-Kanaris Burns and Scatters Turkish Fleet with
    Fire-Ship-Turks Drive Greeks Back to Missolonghi-Greek Moun-
    taineers Shut Invaders Up in Corinth-Capodistrias Resigns
    Owing to Czar's Indifference to Greece-Canning Returns to Power
    -Espouses Cause of Greece and South American Republics-Itur-
    bide Makes Himself Emperor of Mexico-Sucre Defeats Spanish at
    Pichincha-San Martin Gives a Free Field to Bolivar-Bolivar
    Masses Patriot Armies at Juarez-Wins Battles of Junin and
    Ayacucho-Dom Pedro Declared Constitutional Emperor of Brazil
    -Revolts in Spain against King Ferdinand-Continental Powers
    Move in His Behalf-President Monroe Announces His Famons
    "Doctrine"-Canning's False Claim to Its Inspiration-Death of
    Sholley-Rise of Heine-Beethoven, Hummel, Von Weber, Spohr,
    and Schubert Produce Musical Masterpieces-Meyerbeer and Men-
    delssohn Begin Careers-Death of Herschel-Death of Canova-
    Congress of Powers Removes from Vienna to Verona-England
    Withdraws from Intervention in Spain-France's Envoys Commit
    Her to Intervention-French Premier Repudiates Act of Envoys,
    and French King Accepts It.

G        REEK   independence was declared on January 27.
         After the fall of Ali Pasha in February, the Sultan
         was able to turn his undivided attention to the
Greek revolt.   In March a bodv of Samian revolutionists
landed in Chios and incited the islanders to rise against the
Turk. They laid siege to the citadel held by a Turkish gar-
rison. Had the fleet of the Hvdriotes helped them, they
might have prevailed. As it was they rendered themselves
a prey to the Turkish troops on the mainland. An army of
nearly 10,000 Turks landed in Chios, and relieved the be-
sieged garrison.  Then the fanatical Moslems were let loose
on the gentle inhabitants of the little island.     Thousands
wvere put to the sword.    The slave markets of Northern
Africa were glutted with Chian women and children. Within
a month the once lovely island was a ruined waste. All
Greece and Europe were filled with horror. Maurokordatos,
now at the head of Greek affairs, was bitterly blamed for not
sending over a fleet to save Chios. One single GreekJ took it



into his hands to avenge his countrymen. The Turks were
celebrating their sacred month of Ramazan. On the night
of June 18 the festival of Biram, the Turkish fleet, under
command of Kara Ali, was illuminated with colored lanterns.
Into the midst of it Constantine Kanaris, a sea-captain from
Psara, drove a fire-ship. Sailing close up to the admiral's
flagship, he thrust his bowsprit into one of the portholes.
Then setting fire to the pitch and rosin on board his ship, he
dropped into his small boat and pulled away. A breeze
fanned the flames, and in a moment the big Turkish man-of-
war was afire. The powder magazine blew up and the life-
boats went up in flames. The burning rigging fell down
upon the doomed crew, and the admiral was struck down on
his poop-deck. The ship was burned to the water's edge.
The Turkish fleet scattered before the shower of blazing
sparks, and was only brought together under the guns of the
Dardanelles. This exploit made Kanaris the hero of Greece.
Within the same year he repeated the feat.
    The Sultan had thrown his whole land force into the
Greek mainland. Khurshid, after his defeat of Ali Pasha,
marched to Larissa, in Thessaly. Thence two armies, 50,000
strong, under Bramali and Homer Brionis, converged upon
the Morea. In the face of so formidable an invasion, ifau-
rokordatos took the field himself. He mismanaged things
badly. At Arta he sacrificed his choicest regiment, the fa-
mous crops of Philhellenes, composed of foreign officers and
commanded by men who had won distinction in Napo-
leon's campaign.  They were cut down almost to a nman.
Maurokordatos fell back to AMlissolonghi. In the meanwhile
Dramalis, the Turkish general, with 25,000 foot and 6,000
horse, penetrated into the -Morea. The Greek Government at
Argos dispersed. All would have been lost for the Greeks
had Dramalis not neglected to cover the mountain passes
behind him. While he marched on to XYauplia, the Greek




mountaineers rose behind him. Dernetrios Ypsilanti, the
acting-president of Greece, with a few hundred followers,
threw himself into Argos.  There he held the Acropolis
against the Turkish rear-guard. Kolokotrones, calling out
the last men from Tripolitza, relieved Ypsilanti at Argos.
The mountain passage was seized. Dramalis had to give up
his conquest of the Morea and fight his way back to the
Isthmus of Corinth. Without supplies and harassed by hos-
tile peasant forces, the Turkish army became badly demoral-
ized. Thousands were lost on the wav. Dramalis himself
died from over-exposure. The remainder of his army melted
awav at Corinth under the combined effects of sickness and
   A decisive turn in the Greek war for independence was
reached. Europe realized that the revolt had grown to the
proportions of a national war. Popular sympathy in Russia
became more clamorous. Capodistrias, the Russian Prime
Minister, rightly measured the force of this long pent-up
feeling. Unable to move the Czar, who still floundered in
the toils of the Holy Alliance, Capodistrias withdrew from
public affairs and retired to Geneva.
   In England the suicide of Castlereagh brought Canning
once more into prominence. He was made Foreign Secre-
tary, and Robert Peel, Home Secretary. Canning's long re-
tirement after the fiasco of his American policy and his
breach with Castlereagh, had served to chasten this statesman.
As leader of the opposition, lie had learned to reckon with
the forces of popular feeling. He was no longer an ultra-
conservative, but a liberal. He now made no disguise of his
sympathies with the cause of Greece, and with the struggle
for independence in South and Central America. There the
course of freedom had gathered so much momentum that it
was plain to all that Spain could never prevail without help
from others. On May 19, upon the refusal of Ferdinand




VII to accept the separate crown of MNexico, General Itur-
bide proclaimed himself Emperor. He assumed the name of
Augustine I. At the same time San Martin and Bolivar met
at Guayaquil to dispose of the destinies of South America.
San Martin had just succeeded in liberating Peru, and had
made his triumphal entry into Lima. Bolivar had brought
aid to Ecuador, and established independence there. Jos6
de Sucre, whom Bolivar called the "soul of his armv," de-
feated the Spaniards in the famous battle of Pichincha,
fought at a height of 10,200 feet above the sea. When Boli-
var and San Martin met on July 25, San Martin announced
his determination to give a free field to Bolivar, whom he
proclaimed "the most extraordinary character of South
America; one to whom difficulties but add strength." \With
his daughter Mercedes, San Martin retired to Europe, to
dwell there in obscurity and poverty. Bolivar, with Generals
Sucre, Miller, and Cordova, assembled a great liberating
army at Juarez. After a preliminary victory at Juniin, 1Boli-
var returned to Lima to assume the reigns of governikient,
while his generals pushed on against the forces of the Spanish
viceroy. Late in the year a decisive battle was fought at
Ayacucho. The revolutionists charged down the mountain
ridges upon the Spaniards in the plain, and utterly routed
them. The viceroy himself was wounded, with 700 of his
men, while 1,400 Spaniards were killed outright. In these
casualties the unusual disparity between killed and wounded
reveals the unsparing ferocitv of the fight. In Brazil a
peaceful revolution was effected in September. After the re-
turn of Juan VI to Portugal his son Dom Pedro reigned as
regent. On September 7 he yielded to the demands of his
American subjects, and proclaimed the independence of Bra-
zil. He was declared Constitutional Emperor of Brazil on
October 12, and was crowned as such shortly afterward at
Rio Janeiro.




    The South American colonies had now in great part se-
cured independence. Spain was thereby robbed of her best
resources. As financial distress became more widespread,
the spirit of discontent rose. The King's plottings with the
extreme Royalists of France lost him the confidence of his
subjects. In the south the triumphant party of the so-called
Exaltados refused obedience to the central administration.
The municipal governments of Cadiz, Cartagena, and Sev-
ille took the tone of independent republics. In the north
the party of the Serviles, instigated by French agitators and
their money, broke into open rebellion. After the adjourn-
ment of the Cortes, Ferdinand attempted to make a stroke
for himself. The Royal Guards were ordered to march from
Aranjuez to Madrid to place themselves under the King's
personal command. The people took alarm, and several regi-
ments of disaffected soldiers were induced to head off the
guards.  A fight ensued in the streets of Madrid.  The
guards were scattered. The King found himself a prisoner
in his own palace. He wrote to Louis XVIII that his crown
was in peril. The Bourbon sympathizers in the north at once
seized the town of Seo d'Urgel, and set up a provisional gov-
ernment. Civil war spread over Spain. Napoleon's final
prophecy that Bourbon rule would end in the ruin of Spain
and the loss of all the best colonies was near fulfilment. It
was then that the continental Powers of Europe proposed
to interfere on behalf of the Spanish m-nonarchy. The death
of old Minister Hardenberg in Berlin did not loosen Metter-
nich's hold on Prussia. Emperor Alexander hoped to con-
ciliate his army, burning to fall uipoii the Turk, by treating
them to a light campaign in Spain. In France the Spanish
war party likewise had the upper hand.
   Nothing could save Spain; but Spanish South and Cen-
tral America presented another issue. The new republics had
developed a thriving trade with Great Britain and the Unlited




States of America, which made it impossible for these coun-
tries to ignore their flags. In America Henry Clay, on the
floor of Congress, had already urged the recognition of South
American independence. In his annual message to Congress
in 1822 President Monroe took up the question. On behalf
of the United States, he declared that the American conti-
nents were henceforth not to be considered a subject for fur-
ther colonization by any European Power. "In the war
between Spain and her colonies," said President Monroe,
"the United States will continue to observe the strictest neu-
trality. . . . With the existing colonies or dependencies
of any European Power we have not interfered and shall not
interfere. But with the governments -who have declared
their independence and maintained it, and whose indepen-
dence we have, on great considerations and on just principles,
acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the
purpose of oppressing them, or controlling in any other
manner their destiny, by any European Power, in any other
light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition
toward the United States."
   It was the famous Monroe Doctrine, a doctrine that in its
substance, if not in words, had already served as the guiding
star of Thomas Jefferson's and Madison's foreign policy. It
is related that President Monroe, applying to Thomas Jeffer-
son for his opinion on the matter, was surprised at the positive
nature of the reply which he received. "Our first and fun-
damental maxim," said Jefferson, "should be never to entangle
ourselves in the broils of Europe; our second, never to suffer
Europe to intermeddle with cis-Atlantic affairs." At the
same time that America thus flung down her gauntlet to
Europe, Canning, on behalf of the British Ministry, pro-
posed to inform the allied Cabinets of England's intention to
accredit envoys to the South American republics. Assured
of the support of the United States, and of Great Britain as




lwell, South America could feel free to work out her own
destiny.  This was the master-stroke of Canning's career.
When brought to bay afterward in Parliament, he could
proudly boast: "I called the New World into being, in order
to redress the balance of the Old." To Americans Canning's
boast has ever seemed to rest oii a flimsy foundation. As
Fyffe, the English historian of modern Europe, has justly
said: "The boast, famous in our Parliamentary history has
left an erroneous impression of the part really played by
Canning at this crisis. He did not call the New World into
existence; he did not even assist it in winning independence,
as France had assisted the United States fifty years before;
but when this independence had been won he threw over it
the Tegis of Great Britain, declaring that no other European
Power should reimpose the voke which Spain had not been
able to maintain."
   At the time that Canning made British liberalism re-
spected abroad, literary England suffered another irreparable
loss by the death of Percy Bysshe Shelley. The last few
weeks had been spent by Shelley in Italy in the company of
Trelawney, Williams, and Lord Byron. Before this Mauro-
kordatos, now battling in Greece, had been their constant
companion. In June Leigh Hunt arrived. Shelley and
Williams set out in a boat to meet him at Leghorn. The
long-parted friends met there. On July 8 Shelley and Wil-
liams set sail for the return voyage to Lerici. Ten miles out
at sea off Reggio the haze of a summer storm hid their boat
from view. Ten days later Shelley's body was washed ashore
near Reggio. Owing to the strict quarantine regulations
which required that dead bodies cast up by the sea be burned,
Shelley's remains were cremated on the shore, in the pres-
ence of Bvron, Trelawney, and Leigh Hunt. His ashes
were buried in the same burial-ground with Keats, hard by
the pyramid of Caius Cestius in Rome.




    Shelley's poetry belongs primarily to the Revolutionary
epoch in modern history. Though he wrote several long nar-
rative poems and one great tragedy, he was above all a lyric
poet-according to some the greatest lyric poet of England.
Either his "Adonais" or the beautiful "Ode to the West
Wind" would alone have perpetuated his name in English
letters. His life, like his poetry, was almost untrammeled
by convention. Both gave great offence to the stricter ele-
ments of English society.  In some respects Shelley was
peculiarly unfortunate.  At the age of eighteen, after his
expulsion from Oxford University, he married Harriet West-
brook, a girl of sixteen, and then found himself unable to
support her. Later he abandoned her and eloped with Mary
Wollstonecraft Godwin. Within a year his first wife com-
mitted suicide, and, three weeks later, Shelley married Mary
Godwin. Next came Shelley's trouble with the Chancery.
Lord Chancellor Elden refused to give to Shelley the cus-
todv of his own children on the ground that Shelley's pro-
fessed opinions and conduct were such as the law pronounced
immoral. Shelley replied with his famous poetical curse
"To the Lord Chancellor."
   During this same year Thomas de Quincey published his
"Confessions of an Opium Eater," a masterpiece of balanced
prose. In other parts of the world, likewise, it was a golden
period for literature. In France Victor Hugo published his
"Odes et Poesies Diverses," a collection of early poems which
contained some of his most charming pieces. The rising
Swedish poet, Tegner, brought out his "Children of the Last
Supper." In Germany Heinrich Heine, then still a student
at Bonn, issued his earliest verses. For Germany this was
no less a golden age of music. Beethoven, though quite deaf,
was still the greatest of living composers. His great Choral
Symphony, the ninth, in D minor, was produced during this
year, as was his Solemn Mass in D major. As a virtuoso he




was rivaled by Hummel, who at this time gave to the world
his famous Septet, accepted by himself as his master-work.
Two other German composers so distinguished themselves that
they were invited to London to conduct the Philharmonic
accompaniments. They were Carl Maria von Weber, who
had just brought out his brilliant opera, "Der Freischiitz,"
and Ludwig Spohr, who performed in London his new Sym-
phony in D minor. Of other composers there were Franz
Schulbert, whose melodious songs and symphonies won him
the recognition of the Esterhazys and of Beethoven. Among
those whose career was but beginning were Jacob Meyerbeer,
a fellow pupil with Weber under Abbe Vogler at Vienna,
and Felix Mendelssohn, the precocious pupil of the famous
pianist Moscheles.
   Sir Frederick William Herschel, the greatest modern
astronomer, died at Slough in England. Herschel was born
in 1738 at Hanover. He was a musician of rare skill and
a self-taught mathematician of great ability. In 1757 he
deserted the band of Hanoverian Guards in which he played
the oboe, although a mere boy, and fled to England, where he
taught music and achieved success as a violinist and organist.
His studies in sound and harmony led him to take up optics;
and from optics to astronomy the step was short. Dissatis-
fied with the crude instruments of his time, he made his own
telescopes. By day he and his brother and sister ground
specula; by night he observed the heavens. His astronomical
work includes a careful study of variable stars; an attempt
to explain the relation of sun-spots to terrestrial phenomena;
the determination that the periods of rotation of various
satellites, like the rotation of our own moon, are equal to the
times of their revolutions about their primaries; and the dis-
covery of thre planet Uranus and two of its satellites, and of
the sixth and seventh satellites of Saturn. His greatest work
was his study of binary stars and the demonstration of




his belief that the law of gravitation is universal in its
   Canova, the celebrated sculptor, died at Venice, October
13. Antonio Canova was born in 1757 at Passaguo, near
Treviso. He was first an apprentice to a statuary in Bassano,
from whom he went to the Academy of Venice, where he had
a brilliant career. In 1779 he was sent by the Senate of
Venice to Rome, and there produced his Theseus and the
Slain Minotaur. In 1783 Canova undertook the execution
of the tomb of Pope Clement XIV. His fame rapidly in-
creased. He established a school for the benefit of young
Venetians, and among other works produced the well-known
Hebe and the colossal Hercules hurling Lichas into the sea.
In 1797 Canova finished the model of the celebrated tomb of
Archduchess Christina of Austria. Napoleon called the ris-
ing sculptor to France, and he there executed the famous nude
portrait of Napoleon now preserved in Milan. After his re-
turn to Italy he fashioned his Perseus with the Head of Me-
dusa at Rome. When the Belvidere Apollo was carried off
to France, this piece of statuary was thought not unworthy
of the classic Apollo's place and pedestal in the Vatican.
Among the later works of Canova are the colossal group of
Theseus Killing the Minotaur, a Paris, and a Hector. After
Napoleon's second fall in 1815, Canova was commissioned
by the Pope to demand the restoration of the works of art car-
ried from Rome. He went to Paris and succeeded in his
mission. At his return to Rome in 1816 the Pope created
him Marquis of Orchia, with a pension of 3,000 scudi, and
his name was entered in the Golden Book at the Capital.
His closing years were spent in Venice.
   Upon Canning's accession to the Ministry in England
Wellington was appointed representative of Great Britain
at the Congress of Powers convened at Vienna. The unset-
tled state of public opinion kept Wellington in England and




latpr at Paris. He did not join the Congress until after its
adjournment to Verona, to dispose of purely Italian affairs.
Thus it happened that the supplementary meetings at Verona
became the real European Congress of 1822. With the Nea-
politan problem practically settled, and the Greek war with
Turkey at a standstill, the situation in Spain was the most
vital issue. The Czar of Russia and iMetternich were deter-
mined not to tolerate the Constitution of the Spanish liberals.
Alexander hoped to make good Russia's non-intervention in
Greece by marching a victorious army into Spain. The ex-
treme Royalists of France, on the other hand, were so bent on
accomplishing this task themselves that they wvere resolved
not to permit any Russian troops to pass through France.
With the spectre of a general European war thus looming on
the horizon, England endeavored to hold the balance for
peace. Acting under the instructions of Canning, Wellington
declared that England would rather set herself against the
great alliance than consent to joint intervention in Spain.
In his despatches to Canning, Wellington expressed his belief
that this would result in a decision to leave the Spaniards to
themselves. The only result was that England was left out
of the affair altogether, as she had been in the case of Naples.
It was partly owing to this international slight that Canning
put his foot down so firmly in behalf of Portugal and the
South American colonies.
   At the Congress of Verona Metternich once more won the
day. With his backing, the French envoys, Montmorency
and Chateaubriand, in defiance of home instructions, eom-
mitted France to war with Spain. It was agreed that, in
default of radical changes in the Spanish Constitution,
France and her allies would resort to intervention. Welling-
ton for England rejected this proposal, but all the other
Powers consented. Louis XVIII went over to the war party
and appointed Chateaubriand Minister of Foreign Affairs




French Ambassador Recalled from Madrid-Duke of Angoulfme Leads
   Army into Spain to Restore Order-Cortes Withdraws to Cadiz
   and Appoints Regency-Dom Miguel Leads Counter-Revolution in
   Portugal-Central American States Federate in a Republic-Santa
   Anna Deposes Iturbide and Establishes Mexican Republic-Bolivar
   Proclaims Himself Dictator of Peru-Dom Pedro Dissolves Consti-
   tutional Assembly in Brazil and Exiles Its Leaders-Three Brazilian
   Provinces Revolt-French Storm  Cadiz-Liberals Release Ferdi-
   nand on His Signing Amnesty-He Breaks His Word and Pro-
   scribes All Liberals-He Revives the Inquisition-He Hangs Riego
   -Angoulfme Returns in Disgust to France-The Liberal Deputy,
   Manuel, is Ejected from French Chamber for Criticism of Spanish
   War-Guizot's Verdict on the War-Deaths of Generals Dumouriez
   and Davoust-Pius VII Dies and is Succeeded by Leo XII-Death
   of Jenner-Amherst Succeeds Hastings in India-Industrial and
   Literary Progress in America-Porter Ends Piracy in West Indies.

        HE Spanish Government was resolved to maintain
        national independence.    It would make no conces-
        sion. The French Ambassador in Madrid was re-
called. At the opening of the French Chambers in January,
thie King himself announced his decision: "One hundred
thousand Frenchmen, commanded by a prince of my family,
whom I fondly call my son, are ready to march with a prayer
to the God of St. Louis that they may preserve the throne of
Spain to the grandson of Henri IV. They shall save that
fair kingdom from ruin and reconcile it to Europe." By the
middle of March the Duke of Angouleme and his staff left
Paris. On April 7 the French vanguard crossed the Bidas-
soa, and the Duke entered Irun, welcomed by Spanish roy-
alists. About the same time the Cortes and Constitutional
Ministry left Madrid, and compelled King Ferdinand VII
to accompany them to Seville. The forces of the Spanish
Government fell back without striking a blow. Bands of
freebooters calling themselves royalists went pillaging
throughout the northern provinces. The commandant of



Madrid felt constrained to beg the French to hasten their ad-
vance lest the city fall a prey to the freebooters. Already the
looting of the suburbs had begun, when the French entered
the Spanish capital on the 24th of May. A regency was ap-
pointed under the Duke of Infantado.    The continental
Powers sent accredited representatives to Madrid. Mean-
while the Cortes withdrew to Cadiz. King Ferdinand re-
fiised to accompany them; so they declared him of unsound
mind, and appointed a regency over his head. The French
prepared to lay siege to Cadiz.
   Civil war broke out in Spain. Across the border in Por-
tuggal, Dom Miguel, the second son of the absent King, ex-
cited a counter-rovolutio6n. This state of affairs in the Pen-
insilda gave a finishing stroke to the royal cause in America.
In Central America the revolutionists of Costa Rica and
Guatemala, who had made common cause with Mexico, pro-
claimed their independence. In Mexico Santa Anna pro-
claimed the republic at Vera Cruz. Emperor Iturbide, who
felt his throne tottering beneath him, retired, and was ban-
ished from Mexico with an annuity. His sympathizers in
Costa Rica were overthrown in a battle at Ochomoco. On
the first day of July Costa Rica was united with its neigh-
boring States in the federation of Central America. Nor
had Peru been idle. Two royalist armies under Santa Cruz
had entered the upper provinces.   During the summer
months they overran the country between La Paz and Oruro.
But in early autumn they were forced back by the revolution-
ists under Bolivar, who entered Lima on September 1, and
had himself proclaimed dictator of Peru. In Brazil, during
this interval, the Constitutional Assembly had been convoked
in accordance with Dom Pedro's promise. Under the leader-
ship of the two Andrade brothers the delegates insisted on the
most liberal of constitutions. Dom Pedro's first attempt to
suppress the liberal leaders was foiled by the Assembly. Pi-




nally he dissolved the contentious assembly and exiled the
Andrade brothers to France. In the provinces of Pernam-
buco and Ceara a republic was proclaimed. Rebellion broke
out in Cisplatina.
   In Spain the two opposing regencies vied with each
other in retaliatory measures. Odious persecutions were in-
stituted on both sides. In vain the Duke of Angouleme
tried to restrain the reprisals of the Spanish royalists. In
August he appeared before Cadiz. He called upon King Fer-
dinand to publish an amnesty and restore the medieval Cortes.
But the Spanish Ministry, in the King's name, sent a defiant
answer. Cadiz was thereupon besieged. On August 30 the
French stormed the fort of the Trocadero. Three weeks later
the city was bombarded. For the Spanish liberals, the cause
had become hopeless. The French refused all terms but the
absolute liberation of the King, who had been seized and held
prisoner by the Cortes. On Ferdinand's assurance that he
bore no grudge against his captors, the liberals agreed to re-
lease him. On September 30 Ferdinand signed an absolute
amnesty. Next day he was taken across the bay to the French
headquarters. The Cortes dis