RECIPROCITY WITH CANADA



right to hold slaves.  Reeder, the newly appointed first
Governor, arrived. An election was ordered to choose a
delegate for Congress.   Armed Missourians from    across
the border took possession of the polls, and by methods
of intimidation elected Whitfield, a slave-holding delegate, to
Congress. At a second election thirteen State Senators and
twenty-six members of a Lower House were declared elected.
For this purpose 6,320 votes were cast-more than twice the
number of legal voters.
   Foreign affairs for a short while served to distract atten-
tion from the all-engrossing subject. Mexican boundary dis-
putes were further ended by a repeal of the obligation of
Guadalupe Hidalgo which required the Mexican frontier to
be defended against the Indians. For this release the United
States paid to Mexico 10,000,000.
   A reciprocity treaty was made with Great Britain which
opened to the United States all the frontiers of British Amer-
ica except Newfoundland, and gave to the British the right
to share the American fisheries to the 36th parallel. Com-
merce in breadstuffs, fish, animals, and lumber between the
United States and the British provinces was made free. The
St. Lawrence and Canadian Canals were opened to American
vessels. All future differences were to be settled bv arbi-
tration.
   During this year news arrived of the safe arrival of Frg-
mont's fifth expedition to California. He had crossed the
Rocky Mountains at the sources of the Arkansas and Colorado
Rivers, passed through the Mormon settlement, and discov-
ered a number of passes. He was chosen the first United
States Senator from California, and served for a short term.
   On February 28 the American steamship "Black War-
rior" was seized in Havana Harbor, and was confiscated by
the Spanish Government on the charge of filibustering. The
American House of Representatives prepared to suspend the
                           766



1854