of life into the literature and the philosophy of art, who has
encouraged it ten thousand times more effectually than all
our art unions, and that is the author of 'Modern Painters.'"
   In Italy the Neapolitan troops, emboldened by a success
at Cajazzo, had assumed the offensive in October. Garibaldi
drove them back to Cajazzo. Meanwhile King Victor Em-
manuel, crossing the Apennines, marched his troops to the
rear of the Neapolitan army.  The Bourbon commander
avoided both by moving northward toward Garigliano. It
was determined that Garibaldi with his followers should at-
tend to the Neapolitan garrison at Capua, while Victor Em-
manuel's armay pursued the Neapolitans in the open. The
questions at issue between Cavour' and Garibaldi -were left
to the new Parliament of Southern Italy. By an overwhelm-
ing majority, toward the close of October, the delegates voted
for the immediate union of Naples and Sicily with Northern
Italy. Capua surrendered in the first days of November,
and Victor Emmanuel made his entry into Naples. It was
the crowning achievement of Garibaldi's career. That popil-
lar leader now requested of the King the Lientenancy of
Southern Italy, with supreme military powers for the space
of a year. Victor Emmanuel, under the influence of Cavour,
replied very simply: "It is impossible." Declining any other
honor or reward, Garibaldi returned to Caprera. As he took
leave of his volunteers he said: "The next time, we march
on Rome and on Venice." Apart from this great goal, all
that remained to accomplish the union of Italy was the reduc-
tion of Gaeta and the citadel of Messina, the last refuges of
Bourbon rule in Southern Italy.
   In Mexico, toward the close of the year, the liberal forces,
supported largely by the natives, advanced upon the capital.
In the battle of San Miguelito, on December 22, Miramon's
forces were routed.  Ortaga, the victorious general, sum-
moned Juarez to come to the capital without delay to restor