xt77d7958f8t https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt77d7958f8t/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1943 journals kaes_circulars_003_396 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 396 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 396 1943 2014 true xt77d7958f8t section xt77d7958f8t I= A P · I C *
OO S I'O|GCt OI' LI--H Iubg
-__   ,·»»¢ I A ` I ·   ~ ———·»~»»~..c_.,_..
  V _ —  ix · .. .
 Iv  ,·/ I ‘ 5 ` I - ~ .
****`*·  »;:{ ·=--~Vv~:     I 2 I ’   , ’ I
I     { V  v`  ( > _     5 l     . r6.,__:  ` E V I
——   M   "   · g V *“ _' ,5    ,V,’ 1:;;; _v4,,,   .
    »°`= I , ' ° C"; ~ ‘   *7**       '
""   ·»-< E? ‘·:’   ·‘ ` I M   _ i   v I
_d   ‘  `. `‘“ _ Q". '   '`'‘   ` . fr ,  g '
HI,  \ I;   .__.   Vw _ ._.l,_{ ,     V. I U   ..   ,»   ,
'““ E   I  12 ;C`Q`.Z Q z ‘ Q       I E- . ~
__‘       lv ‘ r ‘s . E . T   ·) A ;¤r" `/V5    
  ¤,¤·   E * ( "ss  I  ,
" ‘ I   I I I I -» ` I » ’;     { — E   I
` I `_ 4/ K »     \__I,I , L _ [xw;
  · —   R  { _ ·-   x I _  j .  
*     _ E    
I , Q K    I 'E ·      
  7  3 Q   R N > ` I EIYZIL  _ kl  
·   - s, ,’.,,  j, `"’
V I   I ifi; =; ` ~
·   {  A ‘   ·=.   . \ rg_`»·
` Circular 396
Thomas P. Cooper, Dean and Director

11 1
I The following stx foods projects are available to 4-H Club
j girls:
j Breakfast
V 1 Supper or Lttncheon
l Dinner
School Lunch
The 4-H Club Member Entertains
4—H Bake Book
j Only one project should be undertaken within any one year ot Con
l »l—l-I club work. A girl beginning +1-1 club foods work should j
1 start -with "l%reakfast" and the following year take "Supper or (
l,llll(`ll€0Il.n After having Hnished these two units she may 1
` choose the following three projects in the order desired. "Din- j
ner," "School Lunch," and "The 4-H Club Member Entertains." .
The "·l-1-1 Bake Book" should be the last food project taken 1
‘ .\ll girls should keep complete records of foods work, includ- I
ing the project requirements and the “extras" done at home. Kee
.-\t tlte completion of a series of food projects the records may
protc ol` great value in competing for (`()ll11ly. state and national
iI\\’2ll`(l>_ l Stuj
rllll(‘ work ol tltc ·l-H Foods Projects is planned to do at least ·
ltrc things: {
(Qive knowledge ol wltolesotne loodsr tlteit preparation and cotnhi D
nation er
l'o interest girls in sharing the responsibility ot pteparing foods fot
themselves and their families need
Improve health habits `
Promote tt varied, well-balanced diet H0]
l leach correct table service and table tnatnters
\l5liRl£\”lJ\’|`l()\S .·\\ll) THEIR l’.Ql|l\’1·\LEN'I`$
T ..,., . tablespoon ...... 3 I
t ......... .... teaspoon . .............. _ WU
c .........,... cup . ...... . . I6 "I ji-
oz .........   . .. ounce ..1.....   .. 2T lll
lh ..... , ,... pound . ........ ,,.. ..1. 16 oz. j tltll
g . .. .......... . gill ....r....,, . . % C eq.;
pt . . . . ......,.. pmt ......... . ......,. 2 C
qt . .. ... ........... (IUHTY ...... . . .1... 2 P1 (OU
gal . .... . gallon , .. .   . ·l ql km

Foods Project for 4-H Clubs
li; linrrn Inter, RlJ'l`I·l LA‘rm1-Ln, and .»\xi1ex l$uit put this knowledge into practice €V€l`}’ (lii}`?

  -1 lixtitxstos (ilR(1l’l..-\R No. Iitlti
l   _ * V y. I     
l   A . ‘ '’’_ ` l· ot
(   r * _   _   .,_ _  .§¢ -* ._ rttanu
’   i   —— —-’ 1 as M "  t -  rt   1
`   T ‘ ·¤.:,.*=  ~  A   X,    
r V   `\ "{I ii     ’ Il X I ` V V ` z i JZ  XX  
E V `-"?’“ _ ' =" `; ly: · '¥:?~3r·n?‘   ‘  •»,.,   c V    
      _ -_  V - ~     _ V -e €,·_ i _
i _       { .t  , ‘  ""   _,,   - Q   M some
l ’ » “  i (   " { —•‘ ‘   (   >·"*V  .‘¤  ‘`` ·  T      A ,,   - . ‘ enervt
     M  A  i vrwy     V V V  _ ··   - -4.  4 .:_ -  - _— 0.
   or-  - 2%   · fer/’   ` _. ’~ _     ‘
      .   . . ‘¤ - PI
rr:.-’ i·   rfw ::2,, .
( J¤?;;et41€,$mr$»4i‘2.%;%>:’stm.- »t keep
V  _ __'_ _ _ _ _ ,. _ , _ . _, _  ._,..   $|]](_j(j
      L, Z ;  .,..- >. 7 .-,.   *” ' ’
‘ These foods, eaten in the right amounts, will provide the nourishment need- by SW
ed by the body every day. {moth
Eat each day
. . . M
One q1mr/ of mzlk because it gives:
_ . ‘ . and f
Lalcmnt lor bone and teeth
Protein for muscle growth and repair ol body good
Vitamins for health tion,
Two vegetables (one green or yellow) because they giye: the b
Minerals for healthy blood and for bone ( body
Vitamins necessary for health 1 _
Two fruits (tomatoes, oranges or grapefruit should be one) l) 105.
because they give vitamins and minerals l`or health. is 1c'
- - . . n *
bggs (at least one a day), meat, cheese, dried peas and beans bt- {fd
· is 1
cause they give: ’
l’roteins for growth Y
Iron for healthy blood and
Vitamins for health Y
- I _ _ __ V ood
bu/ler (l to 3 servings) because 1t gives:
* l·`at lor energy. work and play \
Vitamin A 11lSO
‘ Cremn, peanut butter or other lats containing vitamins. Wm
Breads and cereals (l to 2 servings of whole-grain bread, or teteal, _ (
or enriched white bread) because they give; uw
\'itamins for health YM
Iron for healthy blood   I
Protein for mnsele growth and repair lll V
Starrh for energy to work and play
l.ir]11ids (2 quarts or more. as water. milk. and lrnit `lttlttts) he
cause they are: W2
Needed by body tissues ·
.\n aid to digestion and preyent constipation
Sntrels betiause they give energy

I tl-H Foons l’uo_|ect: l’»RE.·\Kl·`ASl 5
Composition of Foods
C l·`oods are composed of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals,
ritainins, water, and cellulose. The functions which a food performs
depend upon its composition.
i Carbohydrates and fats furnish heat for the body and energy
for play and work. The carbohydrates are the starches and sugars.
Some fats also contain vitamins. Active boys and girls need much
energy foods. _
f Protein chiefly makes muscle and flesh. lt builds and helps to
keep in repair muscles, glands, nerves, blood, in fact all body tissues.
Since building and growing is the most important business of youth
up to twenty years of age, protein foods should not be crowded out 4
by sweets. Eat a variety of foods because the protein differs one from V _
another. Milk, cheese, eggs, lean meat, fish, fowl, nuts, soybeans, Q
dried peas and beans contain much protein. i
Minerals.- Minerals help build the muscle, Hesh, teeth, bone,  
and Huids of the body; they help to regulate or to keep the body in ,
good working order; they aid in the processes of digestion, heart ac-
tion, and secretion. Hemoglobin, a compound containing iron, makes
the blood red and gives it its power to carry oxygen throughout the  
t body. Many mineral substances are used by the body, but calcium,  
phosphorus, iron, and copper are the most important ones. Calcium
_ is required in building bone, teeth, and body fiuids. Phosphorus is
,_ needed for every body tissue. Fruits and vegetables, milk, lean meat,
Esh, eggs, cereals, peas, and beans are sources of mineral substances.
Vitamins.- Certain substances called vitamins stimulate growth
and help build up resistance to disease. They are present in most
foods as they exist in nature but are absent in highly refined foods.
Water aids digestion and prevents constipation. lt is important
also as a regulating substance. Body tissues are about three-fourths
I water. Each person needs 6 or 8 glasses of water a day.
I Cellulose.- lndigestible fiber in vegetable foods gives bulk to
the material in the alimentary tract and thus helps prevent consti-
pzttion. This Hber is not classed as a separate food but it is found
in most vegetable foods.
t» Kitchen Etiquette
Working procedure.- \tVhen working with foods obserrt· the tol-
lowing suggestions:
\\'ea1‘ hair back or held in plate with il ribbon or pins.
\\.(`ill` Il ClC2lll \\'2iSl] (lTۤ5 (Jl` {lll 1ll)l`()Il.

f ‘
    ti lixtt xstos (`ntt.t tan No. Iltlti
W   _ , .
  \\'ash hands thoroughly and clean linger nails. \\ ear no rings.
l Keep a hand towel anti a kitchen holder near.   \.\’
i Read recipe Ilzorottghly, plan work. and assemble net‘cssary‘ utensils and ma- Units
l terials. .  
, llave tire ready at right time, \\'
Keep the kitchen. stove. antl table neat and in order. them
` Avoid wasting materials. . ,l kui
l Never taste food fl`01]l the spoon used in cooking. Ljse an extra spoon for
tasting antl put the food into it from the stirring spoon. i Jul 1
(jlean tip as the work is done. sCt`\’1I
l'ut dishes to soak antl wash them as there is titne. , iukc
Do not waste footl. ` ` 0101
. . . . . . t` `J
Washmg dishes.- bcrape food from all dishes and stack them · B
in piles according to kind. Rinse, in cold water, dishes which have mgm
l been used for milk, eggs, or starchy foods. Soak sticky dishes in hot ` O
water and wipe greasy dishes Utll. well with paper before washing. W ll
Partially fill a dishpan with hot, soapy water and a rinsing pair with MCC
hot, clear water. Wasli glassware first, next silver, and their other lukic
dishes according to their cleanliness, washing the cooking utensils l Q
last. After drying all the dishes, wash the dish towels and cloths, rinse WMC
well, hang straight and then dry in the sun, if possible. Scedt
~ pare
Study and discussion 'l‘°Y
l. Menu planned at home (
2. Foods for regulating the functions of the body and
3. Fruits I
Importance of eating fruit
l·`ruits most needed and why
Fruits for breakfast
· (
Demonstrations 1
. . . . _ 7 C'}
. l. Make attractue servings ol lresh fruits. l (
2. (look dried antl fresh fruits in season. Jllll
Il. Serie tiooketl or tanned fruits in a variety of nays. l)t‘ft
l. Report hy eaeli tluh member on home work. ·
Home work to l<
l. (lollett and plate in tilt: retipes for cooking antl setting Itttit. BY
2. l’reparc fruits for at least 3 breakfasts. Wm
Value of Fruits in the Diet PTY
0 ·
l·`tt1tts supply minerals and vitamins necessary for growth imtl mu
good health. They contain cellulose which aids digestion and €lU“‘ h
inatiou. 'l`ht· acid fruit iuittes are mildly laxative. Include two frtttt~
in tht· dailt diet. fresh preferalily, or. if fresh fruit is not 11\'1lllZll)lf`·
tanned or tlrietl finitr W:

 »l-H Foons l’trn. (nm.
2. l)ish washing —-
l. Show samples of various cereals, raw and prepared.
2. Cook a cereal; oatmeal. cornmeal. grits. rice or whole wheat
fl. Show ways of getting variety by: SUP
Adding fruits. raisins. prunes. or apples
Cooking in milk i
Serving with brown sugar or honey
Home work.- Cook cereals for 2 breakfasts.
Breakfast cereals.- Cereals are the grains that are ordinarily
eaten. such as wheat, corn, rice, oats, rye, and barley. Raw cereals.
such as rolled oats and corn meal. are much cheaper than "readv-to·
eat." kinds. such as puffed wheat and cornflakes.

 i 4-H Foons l’izo_yi:c‘r: tsiuz-xki=t·ts·r y
l A Cereals supply energy and build muscles. \‘Vhole cereals which ·
· ' contain outer coats of the grain help to regulate the process of diges-
* tion and elimination. They are richer also in mineral and vitamin
· I B content than rehned cereals. \\’hole cereals are therefore better
foods than more hirhl V refined cereals.
. és 5
3 ‘ Much depends upon the proper cooking of cereals. To make them
Q palatable and digestible most cereals should be cooked long and slow-
_ ly. For this reason the use of a double boiler or a pan set in another
li I over hot water is advisable.
l c wheat 1 L salt
I c water
Q \\'ash grains of wheat through several waters until clean. ,·\dd #1 cups C
h of water and soak overnight. Boil for fill minutes. .-\dd salt. Put into Q
H xt double boiler and cook 7 to S hours or until grains are popped and  
C starch is cooked. Serve with whole milk or thin cream. {
(_ i
Proportions, Time, and Method of Cooking Cereals (
(Allow 1/4 - IA t salt for each cup of water used)
tl Double boiler Dir€Cl h€2¤l  
` Cereal Water for Water for ' _ {
l cup of Cooking time I cup of (Cooking time _
cereal I ¤<21`€2il
Yrs ,74(.  47 V as
cups hr. min. cups /1:1 min.
Rice ............... S fl fill 2-El 0 HO
(Zracked wheat .... »I 2 ll ‘l ll I5
Hominy grits (not (
quick cooking) .. ·I 2-3 0 I 2 0
Rolled oats (not _
quick cooking}   ltgq M-I fl 2 fl JQ
(Zormneal _,,,__,,,. ti l-2 ll fi It `lf
(i1`Utll11 of wheat ,__, 5 Il I5 3 II Zllsdll
Study and discussion
I. Water. the most important lieyeiage
2. \Ii|k. a food used as a beverage
Value in the diet
.-\mount needed daily
lv il. Coffee and tea
I History
l>~ Effect of stimulants
O, I. Cocoa and chocolate

  ll) 1ix‘ri2xsio>c Ciiarzirisuz No. 396
i y Demonstrations
I Make and serve cocoa and cinnamon toast. ` A/IOS
l Reports by club members ups dri
Home work A mam rl
y l. Prepare beverages for 3 family breakfasts. liuluc (
i 2. Plan 2 breakfasts for the family. In then
un esse
Water Tea ai
Wate1‘ is the most important of all beverages. lt is needed by the $mm3€i
y body every day and in large amounts for the following purposes: g¤`0U¤d
'l`o aid in the digestion of food Blythe
` 'l`o help carry digested food into the blood ll is in
To regulate the amount of fluid in the blood ~
'l`o keep the body at the right teinperatine by evaporation
To carry olf waste matter l`ro1n the body I
To be a part of the body tissues · Q
Some water is furnished to the body l`rom the foods eaten. ln ll
addition, we should each of us drink 6 to 8 glasses of water every day. WX ft
Milk hot by
Milk is one of our most important foods. lt supplies calcium and *¤¤`vdY
and condensed milk or starch has been added. Beverages made from It
t‘OcO2t or Chocolate therefore have food value in themselves, and 7*5 l"l`0i€
milk usually is used in making the drinks they have the added f0<>0i1i
value of the milk. that

 4-H Foons l’Ro_y12c’t; BRli.\KFAS'l' ll
Coffee and Tea
l Most food specialists advise that growing children let the grown-
ups drink the coffee and tea, and that the children drink milk. The
main reason for this, of course, is that coffee and tea have no food
value (except the food value ol` such cream and sugar as may be used
in them), but that milk, as pointed out in a foregoing paragraph, is
an essential food. Both coflce and tea contain a stimulant, callcin.
Tea also contains tannin, which tends to make the foods in thc
t· stomach harder to digest. Naturally, as these materials are in thc
ground coffee or the tea leaves, the longer the colfee or tea is boiled,
or the longer the boiled grounds or leaves stand in the liquid alter
it is made, the more of the stimulants will be in the beverage. _
(1()(1()A (for »l persons) Q '
I 'l` cocoa . IQ c cold water  
' 2 'l` sugar Ill-Q ti milk  
11 Dash of salt ;
t. Nlix cocoa, sugar, salt and water in saucepan and place over direct  
heat. Stir until smooth: boil 2 minutes. .-\d
~ Break the desired number of eggs into a shallow, greased b2tlver·flowing and then leveling. FBIS HTC P?iCkC(l
telidly into [hg ]T]C;]S[]]`Q_ Half fl gpmmful is it Sp0OT1flll  i ts?   cla sttt the
1 1     ..   ’*.%  i `     Vv%-?   ‘     -
1 1. _..A,_· . _ A-· 1·;    .,,1 . _   I             "‘“ “““
l l   ,       .   ttiztkes 1
S    ..1   li   `»`\V ’      c    .1”r>#+11t*<¤~:;a  €%;I . . ·
1 ‘ 1 . ..1 "Y ‘ 1 ·‘ ”..1»,.       %*‘· r 1:  ·?   ,;·<;i1 i1rtt1Cl 1
1 1          ’        1 1     .v—1 —. ,1 <1    
1     —·,v 1 1 Q   * -·  .1. -   , ~‘ ’>‘1€t’,1§ /131,rgs  ’  1~1;»1» F'     ifsft; 1 11l0ti€l`2l
1 *11  L ·.1_  by as  1 p "  ` ‘  Ya  Yi, .    
1 " ·—·~·-~·~». *2.12,  ·     1-1.-,;···;5·`*` ···¤·•&¤   1     V
1 / ·‘¢ —     · "     . 1~  
, ~   za;   . ,, t. s-..,_ 3; 1,,  t¢i_,1_éa
1 _. ~ . 1 1,  ·"   1 ~·~—1—  t1= ·~-, M  .   31;;%
i     1 i.]•é#?‘TQ` gy     1
.   %·i*%g..j;1 _ ° ‘¤ — ‘··— r M   Z 1 ' 1 e . 1,1J,
Qin     1 ’~·-‘ Et? ‘?“ ~     e V   . '7
1    “  1»11       ‘“’*’ 1 ‘;’’*’  ? »‘’·· ‘   *-‘·i   **`’   *111 dn
.     °?* ‘1.1   . “ . ri        111t— 11ti·
        |   1.,---1     1      
»               ,     1~ 11111
~· .   ·’1.   · 1        11 .1=¤     .   ,=.   mil. g
~~ I ``1' '     /»11 W   *?   '`:`   ~    i ’”=`; iii i""l"‘i·
~ ’‘``   `1>. 1 7°' Y 15 .. -   ·' ‘ '   i **1%
       ,1:1* 11 . ·~·’ .w1'.¢i ...»»1¤   satttta 1~·1—
  -   ’’·1 f     *1,»1,1   · _ ,¢*—¢?’··*··$t=·f<   1 1
    .`.,,   s    ,:0.% ,r _;i   _  ’ · tile.! 1   ~g~ .
12t;_. t—_;ig;i  1    11,    V.   _     ek i(ILl5|,
  1 · . *` ,. N .,» .;  we ,11~2;_’ §;~··&:»_,2··=~1=a . F-"  ··¢n-  , .,  1.,:,.,,; s t
iiIiif ;‘/    V  ·;·'     ,,4_.. .   *" ° — · '   i`”“' lttttntm
  —»   ‘ it   .
 M n ]  »»1= 2 .,~» 1   1 "‘ A   4 1 — WA , __V _ nt war
1. Sift dry ingredients before mixing. 2. Put Hour into cup with a spoon.
Do not pack. 3. Flour is leveled off with a spatula or the back of knife. I
4. Measure baking powder with a measuring spoon. Level off with knife ‘ 2
or spatula. hmsl
is scrvt
lengthwise with one—half taken away, One-fourth spoonful is a hall`-
spoonful crosswise with the division line a little nearer the liautllc
end of the bowl. Graduated measuring spoons and measuring 11111* Study
ensure more satisfactory results. ant
Mixtures which are thin enough to be beaten with a spoon ¤11<` 1 Demo
called batters, such as griddle cakes and muffins; those thick cnouglt 1. 1
· . 2. I
. to be handled on the board are doughs, such as biscuit and pie t·1t1»1. __ `
.1. .
Leavemng Agents Home
Quick breads are made with a leavening agent which acts ttuttkik 1,
enabling them to be baked at once. Baking powder, soda. ot KQQ
are used in making quick breads. They may be used in combinatttm ‘
or separately.  
xtttrrms Y '
2 tx flour 1 well-beaten egg m_ H
fl t baking ptttvtlct 11/1; c milk ~1§&1111_
l T sugar 2-11'T melted fat Mm,.
l t salt ”

 IYH Fntins l’R()_)l'(ZlZ l’»Rtl.\KF.-\St I5 V
. silt the dry ingredients together. .\dd the tnilk to the egg. Combine
tlte mixtures. Add the lat. Beat only enough to mix; longer beating
. makes muilins more compatt and inclined to form tunnels. Put the
Iratter into oiled inuflin pans, lilling them about % full. Bake in a
moderate oven lor 25 minutes. Remove from the pans at once.
l c llour 134 c freshly soured milk
tf t salt I well-beaten egg
tg t soda rtnore or less accord- l T melted fat
ing to acidity ol` tnilk)
wilt dry ingredients together. Mix sour milk, egg, and lat. Combine
the mixtures. Drop by spoonluls on a hot griddle (which may or
may not be oiled depending on the kind). Wheii the batter has risen, _
is lull ol` bubbles. and eooked on edges, turn it and cook the other V _
side. Serve at once. '1`he cakes will brown better il l il` ol sugar is I
loast. brt·ad, spread with butter and sprinkle with a mixture ol tin— '
ttatuott and sugar, using 3 parts sugar to l ])2II`l (`IIIIIZUIIOII. l.et stand V
in warm oven until sugar has tnelted. .
I l pt sealded tnilk ti t salt  
` 2 'l` butter (3 sliees dry bread '
loast bread; butter and pour the scalded milk over the toast as it V
ts served.
tm. Meeting VII. QUICK BREADS (Biscuits)
‘l’” Study and discussion.- Biscuits: Proportion ol materials in doughs
. and methods ol` mixing them; variations
¥*I" Demonstrations
IQ_lI l. Make biscuits.
ht, Y. Make one tariation ol plain bistnit tt‘t’i|tt‘.
Il, Serve tea bistttit and toeoa.
l. judge biscuits.
Home work
bl" l. Make plain biscuits ll titties.
tug Y. Xlake variations once.
ion IIIS(LlJl'I>
2 r sol`t-wheat llour El 'l` lat
l I salt l scant tt sour milk
_ UQ I baking powder tg t soda
\1ll llour before measuring, .\dtl dri ingredients to flour and silt
`lblllll- Cut. lat into (lry l]]g[`Q(ll(‘|ll\_ with 2 ktti\‘<‘s or tt |J2I$\I\ l>lCII*`li B
baking putt, leaving space between tltent. Put pan into 21 ltot oven T so that
y (»l5()° l·`) and bake lt) to l2 ntinutes, or ttntil golden brown. _ Thi
1 ctnximon tstscuttr 1 l*"'l“·
l·`ollow recipe for biscuits to tlte poittt of rolling. Roll dough to ty; V  ull) lm
inch thickness. Spread lightly with soft or melted butter, sprinkle i “'“h ll
witlt tttixture of ~1 T sugar and l T cinnatnon. Roll as for jelly roll   'i`h·
and slice itt %,—inclt slices. Place itt putt with Cllt side down. Bake » tlvtlgh
i tlte saute as for biscuits. Serve hot.  
` R.*\lSlN—NU'l` BISCUIT T
Roll as for cinttatnott biscuit. Spread with butter; spr