xt77h41jhh9r https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt77h41jhh9r/data/mets.xml Kentucky Geological Survey. 1889  books b97-21-37317562 English Johnson, : Frankfort, [Ky.] : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Geology Kentucky Whitley County. Geology Kentucky Pulaski County. Coal Kentucky.Crandall, A. R. (Albert Rogers), 1840- Report on the geology of Whitley County and part of Pulaski  : with map and illustrations / by A.R. Crandall. text Report on the geology of Whitley County and part of Pulaski  : with map and illustrations / by A.R. Crandall. 1889 2002 true xt77h41jhh9r section xt77h41jhh9r 















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  Page 7, eighteenth line from top, for north-test read north-n-St; piage 16, general
section, "4Place of Lilly Coal," omitted near top; and for Bryan read Bryvan, below;
Plate-view of Jellico Mountain, etc., read View f ro  Jellico Mountain, etc. Page 26,
next to last line, period after Station, and read southward from Pine-Knot Station.
This bed may De found, etc.



J. R. PROCTER, Director of the Kentucky Geological Survey:
  SIR: In coFItilltlance of the work of the Survey under
your direction, I submit the accompanying report on the
geology of Whitley county, and an adjacent part of Pu-
laski. In respect to this report, it is b)ut just to state
that many adverse circumstances have conspired to delay
its completion, even on the basis of a preliminary report.
As an offset to this, it will be found to be based on a
more detailed study of some portions of this region, -which,
from the lack of readily recognized horizons, and also of
exposures of economic beds, would otherwise have been less
adequately, if not incorrectly, represented. In respect to this,
it should be added that the equivalency of economic beds in
different parts of this extensive field is still a matter of doubt
in some localities; and the extension of these beds through
areas in which they may be supposed to occur, as known ele-
ments of the general section, must of necessity be left to
future developments; but the facts essential to an intelligent
view of the possibilities of this region, will be found to he
embodied in this report.
                  Very respectfully,
                              A. R. CRANDALL,
                    Assistant Kentucky Geological Survey.

 This page in the original text is blank.


                  PULASKI COUNTY.

  Whitley county embraces a territory about 600 square miles
in area; extending in irregular outline from the Tennessee line
northward, across the valley of the Cumberland river, in its
detour around the higher drainage plain of Knox and Laurel
counties. It reaches along the State line from a point a few
miles east of Pine Mountain, on the Clear Fork of the Cumber-
land river above the "Narrows," to the South Fork of the
Cumberland, a distance of 34 miles.
The county was organized in 1818 from a part of Knox
county, and Williamsburg, centrally located on the Cumber-
land river, and now a townl of considerable business impor-
tance, was made the County-town.

  The topography of Whitley presents some interesting feat-
ures which are traceable, with various modifications, along
the border of the eastern coal field, from the Ohio river south-
ward into Tennessee. This border is in general marked by
prominent but broken escarpments, the receding outcrop of
the Subearboniferous limestone and of the Conglomerate
sandrock of the coal measures, which rise above the east-
ward-dipping Devonian and Subcarboniferous shales, forming a
distinct line of demarkation between the central blue-grass
plains and the hill lands of Eastern Kentucky. To the south-
ward, however, this line becomes less definite with the depres-
sion of the Silurian axis, and the attendant widening of the
erosion plains on the outcrop of the several geological forma-
tions which rise above it to the eastward. The main drainage
is across these formations westward, like that of the Kentucky



river valley. The tributary rivers and larger creeks, as also the
Cumberland river itself, locally flow in valleys that conform
somewhat to lines of outcrop, or to the strike of the rock
formations. This is more noticeable in the western portion of
the county, and in Pulaski, where the streams flow in the
rocks near the base of the coal measures, than eastward,
where the thickening of the series tends to reduce the dip to
a slight inclination, and even to reverse it in some of the
upper beds.
  Like Elliott county, Whitley region has its two types of
country. The north-western portion, known in part as the
Flatwoods, has much in common with the Conglomerate table-
lands of western Elliott, illustrating an advanced condition
in the leveling stage of erosion, while the south-eastern part,
like the eastern half of Elliott, illustrates with striking con-
trast the hill and valley stage.  South of the Cumberland
river, the hill region begins abruptly with the Jellico Mountain,
which rises from the foot of the Flatwoods slope to a height
of 1,000 to 1,20() feet. iNorth of the river the Flatwoods
topography extends eastward to the main Watts creek val-
ley, gradually approaching in relief, the hills which form the
east side of the valley.  These hills are less than 600 feet
high, but they fall in line with, and may, in a general way,
be regarded as a continuation of the Jelhico range.
  While the general south-east dip of the rock beds gives to
the country belts of successive geological formations, with
striking contrasts in the topography of the region as a whole,
the special features which are seen in traveling across these
belts are so characteristic as to serve in a general way as an
index of the geology of the several belts.
  The rocks exposed in this field represent a part of the De-
vonian age and the greater part of the Carboniferous age.
The divisions of the latter only are conspicuous in the topog-
raplhy of the region, the former being brought to the surface
at the Pine Mountain fault, in a belt too narrow to give it any
prominence in the surface features of that mountain. The
Oriskany beds of the Upper Silurian underlie this formation,
covered from view mostly by the horizontal coal measure rocks
at tlle foot of the mountain. The Waverly group or knobstone



















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formation of the Subearboniferous division, like the Devonian
black slate, has its outcrop beyond the limit of the field treated
of in this report, but is exposed by the Pine Mountain fault,
so covered by the soil and fragments from overlying ledges as
to make its thickness, supposed to be about 150 feet, a matter
of doubtful estimation.
  The Subearboniferous limestone, the mountain limestone of
the older reports, extends into this field, bringing with it the
characteristic rocky slopes, sinking creeks and red soil of that
formation. Being at the base of the series in this region, it is
prominent in the lowest drainage only on the north-western
borde . It falls below the Cumberland river below the nmouth
of the Iaurel river, as represented in the accompanying map.
  The rocks of this division represent the St. Louis and
Chester groups. The former is conspicuous in the hard grey
limestone of Point Burnside, Somerset and Mt. Vernon, hav-
ing a thickness of 2t50 feet or more. This formation is less
prominent to the north-west. Lesley, in his report on the
western outcrop line of the eastern coal field of Kentucky,
gives the thickness on Buck creek, in Pulaski county, at 250
feet, and at Mt. Vernon, at 182 feet. This thickness is de-
creased to 50 or 60 feet in Menefee county, and only isolated
patches of limestone are found on the Ohio river in Greenup
county, as noted in reports on these regions.
  The Chester group is less conspicuous. It is represented by
earthy buff limestone, alternating with greenish and reddish
marly shales, having an aggregate thickness of 25 to 40 feet.
These beds are for the most part covered along with the lower
beds of the formation above, so that the thickness is not easily
obtained This has led to some confusion in statements of
the relation of the coals above to the top of the Subearbon-
iferous rocks. This formation is fully exposed in a cut at
Happy Hollow Station, on the Cincinnati Southern Railway,
and at the mouth of Rockcastle river.
  The Pine Mountain exposures of the Subcarboniferous lime-
stone is in an abrupt, partially covered ledge above the olive
shales and fine-grained sandstone of the Waverly group. The
estimated thickness is 300 feet or more. A prominent bench




is formed by this limestone about half way up the mountain
throughout its entire length.
  The next formation above the Chester group is the Conglom-
erate division of the Carboniferous rocks, which forms the
ridge traversed by the Cincinnati Southern Railway south of
Happy Hollow Station, and which gives to the South Fork
and the Rockeastle river valleys their striking natural features.
  Respecting the limits of this formation, some confusion has
heretofore parevailed which requires sonme notice.
  This group of rocks, which varies in thickness from 10 feet
in the hill back of Springville, on the Ohio river, to about 45(0
feet in the South Fork region, is made up in its south-western
extension of alternating beds of shale, associated with coal
seams, and of much more prominent coarse sand-rock ledges.
some of which are conglomeratic with white quartz p)ehbles.
The latter characteristic is more definite and persistent in the
upper ledges, as also the shaly, coal-bearing beds are more
prominent towards the base. For this reason Professor Lesley,
in his report mentioned above, divides the formation into two-
members, the Conglomerate and the Sub-conglomerate, giving
to the latter much the greater thickness. In a report on the
Geology of Menefee county, the writer followed this classifica-
tion so far as to call the Menefee coal a Sub-conglomrerate seam,
and the terms Sub-conglomerate and inter-conglomerate have.
at various times, been used in the description of the coal beds
of this formation, in the attempt to find designations suited to
the facts as developed in different localities.
  A more thorough acquaintance with the formation as ex-
posed in various parts (,f Eastern Kentucky, and especially
as found in the Pine and Cuimberland Mountains, where the
thickness exceeds 1,50) feet, and where the conglomerate char-
acter obtains so generally as to give the name to the whole
series, leads to the conclusion that it would be more consistent
smith all the facts to regard the formation in all its phases as
the Conglomerate division of the coal measures simply.
Whether all the rocks included between the Chester group,
as described, and the recognized top of the Conglomerate, as
exposed in varying thickness at its western outcrop, constitute
an equivalent representative of the Pine Mountain Conglom-



Cumberland Fails, Whitley Co.

 This page in the original text is blank.



erate may, perhaps, be questioned.  The fact remains, how-
ever, that most, if not all of them, do represent that formation
by position; and while it is true that for a part of the series
the name Conglomerate is far from descriptive, and may,
without explanation, be misleading, this can hardly stand as
a reason for retaining a descriptive classification which is
misleading in the more important matter of place and equiva-
lency in the general geological section. The whole assemblage
of rocks in question will therefore be treated as the Congloni-
erate in division of the coal measures.
  To avoid, in part, the repetition of a somewhat cumbersome
name, and to have the advantage of an equivalent typical
designation for the formation, as seen along the border of the
coal-field, and as well illustrated in the Rockeastle river region,
this assemblage of rocks will, in this report, sometimes be
called the Rockcastle group, as also the greatly thickened
equivalent formation in the Pine Mountain, will representa-
tively be called the Pine Mountain group.
  With this explanation, the description of the conglomerate
formation of the region in question can readily be made to
accord with Lesley's report, which relates to a portion of this
field, and to regions adjoining in Rockcastle, Pulaski and
Wayne counties.
  The topography of the conglomerate formation is more
characteristic than that of any other group in Eastern Ken-
tucky.  A partial illustration of this may be seen traveling
by rail across this belt, as in the Sinkingr creek valley, on the
Newport News and Mississippi Valley Railway; from Hazle
Patch to Altamont, on the Knoxville Branch of the Louisville
& Nashville; and from Sloan's Valley, southward on the Cin-
cinnati Southern. The features, however, which may be ob-
served from the car window are without special significance,
except to those who have seen some of the towering walls
which, like those on the Rockcastle river, and in a portion of
the South Fork region, hem in the narrow drainage valleys
with massive ledges and overhanging cliffs. In both of these
regions, whether from above looking across or down into the
walled valleys, or from the valleys looking up at the castellated
hills, the scenic effects are unusually imposing. But, again,



the real wealth of scenery can be realized by those only who
clamber about these laurel-fringed walls, seek out their unique
water-worn recesses, the haunts of rare ferns, and who appre-
ciatively note the picturesque carvings of time, in massive rock
reliefs, and in the pictured record of the surface gravery.
  Attention is called to these features as giving to this belt an
interest and a value which will be greatly increased in coming
years. These romantic regions are admirable recreation grounds
or natural parks. It will interest botanists to know that two
of our more rare ferns, the climbing fern (Lygodium palniaturm)
and the moss fern (Trichormanes radicans) are found in some
parts of this belt, both in considerable abundance.
  The great Rockhouse and natural bridge and the Gulf, two
or three miles west of Cumberland Falls Station, illustrate
some of the striking results of the erosion of this massive
formation, and among the many interesting special features
in the Rockcastle region, the great Horse-shoe Rockhouse, on
a lranch of Bear creek, is especially noteworthy.
  South-eastward the Conglomerate cliffs decrease in height.
as seen on the Laurel river and on Marsh creek, and the con-
tinued dip carries the Rockeastle group below the drainage of
the south-eastern half of the Flatwoods region. The low hills
of this belt are miade uip of the shales and sand-rock of the
coal measures above the conglomerate division.
  In the Conglomerate belt, the farm land is on the table-land
areas between the abrupt drainage valleys. The soil is sandy,
but is not lacking in retentive clay. Under ordinary cultivation
it is only moderately productive after the vegetable humus of
the newly-cleared land has been exhausted.  A considerable
portion of this belt is still valuable forest land.
  The Pine Mountain uplift presents the conglomerate forma-
tion in greatly increased thickness. It gives to this mountain its
rugged features. The whole group is exposed in the Narrows,
the Clear Fork water-gap in this fault scarp, at the State line.
The estimated thickness by barometric observation exceeds
1.000 feet-more than twice the thickness of the equivalent
lRockcastle group, 25 miles to the westward. The Pine Moun-
tain group includes beds of shale and of shaly sandstone, at
intervals of 100 to 200 feet between the Conglomerate benches.



Rock House ("Falcon's Retreat"), Rockcastle Springs, Pulaski Co.

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The lower massive member of this group, instead of being
conglomeratic, is largely made up of a hard quartzose like sand-
rock, which breaks up into irregular angular fragments, that
are scattered over the steep slope above the limestone bench,
adding to the difficulty of reaching the top of the mountain.
  It will be noticed by those who visit this gorge, that the St.
Louis group is exposed at the river level at the lower entrance
of the Narrows. This is in consequence of the greater erosion
at this place, producing an eastward deflection in the face of
the mountain, and exposing the limestone along its dip from
the limestone bench to the bed of the river. Here the Devo-
nian black slate and the WVaverly group are covered along the
river bottom. Going uip the gorge of the Narrows, the dip de-
creases from about 20 to 13 degrees, and the "Bee-rock," the
upper member which is so prominent in the topography of
the rock-terraced south eastern slope, falls to the drainage level
near the mouth of Hickory creek, giving l)lace again in the
topography to the coal measure rocks above.
  The disturbed condition of the rocks in some parts of the
gorge indicates a break without any considerable vertical dis-
placement, traversing the mountain axis, and facilitating the
cutting out of this drainage gap. A careful study of this
region, with reference to this and other geological problems,
has not been made. This water gap offers a practicable way
for a railway line through the Pine Mountain barrier, the Pine-
ville gap and the Breaks of the Russell Fork of the Big Sandy
river being the only other water gaps in the entire length of
this mountain.
  The coal measures above the Conglomerate division include
in this field rocks to the thickness of about 1,1300 feet. Until a
more complete study has been made of this series, as found in
the Eastern Kentucky coal-field at large, no attempt will be
made to conform to the classification in neiglhboring States. or
to compare with the general section of regions outside of Ken-
tucky. It is apparent that there are no very good reasons for
following the division into Lower, Barren and Upper measures,
except in the fact that the rocks of a part of the Appalachian
coal-field has been so classified. For the present, all of the
coal measure rocks above the Conglomerate measures will be
considered as an undivided series.




  The topography of the hill region is not so specially charac-
teristic of the formation out of which it is carved, as is that
of the belts already considered. Alternating shales and sand-
stone give to the hills a benched slope, and to the valleys a
terraced appearance; and at various levels, more especially
towards the top of the series, masses of coarse sand-rock mark
geological horizons with far-reaching exposures of bare ledges
and projecting cliffs. These hard sand-rocks usually cap the
ridges, spurs and low hills, at heights according with the
progress of erosion, or with the general features of the drain-
age basins.
  The soil of the hill region is derived from rocks more varied
in character than those of the other belts. It is richer in veg
etable mould in proportion as the timber growth is heavier or
is left to protect the steeper slopes. Some of these slopes,
when cleared, continue even surprisingly productive for a
considerable time, the soil being loose enough to absorb the
heavy rains and to prevent rapid washing. With continued
plowing, however, these conditions are lost, and the soil
becomes more clayey and heavy, a result that might be
largely avoided by suiting the farming to the nature of the
ground. The statement made for other regions holds good
here, however, that a large portion of the hill country
should be judiciously kept in forest, as a direct economic
measure; to prevent the washing of the steeper hillsides, and
to check the tendency to sudden disastrous floods.  Agri.
culture can find suitable conditions for profitable prosecution
in all the country covered by this report, but to be most
successful, it must be by an intelligent adaptation to the con-
ditions which go with the geology, and the resulting topog-
raphy of the district. Both the Flatwoods and the hill region
promise well for fruit-growing.  The well-known Berry Red
apple was originated in Whitley county. Many evidences of
adaptation to small fruits have been noted, which are probably
as much owing to surface features and to elevation, as to the
character of the soil.
  The accompanying map shows the distribution of the geo-
logical divisions which fall within the province of this report,
as also the general elevations, the drainage and the prominent




features in the topography, especially of the south-eastern
or hill region. Views to illustrate some of these features will,
it is hoped, aid in giving significance to the map delineations
and to the foregoing brief descriptions.
  The timber growth of the two regions is unlike in many
respects. The hills of the eastern region have a greater nunm-
ber of useful species and a larger growth,  Among the soft
wood timbers the following have been noted in the field covered
by this report. The data is not at hand for detailed account
of the distribution of species:

  Yellow Poplar, Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera).
  Cucumber Tree (Magnolia acunminata).
  Umbrella Tree (Magnolia umnbrella).
  Ohio Buckeye (AEsculus glabra).
  Chinquapin (Castanea pumilla).
  Chestnut (Castanea vesca).
  White Walnut (Juglans cinerea).
  Black Walnut (Juglans nigra. L.)
  River Birch (Betuila nigra. Ait.)
  Willow (several species).
  White Elm (Ulmus Americana).
  Sour-wood (Oxydendrum arboreum. 1). C.)
  Yellow Pine (Pinus mitis).
  Scrub Pine (Pinus inops).
  -Spruce Pine or Hemlock (Abies Canadensis).
  Sweet Gum (Liquidamber styracitlua). Bottom lands.
  Sassafras (Sassafras offlicinale).

    Of hard wood trees the following are found:

  White Oak (Quercus alba).
  Swamp Chestnut Oak (Q. prinus. Willd).
  Mountain Chestnut Oak or Tan-bark Oak (Q. prinus, var.
  Post Oak (Q. obtusilaba).
  Red Oak (Q. rubra).
  Black Oak (Q. tinctoria).
  Spanish Oak (Q. falcata).

1 :1



  Scarlet Oak (Q. coccinea).
  Willow Oak (Q. phellos). Moist low lands.
  Laurel Oak (Q. imbricaria.)
  Black-jack Oak (Q. nigra). Noticed in South Fork region
  Pignut Hickory (Carya glabra. Torrey).
  Shell-bark Hickory (C. sulcata).
  Beech (Fagus ferruginea).
  Sugar Maple (Acer sacharinum).
  White Maple (A. dasycarpum).
  Red Maple (A. rubra).
  Ash Maple, Box Elder (Negundo aceroides).
  Black Birch (Betula lenta).
  Mulberry (Morus rubra).
  Hornbeam (Carpinus Americana).
  Ironwood (Ostrya Virginica).
  Locust (Robina pseudacacia).
  Yellow Wood (Cladrastis). Hill land, Patterson creek.
  White Ash (Fraxinus Americana).
  Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis).
  Black Gum (Nyssa multitlora).
  Many smaller trees and shrubs abound, some of which, like
the flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida), the Service Berry
(Amelanchier Canadensis), the great leaved Magnolias (M. um-
brella and M. macrophylla) the Holly (Ilex opaca), the Red-bud
(Cercis Canadensis), the wild Camelia (Stuartia Virginica), the
Kalmias, the Rhododendrons, and many others, contribute in
their turn so much of beauty to the woodland landscape, that
it is at the least a pleasure to know that they have no special
commercial value to make them a prey to the timberman's ax.
  Adjacent to the larger streams, the yellow poplar has been
mostly removed. The tan-bark oak has been mostly cut down
near the railway lines for the bark alone. The black walnut
trees of the original forest have very nearly all been removed.
Fortunately for the future wealth of Whitley county, as also
of Pulaski adjoining, much of her woodland has been so inac-
cessible as prevent an immediate exhauston of timber resources.
Properly husbanded, the timber should be second in value to
the coal deposits only, in a considerable portion of this region.





'he coal-beds of


rOP OF a








this region are distributed through the two
divisions of the coal measures at varying
intervals. For each division alike, it may
be said in a general way that there is a coal
seam for each 100 feet of vertical section.
The workable beds would be considerably
less from the number of thin seams, and
from the occasional thinning out of the
workable beds. With all its forbidding
appearances, the Conglomerate measures
come nearer to this ratio than the meas-
ures above, or, in other words, in the per-
centage of carbonaceous matter deposited
in workable beds of coal, the Rockcastle
group is the richer division of the two.
In the matter of economic value, much
depends on the special qualities of the coal
and on accessibility. In these respects, the
upper division is of first importance. This
field, as a whole, including the two divis-
ions, from the range in quality and the
great body of the deposits, is one of the
most important in the Appalachian coal-


  The coal seams of the Rockcastle group
as will be gathered from the brief general
description of the formation, are more
prominent towards the base of the ver-
tical section.  The accompanying gener-
alized section, shows the typical order of
beds for this group. In some portions of
this Conglomerate field, all the features of
this section, except the coarse cliff forming
sand-rocks and conglomerates, are so gen-
erally covered, and the coals have been

opened in so few places, that the extension of beds is a,










matter of inference. The order here indicated is, however,
substantially correct, both as a basis for the description of coal
beds, and as a guide to a fuller development. The iron ore at
the top of the Chester group is the equivalent of the Red river
ore of Estill county, and of the lower limestone ore of the
Hanging Rock iron district. It is present in the Cumberland
river region, at and below the mouth of the Rockcastle river,
showing a foot in thickness at one point where exposed, and
apparently considerably thicker in places where formerly
opened. This ore and the Kidney ore, which occur in the coal
measures above, have been made the basis of a profitable iron
industry in the Red river and Hanging Rock districts; but
with the recent developments in iron making, these ores alone
can hardly serve as the basis of a profitable iron industry.
The thin coal near the top of the Chester group is interesting
as occurring at a coal level of some economic importance in
Jackson county-the Jackson county cannel horizon.   It is
shown in the Happy Hollow region under the first prominent
sandstone ledge. The variable character of the rocks at the
base of the Rockcastle group, and a comparison of the South
Fork section with the exposures along the railway from Happy
Hollow to Greenwood, suggest the possibility that this bed is
also the equivalent of Bryvan coal of the South Fork region,
though that seam is generally regarded as the equivalent of
the next bed above the Happy Hollow coal, 50 to 60 feet above
the top of the Chester group. At Happy Hollow, the beds are
as shown in the general section. In the Bryvan coal region,
the thin coal seam is wanting apparently, and the first coal,
30 to 50 feet from the calcareous sand-rock and shale which
represent the Chester group, or are transition beds that locally
intervene between the two formations, is the Bryvan coal. This
is the most prominent bed in the South Fork region. It has
been opened at a number of places both in Whitley and in
Pulaski, and rising to the westward, it should be the most
widely distributed bed in Wayne county.
  The thickness of this coal, as indicated by openings along
the South Fork, on the Bryant and Vanwinkle lands, varies
from 46 to 63 inches in one body. The points where the bed
was exposed to view when this region was visited are mostly




in Whitley county. Near the "Devil's Jumps," some miles
above the mouth of Roaring creek, the thickness of the main
portion of the bed is 46 to 51 inches; at the mouth of this
creek, 57 inches; on Worley branch, 55 to 6:3 inches; near
the mouth of Rock creek, in Wayne county, 56 inches. In
the point of the ridge, between N igger and Big creek, this
bed is in two benches, 31 and 23 inches, separated by 9 inches
of shale. The lower 23 inches is a splint coal.
  Preliminary tests of the coking quality of the Worley
branch coal resulted favorably, as will be seen by the analysis
of the coke, which is described by Dr. Peter as a firm and
compact coke. The favorable result of these tests is the more
interesting, as this bed is supposed to be the equivalent of the
Pocahontas coal of Virginia.
  In the following cut the shale parting should have been 10
inches instead of about 4, as drawn by the engraver.
                        An average of three analyses made
           SHALY SAP4DTONE from samples collected at different times
                      by Capt. Crozer, Assistant Thruston, and
                      myself, is added; and also the result of
                      the analysis of coke made from this coal
                      under the direction of Mr. Thruston:


Moisture... . .. . ..  .. .   3.00    2.10
Volatile combustible matters . . .  36. 74  .
Fixed carbon in coke..56.41          90.46
Ash. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .   5.13    7.44
Sulphur.. .. . .  . .. .. .   .797    .666

                       Further up the South Fork this coal
                     shows a larger per cent. of volatile com-
                     bustible matters.  Samples from near the
                     Devil's Jumps, collected by Mr. Thruston,
                 ''give the following results:

           COAL I    Moisture.....  .. ..           .90    1.60
                     Volatile combustible matters . .  39.86  39.40
                     Fixed carbon in coke. .47.30           68.88
                     Ash.....     ..........11.90          6.40
           w i       Percentage of sulphur. .    .  8 3.741 1.089
    v/.tRRE CLAY i
xryurn Coal, Worley Br.  A  gas coal of considerable richness is
   GEOL. SITR.-2.




indicated by these samples. The percentage of sulphur in one
of these samples may be incidental, as is indicated by the other.
  The Happy Hollow coal on the Cincinnati Southern Railway,
50 to 60 feet above the top of the Chester group, has 39 inches
of good marketable coal, with surroundings as shown in the-
                annexed cut. Sample for analysis was taken
          SLATE  from a room on the main entry 500 feet from
                the entrance.

                Moisture...              ..              6 2.40
                Volatile combustible matters......    . ... 36.20
                Carbon in the coke ..........  . ....56 80
                Ashb                                     o..80
          COAL a7 Sulphur.                          .. ..  043

                  The entries here are about 50 feet above the
          COAL A grade of the C. S. Railway at Happy Hollow
          SLATE a, station.
                  In the Cumberland and Rockcastle river re-
Bapp  l  coal. gion, this seam is represented by the