xt77m03xtt92 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt77m03xtt92/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1955 journals 126 English Lexington. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Regulatory series, bulletin. n.126 text Regulatory series, bulletin. n.126 1955 2014 true xt77m03xtt92 section xt77m03xtt92 tf
Regulatory Bulletin l26~ ¤”.;>&¤ December, l955
Same Items of Interest t0
Kentucky Nurserymen
For the Year Ended June ,30, l955
By W. A. Price
_ _ and
Howard G. Tilson
` ds}-(*(OF}(E-I1/%
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station
University ot Kentucky
0 0 rn A rx

 xx;. A-
ENDED JUNE 30, 1955
W. A. Price and Howard G. Tilson
The Kentucky Nursery Inspection Law, since its enactment in 1926,
has been revised and is herein reproduced as it appears upon the statute
249. 010 to 249. 990
249.010 DEFINITIONS. As used in this chapter, unless the context
requires otherwise:
(1) "Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Agriculture, Labor
and Statistics.
(2) "Department" means the Department of Agriculture, Labor and
I (3) l"Director" means the Director of the Agricultural Experiment
249. O20 (1925a—1; 1925a-10) STATE ENTOMOIOGIST; ASSISTANT.
(1) The Entomologist and botanjst of the Agricultural Experiment Station
shall be the State Entomologist.
(2) The State Entomologist shall serve without pay other than his
K salary as an officer of the Agricultural Experiment Station. He shall be
paid his traveling expenses.
, (3) The State Entomologist shall appoint a deputy entomologist and
l assistants.
249.030 (1925a-1; 1925a—10) ENTOMOLOGIST MAY MAKE RULES
AND PUBLISH DATA. (1) The State Entomologist, with the advice and
consent of the director and the commissioner, may prescribe, modify and
enforce rules, regulations and orders needed to carry out KRS 249. 020 to
249. 100.
(2) The State Entomologist may publish bulletins, circulars and re-
ports containing information concerning inspections, insects and plant
(3) The rules and regulations and publications shall be printed from
time to time and fumished to interested persons.
249. 040 (1925a—1) ESTABLISHMENT OF QUARANTINES. The State
Entomologist shall, with the advice and consent of the director and the

 4 Regulatory Bulletin 126
commissioner, establish and maintain quarantines against the importation
into this state, of any trees, plants and parts of plants, whether nursery-gro »
or not, from any state or from any county within the state, where such plants
or parts of plants are known to be affected with dangerous insect pests or
plant diseases. He shall designate in announcements of quarantine the area
quarantined, whether it constitutes a part of this state or some other state.
DISEASED PLANTS TO BE DESTROYED. Whenever the State Entomologist
or his deputy has reason to believe or is credibly informed that at any place
within the state there has been introduced,or offered for sale, t1·ees, plants
or pam of plants infected or infested with diseases or destructive pests that
are likely to spread, he shall investigate the suspected articles and premis-
es. If they are found so infested or infected, he shall notify the owner or
possessor, in writing, of the nature of the infestation, specifying the insects
or diseases that have been found, and demand that within a reasonable spe-
cified time the affected articles or premises be dlsinfected, or destroyed by
fire, under the direction of the State Entomologist, his deputy or assistant,
and at the expense of the owner or possessor.
LICENSED. (1) Every resident nursery or agency selling nursery stock ln
this state shall annually file credentials with the State Entomologist. If
these credentials are satisfactory to the State Entomologist, the director
and the commissioner, the State Entomologist shall, upon payment of a
fee of five dollars by the nursery or agency, issue it a license authorizing
it to do business in the state.
(2) Every nonresident nursery and every agent, dealer or seller of
trees, representing nonresident nurseries or dealers shall annually file cre-
dentials with the State Entomologist. These credentials shall include the
names of nurseries, nurserymen or other persons represented. If these cre-
dentials are satisfactory to the State Entomologist, the director and the
commissioner, the State Entomologist shall issue the license. *
(3) Any person soliciting orders for or delivering trees or plants in
this state shall carry with him a copy of his license from this state, which
he shall show to prospective buyers, purchasers, county officials or agents
of the State Entomologlst on demand.
249.070. (1925a-3; 1925a-4) ENTOMOLOGIST TO INSPECT NUR-
ED STOCK PROHIBITED. (1) All nurseries where trees, vines, plants or
*Only resident nurserymen and dealers are required to pay the five dollar
license fee.

 Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1954-55 5
other nursery stock are grown and offered for sale, shall be inspected by
the State Entomologist or by his assistant, once each year. He shall no-
tify the owners of such nurseries, in writing, of the presence of any San
Jose scale or other dangerous pests on the stock of these nurseries, and
shall also notify, in writing, the owner of any affected nursery stock to
take such measures, on or before a certain day, for the destruction of in-
sector fungus enemies of nursery stock as have been shown to be effectual.
(2) The owner of the affected nursery shall, within the time speci-
fied, take such steps for the destruction of injurious insects or fungus
enemies present, as will exterminate them.
(3) No person shall ship or deliver any such nursery stock affected
with insects or fungus enemies, before treatment.
ogist examines any trees, vines, plants or other nursery stock and finds
the stock free from dangerously injurious insects and fungus enemies, he
shall make out and deliver to the owner of the stock a certificate stating
that he has inspected the stock and that he believes it to be free from
_ dangerously injurious insects and fungus enemies. He shall keep in his
office, for the information of anyone interested, copies of all valid
certificates issued by him.
TION CERTIFICATES. Whenever a resident nurseryman or seller of trees
vines, plants or other nursery stock ships or delivers such goods, he shall
` send on each package so shipped or delivered a printed copy of the cer-
tificate issued to him by the State Entomologist, stating that the stock
has been inspected as required by law and is believed to be free from
Z dangerously injurious insect or fungus enemies.
nurseryman or other person intending to ship into this state trees, plants
or parts of plants, whether nursery-grown or not, shall file with the
State Entomologist a copy of a valid certificate from a state or United
States Government inspector showing that the trees, plants or the ir parts
have been inspected and that he is authorized to sell and ship or trans-
port them. All packages of trees, plants or parts of plants shall bear a
copy of a certificate of inspection from an official inspector. Trans-

 6 Regulatory Bulletin 126
portation companies within the state shall notify the State Entomologist
at once when any such trees or plants are received by them without a
valid certificate. Nursery stock or other trees, plants or parts of plants
shipped into this state in violation of a state or United States quarantine
may be seized and destroyed or returned to the shipper at the expense of
the owner or possessor.
249. 200 (42g-1; 42g—2) JAPANESE BEETLE CONTROL The State
Entomologist shall adopt and carry out such measures as he deems advis-
able to protect crops fromthe ravages of the japanese beetle (Popillia ja-
ponica). He may employ help, purchase materials and enforce such reg-
ulations as in his descretion are necessary to accomplish the purpose. ,
249. 990 (42f·4; 200; 1923; 1925a-4; 1925a-9) PENALTIES. (1) Any
person who violates any of the provisions of KRS 249.020 to 249. 100 or
hinders the carrying out of any of the provisions of those sections shall be
fined not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.
(2) Any fine imposed for a violation of subsection (3) of KRS 249.
070 may be recovered in the county in which the nursery is situated or
the county to which the nursery stock is shipped.
(1) It shall be unlawful to sell or offer for sale uninspected or un-
certified nursery stock. A certificate of inspection indicates freedom
from certain injurious insects and plant diseases but does not vouch for
tmeness to variety nor for grade and conditions of any nursery stock.
(2) Growers of nursery stock, for sale or shipment, shall apply in
writing before june lst of each year to the State Entomologist, Kentucky
Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington, for inspection services.
(3) Every dealer in nursery stock shall secure a nursery dealer's
permit. Before this is issued, however, he must furnish an affidavit that
he will buy and sell only stock that is certified and will maintain with
the State Entomologist a correct and complete list of all sources from
which he gets his stock. Landscape architects and tree movers who han-
dle nursery stock are classified as dealers.
(4) Every person who solicits orders for nnrsery stock shall obtain
and carry an agent's permit which is secured only upon request of the
nurseryman or dealer to be represented.
(5) All packages or bundles of nursery stock shipped by common
carrier must have attached a copy of the inspection certificate or per-

 Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1954-55 7
(6) Certificates and permits may be revoked for cause.
(7) Fees shall be paid as follows: Inspection certificate $5; dealer's
permit, $5. Agents' permits and nonresident nurserymen's certificates
are fumished without cost. Fees shall accompany application. Applica-
tion blanks may be obtained from the State Entomologist.
(8) Nonresident nurserymen shall file copies of their state certifi-
cates and secure nonresident permits. Every package of nursery stock
· coming into Kentucky shall have a valid inspection certificate attached
to the package. Nonresident nurserymen, dealers, and agents shall car-
ry their Kentucky permits when soliciting orders or delivering nursery
stock in Kentucky.
(9) All certificates and permits automatically expire June 30 follow-
ing date of issuance.
Nursery stock includes all trees, shrubs, vines; roses, strawberry,
raspberry, and blackberry plants; herbaceous perennial plants and roots;
_ omamental bulbs, corms, tubers, and rhizomes; and any part of the above
groups of plants capable of disseminating injurious insects and plant dk —
eases. For regulatory purposes the term "Nursery Stock" includes all
plants which grow out of doors and live more than one year, whether nur-
sery grown or native.
A summary of the major requirements for shipping nursery stock into
other states is given on the following page. It will be noted that most
states require the out-of—state shipper to file a copy of his nursery inspec-
tion certificate with the proper administrative authority before shipments
are made. Only three states require filing fees, except under special
conditions, that are noted in a table which follows.
Special shipping tags are required by the following states and will be
furnished by them at a nominal cost to the shippers: ,Arkansas ($2 per 100
tags); Florida ($3. 24 per 100 tags); and New Mexico ($1.25 per 100 tags).
I A special tag should be secured and attached to each bundle of nur-
sery stock shipped to any of the three states listed.

 8 Reggatory Bulletin 126
State of
origin `
State certificate Nurseryman's Agent's Special Posted
filed filin fee fee ta Bond
Alabama Yes Reciprocal $1 No None
Arizona No None None No None
Arkansas Yes Reciprocal $1 Yes Reciprocal
California No None None No None
Canada Yes None None Yesl None
Colorado Yes None None No None
Conne cti cut No None None No None
Delaware Yes None None No None
Florida Yes None None Yes None
Georgia Yes Reciprocal $1 No None
Idaho Yes $5 to $15 $1 No $1000
Illinois Yes None None No None
Indiana Yes None $ 1 No None
Iowa Yes Reciprocal None No None
Kansas Yes Reciprocal None No None
Kentucky Yes None None No None
Louisiana No None None No None
Maine Yes None None No None
Maryland Yes Reciprocal None No None
Massachusetts Yes None None No None
Michigan Yes $15 or Reciprocalz $1 No None
Minnesota Yes Reciprocal Reciprocal No None
Mississippi Yes Re ciprocal None No None
Missouri Yes None None No None
Montana Yes $5 to $25 $25 No None
Nebraska Yes Reciprocal $1 No None
Ne va da No None None No None .
New Hampshire No None None No None
New jersey Yes Reciprocal None No None
New Mexico Yes $10 $25 Yes None
New York No None None No None
North Carolina Yes Reciprocal None No $10003
North Dakota Yes Reciprocal None No None
Ohio Yes Re ciproc al $1 No None
Oklahoma Yes Reciprocal $1 No None
Ore gon No None $ 1 No None
Pennsylvania Yes None None No None
Rhode Island Yes None None No None
South Carolina Yes None None No None
South Dakota Yes Reciprocal $1 No None
Tennessee Yes Reciprocal Reciprocal No $50003
Texas Yes Reciprocal None No None
Utah Yes $102 None No None
Ve rmo nt No None None No None
Virginia No Reciprocal Reciprocal No None
Washington No Reciprocal $1 No None
West Virginia Yes None $1 No None
Wisconsin Yes None None No None `
Wyoming Yes Reciprocal None No None
1Secure special permit and instruction from officer in charge before making shipment.
2For nurserymen who operate through agents.
3For nnuserymen who promise maintenance.

 Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1954-55 9
Alabama ...... B. P. Livingston, Chief, Division of Plant Industry,
State Department of Agriculture and Industries,
P. O. Box 220, Montgomery 1
Alaska ....... Hon. Clyde G. Sherman, Commissioner of Agri-
culture,` Box 1101, Fairbanks
Arizona . ..... W. T. Mendenhall, State Entomologist, P. O.
Box 6246, Phoenix
Arkansas ...... Paul H. Millar, Chief Inspector, State Plant Board,
Little Rock
California ..... A. P. Messenger, Chief, Bureau of Plant Quaran-
tine, State Department of Agriculture, Sacramen-
to 14
Canada ...... W. N. Keenan, Chief, Division of Plant Protection,
Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ontario
Colorado ...... F. Herbert Gates, State Entomologist, Bureau of
Plant and Insect Control, 3130 State Museum,
Denver 11 '
Connecticut .... Nealy Turner, State Entomologist, Agricultural
Experiment Station, Box 1106, New Haven 4
Delaware ...... W. R. Hickman, Nursery Inspector, State Board of
Agriculture, Dover
District of Columbia. W. B. Wood, Plant Quarantine Branch, U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, Washington 25
Florida ...... Ed. L. Ayers, Plant Commissioner, State Plant
Board, Gainesville
Georgia ...... W. E. Blasingame, Director of Entomology, State
Capitol, Atlanta 3
Hawaii ...... Wm. C. Look, Chief Plant Inspector, Board of
Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, Hono-
lulu, Box 2520
Idaho ....... Robert Reichert, Director Bureau of Plant Industry
State Department of Agriculmre, Boise
Illinois ...... H. F. Seifert, I-lorticuluiral Inspection Supervisor,
Room 300, Professional Arts Building, Glen Ellyn

 10 Regulatory Bulletin 126
Indiana ...... Frank N. Wallace, State Entomologist, 311 West
Washington st, , Indianapolis 9 `
Iowa ........ Dr. H. M. Harris, State Entomologist, 311 Science
Building, Ames
Kansas, North .... Dr. Herbert Knutson, State Entomologist, State
College of Agriculture and Applied Science,
South . . . Dr. Charles D. lvlichener, Entomologist, Entomolo-
gical Commission of Kansas, Lawrence
Kentucky ...... Professor Walter A. Price, State Entomologist, Col-
lege of Agriculture and Home Economics, Univer-
sity of Kentucky, Lexington
Louisiana ...... Charles E. Smith, State Entomologist, State De-
partment of Agriculture and Immigration, Box
4153, Capitol Station, Baton Rouge
Maine ....... E. L. Newdick, Chief, Division of Plant Industry,
State Department of Agriculture, Augusta
Maryland ..... Dr. E. N. Cory, State Entomologist, University of
Maryland, College Park
Massachusetts. . . . Quincy S. Lowry, Assistant Director, Division of
Plant Pest Control and Fairs, 41 Tremont Street,
Boston 8
Mexico ..·- · · Ing. Esteban Uranga, Director General of Agricul- T
ture, Balderas, D. F. Mexico
Michigan . . . . . C. A. Boyer, Chief, Bureau of Plant Industry, State
Department of Agriculture, Lansing 13
.Minnesota . . . . . T. L. Aamodt, Director, Bureau of Plant lndustry,
State Department of Agriculture, Dairy and Food,
University Farm, St. Paul 1
Mississippi ..... Dr. R. E. Hutchins, Entomologist, State Plant
Board, State College _
Missouri ...... julius R. Anderson, State Entomologist, State De-
partment of Agriculture, jefferson City
Montana ...... R. O. Young, Chief, Division of Horticulture,
State Department of Agriculture, Labor, and In-
dustry, Missoula
Nebraska ...... C. ]. Walstrom, Entomologist, Bureau of Plant
Industry, State Department of Agriculture and In-
spection, Lincoln
Nevada ...... George G. Schweis, Director, Division of Plant
Industry, State Department of Agriculture, P. O.
Box 1027, Reno

Inspection of Nnrrsery Stock, 1954-55 11
, New Hampshire . . . Dr. j. G. Conklin, State Entomologist, Insect and
Plant Disease Suppression and Control, State De-
partment of Agriculmre, Durham
New jersey ..... Harry B. Weiss, Chief, Bureau of Plant Industry,
State Department of Agriculture, Trenton 8
New Mexico .... Dallas Rierson, Director, Regulatory Activities,
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, State
New York ..... H. B. Little, Director, Bureau of Plant Industry,
State Department of Agriculture and Markets,
Albany 1
North Carolina . . . Dr. C. H. Brannon, State Entomologist, State De-
' partment of Agriculture, Raleigh
North Dakota .... j. A. Callenbach, State Entomologist, Departnnent
of Entomology, North Dakota Agricultural College,
Ohio ........ john Baringer, Chief, Division of Plant Industry,
State Department of Agriculture, Columbus 15
Y Oklahoma ..... Clyde A. Bower, Director, Division of Entomology
and Plant Industry, Oklahoma State Board of Agri-
culture, Oklahoma City 5
' Oregon . . . . . . Frank McKennon, Chief, Division of Plant Industry,
State Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Build-
ing, Salem
I Pennsylvania .... Dr. T. L. Guyton, Director, Bureau of Plant Indus-
try, State Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg
_ Puerto Rico ..... Luis A. Catonl,· Director, Plant Quarantine Service,
Department of Agriculture and Commerce, San
Rhode Island .... Alvin j. Lannon, Administrator, Division of Ento-
I mology and Plant lndustry, State Department of
Agriculture and Conservation, State House,
Providence 2
South Carolina . . . j. A. Berly, Entomologist, State Crop Pest Com-
miwion, Clemson
South Dakota .... Warren Miller, Director, Division of Plant Indus-
try, Department of Agriculture, Pierre
Tennessee ..... Howard L. Bruer, State Entomologist and Plant
Pathologist, Department of Agriculture, 410 State
I Office Building, Nashville

 12 Regulatory Bulletin 126
Texas ....... Charles Chapman, Chief, Division of Plant Quar- .
antine, State Department of Agriculture, Austin P
Utah ........ Earl Hutchings, State Supervising Inspector, State
Department of Agriculture, Salt Lake City ,
Vermont ...... john W. Scott, Director, Division Plant Pest Con-
trol, State Department of Agriculture, Montpelier
Virginia ...... C. R. Willey, State Entomologist and Director
Division of Plant Industry, 1112 State Office Build-
ing, Richmond 19
Washington ..... William H. Shaw, Supervisor of Horticulture, State
Department of Agriculture, Olympia
West Virginia .... F. Waldo Craig, Entomologist, State Department of
Agriculture, Charleston 5
Wisconsin ..... E. L. Chambers, State Entomologist, State Depart-
ment of Agriculture, 315 North Carroll St. , Madi-
son 2
Wyoming ...... Everett Spackman, State Entomologist, State De-
partment of Agriculture, Cheyenne
Federal Quarantine Number 38, because of Black Stem Rust, was am-
mended by the Secretary of Agriculture to become effective February 11,
1950. Among the important changes in regulations are: (1) the elimination a
of the requirement to place a special permit tag on each package of bar-
berry, mahonia, or mahoberberis shipped interstate; (2) shipments of seeds
and fruits of approved species and varieties are required to have special ` _
permit tags attached when going into any of the eradication states.
The requirements of Federal Quarantine Number 38 are summarized as
follows: (1) The eradication states are: Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dako-
ta, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Virginia, Washington, West Vir-
ginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming; (2) Barberry, mahonia, and mahoberber-
is, in any variety, can be shipped interstate (to any state) only under cer-
tificate issued by the Plant Pest Control Branch; (3) Application for Feder-
al certificate must be filed in duplicate, not later than May 15 each year,
with the Quarantine Division of Plant Disease Control, Washington 25, D. l
C. ; (4) Only species and varieties known to be rust resistant and approved
by the Bureau will be acceptable for certification. Species and varieties

 I Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1954-55 13
not lmown to be resistant to rust cannot be shipped interstate and growers
I who have such rust susceptible species will be required to destroy them
before permits to ship approved varieties a.re granted; (5) The following
species and varieties of barberry, mahonia, and mahoberberis are desig-
I nated as rust resistant:
Berberis arido-calida
B. beagjana ............ Bean's Barberry
B.   ............ Magellan Barberry
B. bgxijglia gaga ......... Dwarf Magellan Barberry
B.   ........... - ——--—
B.   ..... , ..... Paleleaf Barberry
B. ghenaulxi, . . ......... Chenault Barberry
B.   .......... Cutle af Barberry
B. concinna ............ Dainty Barberry
B. darwini ............ Darwin Barberry
· B. formosana ........... — ———--
B. franchetiana .......... - --—--
B. gagnepaini . . . . ....... Black Barberry
` B. gilgiana ............ Wildfire Barberry
A B. horvathi ............ - -—---
B. 1D@_do-gagnepaini ....... False Black Barberry
g B. insigiis ............ — —-———
B. julianae ........ . . . . Wintergreen Barberry
B. k¤1'€¤¤ ............ Korean Barberry
. B. liuearifolia var. Orange King . . . jasperbells Barberry
B. lologensis ........... - --—-—
B. mentorensis .......... Mentor Barberry
A B. pallens ............ Pallid Barberry
B. potanini ............ Longspine Barberry
B. renton ............. - ---——
V B. replicata ............ Curlleaf Barberry
I B. sanguinea ........... Red-pedicel Barberry
B. sargentiana ........... Sargent Barberry
B. stenophylla ........... Rosemary Barberry
B. stenophylla diversifolia ...... - --———
B. stenophylla irwini ........ Irwin Barberry
B. stenophylla nana compacta .... Corallina Barberry
B. telomaica artisepala ....... - —-——-

 14 Regulatory Bulletin 126 -
Berberis arido—ca1ida
B. j:_hunbergi D. C. ......... japanese Barberry
B.   ...... Redleaf japanese Barberry '
B. thunbergi atroggea nana ..,., - ----. `
B.   ........ Truehedge Colunmberry
B. thunbergi "globe" ........ — ---—-
B. thunbergi "golden" ....... — —--——
B. thunbergi maximowiczi ..... Coral japanese Barberry
B. thunbergi minor ......... Box Barberry
B. thunbergi pluriflora ....... Flame Barberry
B. thunbergi "thornless" ....... - -————
B. thunbergi "variegata" .... . . -———--
B. triacanthogphora. . ....... Threespine Barberry
B . verruculosa ........... Warty Barberry
B. virgatorum ........... - -—--—
B. xanthoglon hort ........ — -——-— A
Mahonia agifolium Oregongrag Mahonia
M. bealei ............. Leatherleaf Mahonia
M. compacta ........... - —---- ·'
M. dictyota ............ Netvein Mahonia
M. fortrmei ............ Chinese Mahonia
M. nervosa ............ Cascades Mahonia .
M. ginnata ............ Cluster Mahonia I
M. regens ............. Creeping Mahonia l
Under provisions of Federal Quarantine Number 37 certain limitations
are placed upon the importation of plants and seeds from foreign countries.
Aiiygmg wishing tg import nursery stock, plants or seeds must first obtain
a permit from the Plant Quarantine Branch, U. S. D. A. , 209 River Street,
Hoboken, New jersey. In applying for a permit to import; plant material
the following information is required: (a) The name and location of the
producer from whom the plants or seeds are to be secured; (b) the name
and address of the person or firm to which the seeds or plants are to be ’
shipped; (c) the number and genus of the plants or seeds for which the ·
permit is desired.

 I Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1954-55 15
All restricted plants imported under the conditions listed above are
limited in size and age to the youngest and smallest which can be success-
fully freed from soil about their roots, transported to the United States ,
and established in this country with a reasonable degree of success. Cer-
tain classes of plants permitted entry under quarantine 37 are required to
be grown by the importer under post entry inspection regulations. Such
plants are not released to the trade until such time as their freedom from
plant diseases and insect pests has been established. The plants are there-
fore grown for one or more years in a place where the state inspector may
have access to them for inspection purposes, for such time as appears nec-
essary. When their freedom from pests and diseases has been established,
the plants under quarantine are released.
A comparatively new disease, oa.k wilt (Endoconidiophora fagacearum)
is threatening all oaks in the midwest. The disease is caused by a fungus
organism that can be identified by plant pathologists in one-to—two-year
old vascular tissue from infected trees.
Varieties of the red and black groups seem to become Infected with
oak wilt more readily than white and burr oaks, although all species and
` varieties of oaks are susceptible to the disease.
The first symptoms ln the red and black oaks are shown by the appear-
1 ance of leaves on the upper branches. They show dull light green color and
curl upward. Later the leaves may tum yellow or reddish brown before fall-
ing. All leaves may fall within a month after first symptoms occur. In
· white and burr oaks the disease develops more slowly, with one or more
branches near the top showing disease symptoms first.
A Spread of the disease from diseased to healthy trees within native
stands of oaks can occur through natural root grafts or unions. It is not
known to plant pathologists how the disease is spread from one locality to
V another.
Oak wilt is known to occur in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kan-
sas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
Nurserymen, foresters, and all others interested in preventing the loss of
oaks should be on the alert for this trouble. Samples of twigs from oaks
‘ showing symptoms of the disease should be sent to the National Oak Wilt
Research Committee, P. O. Box 373, Memphis, Tennessee.

 16 Regulatory Bulletin 126 7 l
Six twigs or branches about 6 to 8 inches long and 1/2 to 1 inch in di-
ameter are best for laboratory examination. The twigs should be alive or
just recently dead but not completely dry. Do not send leaves, dead bran-
ches or decayed wood. The twigs should be tied in a bundle, wrapped in
paper so as to prevent excessive drying but should not be wrapped in wet l
moss or cotton. Labels should be attached in such a manner as to couple ·
the laboratory report with the tree from which the twigs were taken.
Records fumished by the State Forester, Mr. H. B. Newland, indicate
that in 1950 one oak wilt infected tree was found in Greenup county. In
the period 1951 through 1955, 101 such trees were found in Eastem Kentuc-
ky, mostly in Perry and Breathitt counties. One infected tree was found in
Todd county in Western Kentucky.
With one exception all trees known to be infected have been destroy-
ed. The exception is one tree in Carter county.
Elm phloem necrosis and Dutch elm disease has been found to occur in "
the state of Kentucky. El.m phloem necrosis has been by far the most de-
structive disease of elms yet known to Kentucky forests and landscape r
plantings. Dutch elm disease has been found in only a small number of
elms in northern Kentucky near Cincinnati, Ohio. Although no cure is
known for these maladies, the measures can be taken to protect healthy _
trees from infection. l
Dutch elm disease or phloem necrosis should be suspected whenever
elm foliage suddenly wilts and the dry, dead leaves adhere to the branches;
or when the leaves of an entire branch, or the top, tum yellow and fall pre-
maturely. To further identify the diseases, cut through the bark at ground ·
level, or below, and pry the bark from the wood so the inner bark will show.
If the inner bark surface is yellow or like butterscotch in color, phloem ne-
crosis is indicated. If a portion of the inner bark is confined in a bottle or
the closed hands for a few minutes a faint odor of wintergreen can be detec-
ted from phloem necrosis diseased bark.
To test for Dutch elm disease remove several small brancheshaving wilt-
ed, yellow, or dying leaves. lf the cross sections where cuts are made show V
several brown spots or discolorations in one or more annual rings of wood,
the trouble is probably Dutch elm disease. For a positive identification cut
4 or 5 branches 1/2 inch in diameter and about 6 inches long, which contain

 Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1954-55 17
discoloration of the annual rings. Wrap these specimens in wax paper to
prevent drying, and mail, with a letter giving the sender's name, address,
and location of tree, to the Dutch Elm Disease Identification Laboratory,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 503 Main Street, East Orange,
New jersey
Both diseases are spread by insects. Elm phloem necrosis is spread by a
leafhopper (Scaphoidens luteolus). Dutch elm disease is spread by elm bark
beetles, principally the smaller European elm bark beetle (Scolgis multis-
Prevention of spread of these diseases to healthy trees is based upon the
control of insect carriers. This can be accomplished by sprays containing
DDT, provided they are correctly formulated, properly applied, and used
at the right time. To control the carrier of elm phloem necrosis it is neces-
sary to spray, thoroughly, all leaf siufaces. The first spray should be applied
when elm leaves are full grown, usually May 15 to june 1 in Kentucky. The
second sprays should be applied when the new growth appears, usually one to
two months later. Use formula A or B as given below, for both sprays, and
dilute to make 200 gallons.
To control the insect which carries Dutch elm disease it is necessary to
spray thoroughly all bark surfaces of the trees to be protected. Apply the
first spray before the appearance of elm flowers or leaves. This period is
usually the latter part of March for Kentucky. A second spray should be ap-
plied from 2 1/2 to 3 months after the first treatment. For first treatment
use formula A or B diluted to make 100 gallons. If a mist blower is employ-
ed use formula C diluted to make 20 gallons. For second treatment use
either formula at one-half strength recommended for first treatment.
Formula A — Dissolve 16 pounds of technical DDT in a mixture of 2 1/2
gallons of Benzene and one gallon of Velsicol AR - 50. To this solution add
1 pint of Triton X - 100.
Formula B - Dissolve 16 pounds of technical DDT in 4 gallons of Xylene.
To this add 1 pint of Triton X — 100.
. Formula C - D