xt77sq8qd85m https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt77sq8qd85m/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1942 journals 031 English Lexington. This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Regulatory series, bulletin. n.31 text Regulatory series, bulletin. n.31 1942 2014 true xt77sq8qd85m section xt77sq8qd85m Regulatory Series, Bulletin No. 31 July, 1942
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station
UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY '
THOMAS P. COOPER, Director
COMMERCIAL FEEDS IN KENTUCKY IN 1941
By J. D. TURNER, STACY B. RANDLE, W. G. TERRELL and J. J. ROSE
i CONTENTS
Page Page ;
New ruling on listing Table 3. Average digestibil- ,
ingredients ______________________________ 2 ity of the nutrients in some
Balanced ration ....,...........,,______ 3 f€€dSt2ui°I"S ........................ : ....... 12
Feeders, guide __________________________ 3 Table 4. Average calcium,
Read the tag _____________V_’_v____________ 4 phosphorus, and manganese ,
System ef teeeiee —-—-»-·-··-—·—---——- 4 T§§tJ§“tT‘ti€S§$é$..§i"`$i$§£?g 13
"Yellow tag" or filler feeds.. 5 A thiamin (B1) and I.ibO_ V
. Method of calculating feed Hévin (G) conteht Of Some
mlxtures ----·-·--—-----··------—----·--- 7 feedstuifs ..........,..................... 15
Mmerel feeds ............................ 9 Tonnage in 1941 ___,_________________,__ 16
Table 1. Mineral and other Dog feeds ____________________________________ 18
materials usually included Table 6. Analyses of dog
In mineral miXtu1`QS ____________ 9 fggdg ________________________________________ 19
Table 2. Average composi- Summary of results of in-
tion of some feedstuffs ........ 11 spection and analysis, 1941 25
The feed industry i11 Kentucky, like other industries, was
materially affected by war co11ditio11s, i11 1941. Changes in prices ·
were frequent, usually upward, especially of the high-protein
materials such as animal by-products Zllltl oil—mill by-products, while
materials carrying less protein were more stable. There was a short-
age of certain ingredients, and the use of some was restricted by the ,
government. It was ditlieult to overcome the shortages ot' some of the `
materials by substitutes. The result was that many special-purpose
feeds, especially poultry feeds, were not p1·operly balanced in vitamin
t factors, as evidenced by many complaints ot? feeders. Home manu-
facturers were quick to take advantage of the situation by loose
practices i11 the use of substitutes illltl other irregularities and asked
lenicncy because of the national emergency. The l)(‘]l2ll'llllt'lll has
taken the position that good quality feeds llllLl(*l' normal conditions are
most economical; a11d that at this time of emergency. when high
production of meat, milk, eggs, cheese. and livestock is so essential,
the most efficient and etfeetual control is highly desirable.

 2 Kenrucxy Acarcmxruaai. EXPERIMENT STATION
During the year, 1601 samples were analyzed chemically and
microscopically and the results reported in detail with appropriate .
comment to those concerned.
NEW RULIN G ON LISTING INGREDIENTS
Making feed supplements has become a common practice within
the last few years. There are two classes • supplements: one is com- \
posed of high-protein materials and materials that cannot be grown
by the farmer, to strengthen home-grown feeds; the other is com-
posed of materials carrying vitamins and minerals to add vitamins
and minerals to special-purpose feeds.
Many of these supplements have merit and serve a useful .
purpose. On the other hand, some are highly complex in their
composition and are composed of a long list of common materials.
They are usually sold under extravagant claims and at exorbitant
prices not commensurate with their true value. The sale of feeds
containing such supplements seems to be based primarily on the effect
that a long list of ingredients on the tag has on the purchaser, and on `
confusing him under l1igl1—pressured salesmanship as to the true value
of the feed. .
In order to overcome the abuses of this practice as far as possible,
the Feed Control Department is requiring a simplified form of listing
the ingredients; and if a purchaser will read and study the informa-
tion p1·inted on the tag and buy his feeds on quality and not on price
and from a. manufacturer with a good record, he will lind the results
most economical and satisfactory. _
The new form of listing ingredients is:
First, basic ingredients, such as corn and corn by-products, wheat
and wheat by-products, oil-mill by-products, meat by-products, fish
meal, alfalfa meal, alfalfa leaf meal, oats, distillers and brewers dried
grains, molasses, and similar ingredients, must be listed in the usual
way and he present i11 amounts of 3 percent or more.
Second, vitamin-carriers, such as dried milk by-products, wheat
germ, animal liver meal, fish oils, cod liver oil. ribotlavin product,
dehydrated alfalfa leaf meal and cereal grasses. yeast, and similar
vitamin-carrying materials, must be correctly listed, grouped together,
and the total percentage stated.
Third, mineral materials, generally regarded as dietary factors .
essential for the normal nutrition of animals. such as limestone. salt.,
potassium iodide, manganese sulfate, iron oxide, and similar materials,
may be grouped together, or they may be listed separately with the

 COMMERCIAL FEEDS, 1941 3
percentage of each given, but i11 either case the total percentage must
not exceed 3 percent of the feed. Bone meal and kelp are considered i
minerals, but because of their organic sources, they should be listed
separately with the percentage of each given. They 1nay not be in-
cluded in the amount of inorganic minerals.
Fourth, condiments and charcoal a1·e not considered feed
materials. However, they are permitted when pe1·centage amounts
are given.
Fifth, materials primarily medicinal or poisonous in natu1·e are
not permitted as ingredients in feeds.
BALANCED RATION 1
A ration is the quantity of feed given an animal during a day.
A balanced ration is one in which the nutritive ratio is correct; that
is, it furnishes digestible protein, carbohydrates and fats and the
right ki11d of minerals and vitamins in such amounts and proportions
as are necessary to nourish a given animal for a day. »
. The preparation of a proper feed or 1·ation for animals requires
a very complete knowledge of feed materials and their use, including
their chemical analysis, the source of the materials and nutritional
factors. The feed or ration must meet the following conditions if
satisfactory results a1·e to be obtained.
First, the ration must contain sufficient digestible complete
protein and digestible energy-producing substances in right pro-
portions to meet the needs of the animal. Second, it must contain the
proper amount of indigestible fibrous materials, such as is found in the V
fibrous parts of the plant. Third, it must contain the vitamins in
adequate amounts. Fourth, it must contain the right kind of
mineral substances in sufficient amount. Fifth, it must be free from
injurious substances such as poisons, especially cumulative poison, 1
disease germs or anything that produces mechanical injury.
FEEDERS’ GUIDE
The feeder has several aids to guide him in selecting a feed.
He should never buy a feed that is not registered and labeled with an
official guaranty tag. He should read the tag carefully and base his
selection on the information in the guaranty rather than on the claims
made by the salesmen. If a feed is not labeled, he should refuse to
accept it regardless of any claims made for it. He can also safeguard
himself by buying from reputable manufacturers who have good
records and make good, clean feeds. He should look with suspicion on

 4 Ksnrucxy Aomcurruaar. Expiannvuznr STATION
all yellow-tag feeds, as such feeds contain fillers of little or no feed
value. As a general rule, a feed containing a complex vitamin and
mineral mixture is to be avoided, because a long list of materials has
no particular merit and needed vitamins and minerals usually can be
supplied at lower cost in simple materials. _
The Feed Control Department constantly makes check analyses
of feeds sold in Kentucky. The results are summarized and published
with othe1· valuable data on feeds and their use, in bulletins, which are
sent free to any one interested. Other publications that should be of
interest to feeders and are available to those who desire them, can he `
obtained from the county agricultural agent or by writing to the
College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Lexington.
Minerals for Livestock. Extension Circular 360
Feeding Dairy Cows. Extension Circular 364
Feeding Laying Hens. Extension Circular 372
Raising Turkeys. Extension Circular 275
Pigs; from Birth to Market in 6 Months. Extension Circular 372
\ Lambing Time. Extension Circular 346
Workstock. Extension Circular 306
Distillery Slop for Hogs, Bulletin 408
READ THE TAG
The tag should tell the truth. The best information and protec-
tion the purchaser of feeds has is the tag and the honesty of the manu-
facturer. The purchaser should read the tag carefully and study the '
guaranty. It contains the name and address of the manufacturer and
l1is guaranty. Compare the tag with the record of the manufacturer
in the summary of results in the back part of this bulletin. If his .
record is good, you can be reasonably sure the feed is what it is
represented to be on the tag. If his record is bad, then the feed is
likely to be poor. ,
A feeder who buys on price instead of quality, tho price is always
a factor to be considered, is practicing false economy. A cheap
"yellow tag" feed usually is the costliest feed a farmer can buy.
because of the small amount and food quality of the nutrients and the
unwholcsomeness of the feed.
SYSTEM OF TAGGING
This Department groups feeds into three general classes:
"straight" feeds. "straight IIllX(?(lH feeds, and "yellow tag" feeds,
and labels them accordingly. (See examples of these tags. page 6.)
The purpose of this system of labeling is to mark conspicuously certain
important differences in the character of feeds. It is designed to aid A

 C0MMERc1AL FEEDS, 1941 5
in the selection of feeds. The tags are printed according to a three-
color scheme, as follows:
A manila tag printed in black ink means a feed made from one
grain or plant. This class of feeds is known as "straight" feeds. _,
Examples: wheat bran, hominy feed, cottonseed meal, alfalfa meal.
A manila tag printed in red lnk means a feed made from the
products or by-products of two or more grains, or plants, or animal
by-products. This class of feeds is known as "straight mixed" feeds.
Examples; a mixture of wheat bran, hominy feed, and cottonseed
meal; a mixture of corn chop, crimped oats, wheat bran, and alfalfa
meal; or a mixture of yellow corn meal, wheat gray shorts, ground
oats, alfalfa leaf meal, soybean oil meal, meat scrap, dried buttermilk.
A yellow tag printed in black ink means a feed containing a
' material or materials of little or no nutritive value. Such are usually _
known as "yellow tag" feeds. Examples; feeds containing oat hulls, `
corn cobs, cottonseed hulls, screenings and screenings refuse or waste,
or other similar materials containing an excessive percentage of fiber. g
"YELLOW TAG" OR FILLER FEEDS
A "Yellow Tag" feed is one that contains a material or materials I
4 of little or no feed value, as a "till·er". The filler material must not
exceed 25 percent of the mixture. Usually, the cheapest materials
that can be found are put into filler feeds. They vary widely in
chemical and physical composition. They may have some value as
feed, or may be worthless or even dangerous if containing poisonous
weed seeds, disease germs, and other foreign material, such as dirt and
sand. Often a farmer has on his place material going to waste of as
much or more feed value.
The records of the Feed Control Department show that most of D
the violations of the feed law are concerned with "yellow tag" or
filler feeds. Below are some examples of "yellow tag" feeds contain-
ing screenings and screenings waste. Besides containing unground
and viable weed seeds most of these feeds were in violation of the feed I
law in other respects.
Laboratory No. 1437, a sample of 16% Protein Dairy Feed, con-
tained approximately 180,800 unground and viable weed seeds to 100
pounds of feed, of which 54,2-10 were of noxious weeds. Other
. irregularities were found.
Laboratory No. 1440, a sample of 16% Protein Dairy Feed, con-
tained approximately 54,400 unground and viable weed seeds to 100
pounds of feed.

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 COMMERCIAL Fmans, 1941 7
Laboratory N0. 1314, a sample of 16% Protein Dairy Feed, con- _
’ tained approximately 89,200 unground weed seeds to 100 pounds of
feed.
` . Laboratory N0. 1194, a sample of 24% Protein Dairy Feed, con-
tained approximately 136,000 unground and viable weed seeds to 100
pounds of feed. Other irregularities were found.
Laiborartory N0. 1195, a sample of 16% Protein Dairy Feed, con-
tained approximately 544,000 unground and viable weed seeds to 100
pounds of feed, many of them noxious. Many other irregularities
were found also.
Laboratory N0. 1413, a sample of 16% Protein Dairy Feed, con-
tained approximately 217,600 unground and viable weed seeds to 100
pounds of feed. Other irregularities were found.
' Lailmrazfory N0. 1210, a sample of 16% Protein Dairy Feed, con-
tained approximately 44,800 unground and viable weed seeds to 100 F
pounds of feed. Other irregularities and deficiencies were found.
Laboratory N0. 963, a sample of 16% Protein Dairy Feed, con-
tained approximately 632,000 unground and viable weed seeds to 100
pounds of feed, about 90,000 of which were noxious. Other irregular-
ities and deficiencies were found.
A Laboratory N0. 1134, a sample of 24% Protein Dairy Feed, con-
tained approximately 180,800 unground and viable weed seeds to 100
pounds of feed.
Laboratory N0. 1060, a sample of 16% Protein Dairy Feed, con-
tained approximately 408,000 unground and viable weed seeds to 100
pounds of feed.
If feeds containing viable weed seeds are fed upon farms or about V
their premises, the farms are very likely to become stocked with weeds
from the seeds contained in the feed. It is important that the feeder
beware of feeds containing screenings and screenings waste in which
there are viable weed seeds. _
METHOD OF CALCULATING THE ANALYSIS OF
FEED MIXTURES
Requests are often received for a method for calculating the
analysis of a given feed mixture. Examples are given of two classes
of feed most commonly mixed by the feeder, in 1,000-pound batches,
for his stock.

 8 Kmrrucxy AGRICULTURAL Exrsrumrnr S·rA·r1oN
Example 1. 20-percent protein d·airy feed
 
1 I 2 I 3 I 4
Percentage Hundreds of Pounds of
. of protein, pounds of protein from
Ingredients or pounds each each
in 100 ingredient ingredient
 
  I
150 pounds wheat bran .............,......1..,.... 15 1.5 I 22.5
200 pounds ground shelled corn ............ 9 2 I 18.0
150 pounds hominy meal ............Y...,....... 11 1.5 16.5 ‘
150 pounds cottonseed meal ................ 41 1.5 61.5
150 pounds soybean oil meal .................. 41 1.5 61.5
100 pounds ground oats ...............,.......... 11 1 11.0
· 100 pounds alfalfa meal ..,........ 1 ............. I 14 1 I 14.0
 
I I I
1000 pounds ..o.,...,...,,,........................,.........., I I 10 I 205.0
N 4
Then 205.0 divided by 10:20.5, the percentage of protein in this feed.
Example 2. 20-percent protein laying mash
 
1 I 2 I 2 I 4
Percentage Hundreds of Bomlds 9f
I _ . of protein, pounds of motem fiom
ngiedients O,. pounds each _ each
in 100 ingredient m@·`*`€d‘€“t
  V
I I
150 pounds wheat bran A..............,.1.......... 15 1.5 I 22.5
200 pounds wheat middlings rro..,1......... 16 2 I 32,0
200 pounds ground yellow corn ....,o.1.rr. 0 2 I 18.0
100 pounds ground oats ........,,............_, 11 1 11,0
150 pounds meat scrap ...........................r 50 1.5 75.0
100 pounds alfalfa meal .......................... 14 1 14.0
100 pounds soybean oil meal ................ 41 1 I 41.0
 
I I I
1000 pounds ................,................,.................. I I 10 I 213.5
 
Then 213.5 divided by 10:21.35, the percentage of protein in this feed.
Explanation:
1. List the number of pounds and ingredients in column 1.
2. Get from the guaranty on the official tag or from the average
analysis the protein content of each ingredient and put it in column 2.
3. Place the hundreds of pounds of each ingredient in column 3.
For example, 150 pounds of an ingredient is listed as 1.5 hundred pounds.
4. Multiply the figure for each ingredient in column 2 by that in
column 3 to get the figure in column 4. This is multiplying the number
of pounds of protein in a hundred, by the number of hundred pounds of
each ingredient, to get the total pounds of protein furnished by each
ingredient.
5. Add column 3, which gives the total weight of the mixture, in
hundred pounds.
6. Add column 4, which gives the total weight of protein in the
mixture.
7. Divide the sum of column 4 by the sum of column 3. This gives
the percentage of protein in the mixture.

 COMMERCIAL FEEDS, 1941 9
_ The percentages of other substances such as fat or fiber can be cal-
culated in a similar way.
MINERAL FEEDS ~
Ce1·tain mineral nutrients are essential to the health and growth
of plants and animals. Plants get their mineral requirements from
the soil. Animals, in turn, get their minerals from plant and animal
sources, and if additional minerals are needed, they may be supplied
by mineral supplements, such as salt and ground limestone. Most
natural feeds contain the necessary minerals except salt, especially the
minor ones; but if the soil is deficient in minerals, vegetation grown on
it, including food plants, will also be deficient. Vllhere there is need
' of additional mineral nutrients, other than salt, such requirements
are usually limited to calcium, phosphorus, manganese, and iodine. ;
Salt should be given separately. Usually it is not best to put it into
the feed, except for fowls.
Purgatives, worm remedies, medicines, poisons, and tonics are
prohibited in stock feeds and supplemental mineral feeds.
A list of materials generally offered in mineral mixtures, includ- .
_ ing their chemical or technical names and properties, is given in the
table which follows.
TABLE 1.—MINERAL AND OTHER MATERIALS USUALLY INCLUDED IN MINERAL
MIXTURES
Common name Chemical composition or Properties
technical name
Aniseed Seed of the anise Aromatic, carminative
Ashes; hardwood Same. Calcium carbonate and Antacid, calcium nutrient
ashes oxide, and potassium
carbonate .
Bone ash Same. Tricalcium phosphate Calcium nutrient
Bone meal steamed Same. Tricalcium phosphate Calcium nutrient
[Hill IllU`O§€IlOLlS 0l`§Lll`llC
matter
Bone black; animal Same. Tricalcium phosphate Absorbent
charcoal and carbon
Blood root Sanguinaria Irritating, emetic
Blue vitriol; Copper sulfate Irritant. emetic, poison g
bluestone
Calcite Calcium carbonate Antacid, calcium nutrient
Capsicum; red pepper Dried fruit of rrapsieum Aromatic, stomachic
Calcium carbonate Same Antacid, calcium nutrient
Cane molasses Cane syrup Sweetcning agent, nutrient
Caraxvay seed Same Aromatic
Charcoal; wood or Same Absorbent
animal
Chile saltpeter Sodium nitrate Diurctic, refrigerant, poison
Copperas; iron sulfate Ferrous sulfate Tonic, astringent
Copper sulfate Cupric sulfate Irritant, astringcnt, emetic,
DOISOI1
pcxtmse Refined corn sugar Sweetening agent, nutrient
Epsom salt Magnesium sulfate Cathartic. laxative
(crystallized)
 
(Table 1 continued on following page.)

 10 KENTUCKY AoR1cULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
TABLE 1.—(Cont1nued)
 
Common Home Chemical composition or P1.oo€l.ti€S
technical name
 
Fennel Fennel seed Aromatic
Fenugreek seed Same Aromatic
Gentian Yellow gentian root Bitter tonic
Ginger Same Stimulant, aromatic
Glauber's salt Sodium sulfate (crystallized) Cathartic, laxative ‘
Glucose Corn syrup Sweetening agent, nutrient
Gypsum Hydrous calcium sulfate Inert
Iron oxide Ferric oxide \Veak tonic
Iodized salt Salt and potassium iodide Iodine, chlorine and sodium
nutrients
Kelp Seaweed Contains iodine, calcium
Licorice Licorice root Adjuvant, corrective
Limestone Calcium carbonate Antacid, calcium nutrient
Linseed oil meal Flaxseed meal Nutrient, laxative
Locust bean; Carob bean Nutrient
St. .Iohn’s bread
Manganese carbonate Same Manganese nutrient
Manganese sulfate Same Manganese nutrient
lvlagncsiuin oxide Same Antacid, laxative
Milk sugar Lactose Nutrient
Mineral oil Heavy paraffin oil Laxative, emollient
Mustard bran Same Coudiment, stimulant,
emetic
Nux vomica Same Tonic, poison
Oyster shell Same. Calcium carbonate Antacid, calcium nutrient
1"araffin wax Same Inert
1’ennyroyal Hedeoma pulegioides Gentle aromatic
Petrolatuin Petroleum jelly Emollient
Phosphatic limestone Calcium carbonate, tricalcium Antacid, calcium and phos-
phosphate and calcium phorus nutrients
fluoride
Potassium iodide Same Alterative, iodine nutrient
Qnassia Quassia chips Bitter tonic
Rock phosphate Tricalcium phosphate, calcium Calcium and phosphorus
carbonate and calcium nutrients, poison
fluoride
Salt Sodium chloride Sodium and chlorine
nutrients, condiment,
preservative
Sulfur Same Alterative, laxative
Sodium bicarbonate Same Antacid
Superphosphate Same Calcium and phosphorus
nutrients
LSaltpeter Potassium nitrate Diuretic, diaphoretic, poison
Sodium thiosulfate Same Antipruritic
Strychnine Same Poison, tonic
Tankage Same Nutrient
Tobacco Same Insecticide, sedative,
anthelmintic, poison
\\'ormw0od Absinthium Tonic, anthelmintic
 

  
COMMERCIAL FEEDS, 1941 11
TABLE 2.—AvERAcE COMPOSITION or Soma Fmsmsrorrs
(This table contains the average analyses of feed materials usually found in
commercial feeds in Kentucky. Analyses of many other l11J1t€l`12L1S have been made,
but it is not thought of sufficient importance to publish them here. The data are
derived from analyses made by this l1>epart1nent, supplemented by other pub-
lished results when found desirable.)
tiarboliydrates
Feedstuff Protein Fat Water Ash
Film,. ' Qui?.
last.
Concentrates pcrct. pcrct. pcrct. pcrct. porn!. perct.
Alfalfa leaf meal ...1.,..,,,,.,,,....,.........,. 20.0 3.0 16.0 42.5 6.5 12.0
Alfalfa meal ................................,...,... 14.0 2.0 30.0 46.0 0.0 .1.0
Barley .e.......e...ee_..____,.__.e.,.____,___________,,...._ 11.5 2.0 5.0 60.8 9.0 2-7
Beet pulp, dried .,.......... . ..........,.,..... 8.0 0.5 20.0 60.0 8.0 .1.5
Blood. 01-150 ....._._.__....._.._...,.,._.,__.__._._.__ 02.0 0.0 ........ 4.1 9.7 34
· Bone meal, raw ................................ 24.0 3.0 ........ 4.0 7--1 01-}
Bone meal, steamed _,__,.,_,___ _ _________,__ 7,1 3.3 0.S 3.0 3.0 81-3
Brewers’ dried grams ________1__,,,,,,,,,__ 24.0 6.5 15.0 42.5 8.2 3.8 ;
Buckwheat ......... , _________,_,._,_____ 1 ______,_,,. 10.5 2.5 10.5 02.5 12.0 2.0
Buttermilk, dried _________________Y_________,__ 32_5 5,5 ________ 49.5 4.5 $.0 ~
Buttermilk, semi-solid _____________V__,___ 13.5 3.0   10.0 05.0 2.5
Cocoanut oil meal ...,,._.___............,...... 20.5 8.0 10.5 45.0 9-5 5·5
Corn .11 ................,...__...... . ............. . ...,... 0.5 4.0 2.0 72.0 11-0 1·5
Corn—and-cob meal .........,. 1 ............... 8.0 3.5 S.0 08.5 10-5 1·5
Crushed ear corn with husks ........ 7.5 3.0 7.8 08.1 11.0 1-8
Corn bran __,___,_,,_.,,_,,..,,_.___,_._,__..._.___._.,.. 10.0 0.0 10.0 01.7 10.0 2·3
Corn chop ................_._.....,..................... 0.5 4.0 2.0 72.0 11.0 1·5
Corn chop (screened) ...................... S.5 3,7 2.5 72.8 11.0 1-5
Corn feed meal .................................... 8.5 4.0 4.5 70.5 11.0 1.5
· Corn germ meal ........... , .................... 21.0 0.0 0.0 50.7 7.0 3-3
Corn gluten feed .. ............................. 25.0 2.7 7.0 40.8 0.5 0-0
Corn gluten meal ._.____._____..,..._.......... 42,0 2.3 2.5 42.0 8.5 1.0
Cottonseed meal, 43% ‘pr0tein ..... 43.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 0.5 5.5
Cottonseed meal, 41% protein.1 .. 41.0 5.5 11.0 30.0 7.0 5.5
Distillers’ corn dried grains ........ 30.0 10.0 11.5 37.4 8.5 2.0
Distillers’ rye dried grains ___.._...... 18.0 6.5 16.0 47.8   3.2
· Fish meal 1.. ........ . .............................. 55.0 8.0 0.0 7.7 7.7 20.7
Hominy meal ......... . ......_......._.._. . _.___._. 11,0 8.0   62.0 10.0 2.6
Kafir com ............................ . ......._...... 11.0 3.0   70.0 11.8 1.7
Lesnedeza seed ........... 1 ......_......____..,. 30.0 7.5 0.0 31.5 8.5 4.5
Linseed oil meal .................................. 34.0 6.5 8.5 30.5 0.0 5.5
Malt sprouts ....... 1 ............................... 31.0 2.0 12.0 41.0 8.5 5.5
Meat scrap, 50% protein ................ 50.0 7.5 2.3 0.7 7.5 20.0
Millet seed ......................... . .................. 11.5 3.0 7.8 05.4 0.0 3.3
Molasses, cane ............................,.. 1... 3.2 ........   .... 62.4 25.0 8.5
Oats ...1 ..................................... 1 .............. 11.5 4.6 11.0 50.0 0.5 3.5
Oat kernels ........... 1 ............................. 16.0 6.4 1.6 66.0 8.0 2.0
Peanut oil meal .................................... 42.5 7.5 0.0 28.1 6,6 6,3
Rice bran .............................................. 12.5 12.5 12.5 44.0 0.0 0.5
Rye ...1 ..................................................... 11.8 1.8 1.8 73.2 0.4 2.0 ;
Rye middlings ....................... . .............   3.7 5.5 61.7 0.8 3.8
Skim milk, dried ................................ 34.0 1.0 ..... .. 51.0 0.0 S.0
Sorghum grains ................... 1 ........... 0.5 3.4 2.0 71..2 12.0 1.0
Soybeans (seed) ................... 1 ........... 30.5 17.5 4.3 26.5 0.0  
Soybean oil meal (expeller) ...... .. 41.0 4.0 6.5 32.8 0.5 0.2
Soybean oil meal (solvent) ............ 44.0 1.0 7.0 33.2 8.4 6,4
` 'Fankage, 00% protein ................... 1. 00.0 7.0 2.0 4.5 8.0 18.5
Tankage, 50% protein ...1..... . ............ 50.0 10.5 2.5 6.5 8.0 22.5
Whale meal ................................. . ...... 75.0 11.0 2.0 1.2 8.0 2.8
\Vheat   ............... . .......   ....... . ............. 12.4 2.1 2.2 71.2 10.2 1.0
VVheat bran ........ . ......   ..   .1 15.4 4.0 0.5 55,0 10,1 6.0
\’Vheat brown middlings or shorts 16.5 4.5 7.3 56.0 10.3 5.4
\‘\/heat germ meal   ........     .... 28.5 10.7   44,0 8_!• .1,5
Wheat gray middlings or shorts. 10.7 4.0   58.3 10,5 4.4
\Vheat mixed feed ............... . ......,.... 16.0 4.4 8.3 56,0 10.1 5,2
\Vheat red dog flour   .. ......... . .... ,. 16.5 4.0 2,4 6.1,0   26
\Vheat white middlings or shorts 10.2 3.7 2.0 64.4 10.3 2.5
\Vhey (American cheese) .. . ..... 0.0 0.3   .. 4.7 03.4 0.7
(Table 2 ormlinurvl 011 follmviizy im;/e.}

 12 KENTUCKY AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
TABLE 2.—(C0ntinued)
 
Carbohydrates _
Feedstuff Protein Fat V F \Vz1ter Ash
Fiber * · `·
Ext.
gwreli. pcrct. pcret. pcrct. perct. perct.
Yeast, dried . 1 ..,, 11 ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,_, 1 ,,,,,, 45,0 3,0 1,0 36.0 8.0 7.0
Yeast. grains ....,, 1 ,....... . ....,.,,.,,,,,,... 20.8 6.3 16.1 47.7 6.3 2.8 \
Roughages
Alfalfa hay .......t..................,............... 14.5 2.3 29.7 36.3 8.6 8.6
iiliuegrass hay ....... 1 .__..,....,,,,,. 1 ..___._..,_ 8.2 2.5 29.8 42.5 10.5 6.5
Clover hay. alsike ....... 1 .......... . ....... 12.0 2.2 27.1 39.8 11.0 7.9
Clover hay, red ............. 1 ...... 11 ........ 11.8 2.6 27.3 40.1 11.8 6.4
Corn stover (ears removed)   .... 5.9 1.6 30.8 46.5 9.4 5.8
(Torn Stover (with ears) ..............._.. 7.S 2.2 27.1 47.6 8.9 6.4
Cowpea hay ......................................._.. 18.6 2,0 22.5 35.1 9.9 11.3
l¤(‘$IJU<1l¥ZiL hay ......,................   .,.._ 13.5 2.5 28.0 40.1 10.5 5.4
Soybean hay   ....................... 1 ......   15.5 2.8 26.5 38.7 9.2 7.3
Timothy hay ....... 1 ..........................   6.2 2,5 29.8 45.0 11.6 4.9
Fillers
Alfalfa stem meal ....... . ............. 1 ..... 6.3 0.9 57.4 24.9 5.6 4.9
Buukwheat hulls   ..... 1 ....   ........ 4.4 1.0 43.7 38.5 10.3 2.1
Corn <·0b   1   ....... . ......... . .......... 2.0 0.4 31.8 54.3 10.0 1.5
(`Tottonseed hulls .... 1 .... 1 .... 1 .......   3.9 1.0 45.5 37,2 9.7 2.7
Out hull feed ................. 1.   ..... 1   5.5 2.1 26.5 52.9 7.5 5.5
(lat hulls .. .............   11 .... 1  3.8 1.2 30.0 51.7 6.8 6.5
S¢·reenin;:s*   ............._.._.________....______ _ ....... _ ._..___ _ _______ _ .___Y__ _ _______ _ _______ `
Screenings refuse" ...._.___......_..._...._.__ _ ____.._ _ ___.___ _ _._____ _ _______ _ ____.__ _ _______
 
*Varies in quality from fair to poor.
** Varies in quality from poor to worthless and even dangerous.
TABLE 3.—AVERAGE DIGESTIBILITY or THE NUTBIENTS IN SOME FEEDSTUFFS
(This table gives the average digestibility of the nutrients in feedstuffs taken
from "Feeds and Feedin;.:" by Morrison. The table is copyrighted and is quoted '
hy permission of the author.)
 
Carbohydrates
Feedstuff Protein Fat
Fiber N;_F-
Lxt. -
 
Concentrates ]1(?7`CC7lt 11C1`CC71.¢ 17!?'I'CU'Ilf QICTCCHI
Alfalfa leaf meal ....1...... 1 ......... 11.. .... . ...... .1 ..... 77 30 56 76
Alfalfa meal   ..... . 1   11 1 1 .. .... 71 30 50 73
Harley 1.  _ . 1 .... 11 ...... 1 ....... .1 ...... . 1 .... 1 79 80 56 92
Beet pulp, dried 1 11  .......... 1. .1 1. ....1... . ....... 58 ...... 81 85
Blood, dried 11 .......................... 1 ........... 1 11111..11....1. 86 100 .1.. 1 ...11.
l%rewers’ dried grains .11111 1. 1   111111...11..111.......11. 81 S9 49 57
l1$uel meal 1 1 1 11 11 11 11 1111111 .. Q2 S4 45 88
("orn bran 11 1.   11 1 .111 1 .1111 1 11111.. U3 70 72 82
Corn gluten feed 1111 . 1. 1 1   .11. .1 11..11.1.111 80 74 92 91
Corn gluten meal _ 1111.1....1   111....111111 85 93 58 93
Cottonseed meal, 43% protein 11.1111111111. 1 ...1111. 1. 81 97 45 74