xt77sq8qg07d https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt77sq8qg07d/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1958-11 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Planning School Plant Construction", vol. XXVI, no. 11, November 1958 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Planning School Plant Construction", vol. XXVI, no. 11, November 1958 1958 1958-11 2022 true xt77sq8qg07d section xt77sq8qg07d i 0 Commonwealth of Kentucky 0









‘ ‘t

Published by

Superintendent of Public Instruction
Frankfort, Kentucky








Entemd as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
Frankfort. Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

















Foreword ........................................... 1033

Introduction ....................................... 1034
1. Philosophy and Objectives ............................ 1036
H- Laws ............................................... 1040
HI. State Board of Education Regulations ................. 1047
IV. Role of Agencies ................................... 1064
V. The School Plant Program ........................... 1073
VI. Characteristics of a Good School Building ............. 1096
VII. Financing and Constructing the Building ............. 1111

VIII. Appendix ........................................... 1123













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ings t(

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The reorganization and tremendous expansion of the physical
facilities essential to meeting the needs of the children in this day
of great growth in our school population places a great responsi-
bility on all of us in positions of public trust. Frequent criticisms
directed at alleged unwise judgment exercised by those of us in
these positions points to the necessity of constructing school facili-
ties in keeping with plans and specifications that are not only based
upon the best health and welfare interests of the child but are also
the latest and best thinking of authorities in the field of school
building construction. This bulletin is designed to meet these needs.

This bulletin has been carefully prepared by the Division of
Buildings and Grounds of the Department of Education. The Di-
vision has had the benefit of an Advisory Committee composed of
architects, engineers, contractors, school administrators and laymen
who are dedicated to the best interests of the children of our Com—
monwealth. It has been prepared for the purpose of assisting
school administrators, boards of education, architects, engineers and
other persons interested in planning and constructing school build-
lugs to prepare plans and specifications that can be properly pre-
sented to the Department of Education for required approvals as

Sspecified in Sections 162.060 and 162.160 of the Kentucky Revised
»‘ atutes.

It is suggested that school officials throughout the Common-
Wealth become acquainted with the contents of this bulletin in order
to fac11itate the processing of submitted plans and specifications
and to secure the required approvals.

The health and welfare of the child certainly should be fore—

mo I I . . . . . .
st in 0111 consideratlons when we plan and build those fac1ht1es
most conducive to learning.

Robert R. Martin
Superintendent of Public Instruction
















District boards of education and their executive officers, the
superintendents, are charged with the responsibility of providing
educational facilities for the operation of the public schools. School
boards have the authority to secure property, erect buildings and
provide furniture and equipment. This authority carries with it
the responsibility to provide these facilities. This authority and
responsibility is defined by acts of the state legislature, together
with provisions and procedures for carrying out these responsi-

The State Board of Education has obligations in all aspects 0f
the educational program and in various phases of pupil safety,
health and welfare. The State Board of Education carries out its
responsibility by the adoption and enforcement of regulations per-
taining to the various phases of public education.

The responsibility of providing funds and planning and erecting
school buildings rests with the local school officials. In exercising
this responsibility, the local officials must comply with state laws,
regulations of the State Board of Education, the State Board of
Health and the office of the State Fire Marshal. The State Board
of Education, through the State Superintendent of Public InstruC-
tion, has the responsibility for examining, advising on, and ill"
proving all plans and specifications of proposed school buildings-
The Superintendent of Public Instruction, upon request, will pro-
vide assistance to local school officials in making surveyS 0f needs,
in developing long range school plant programs and in plannlilg
individual buildings. Advisory services will be provided for srte
selection, remodeling and renovation. The State Delmrtment Of
Education will advise, but Will not assume responsibility for strut-
tural design, strength and durability 0f materials used, cost eSll'
mates, effeciency of mechanical installations, nor the quality 0f the
materials and labor used in construction.

The first step in any contemplated building program: large or
small, is to become familiar with the laws and regulations gOVem'
ing the procedures. The second step is to secure the advice of the
Superintendent of Public Instruction through the various agenfles
in the State Department of Education. The Bureau of Instruetlonr



the I
the 1








ecutive officers, the
ibility of providing
blic schools. School
erect buildings and
rity carries with it
This authority and
egislature, together
out these responsi.

us in all aspects of
*s of pupil safety.
tion carries out its
of regulations per-

nning and erecting
als. In exercising
y with state laws,
1e State Board of
The State Board
of Public Instruc—
sing on, and ap-
school buildings.
request, will pro-
surveys of needs,
and in planning
provided for site
e Department of
sibility for struc-
s used, cost esti-
he quality of the

rogranr, large or
tulations govern-
he advice of the
various agencies
u of Instruction,

the Division of Finance and the Division of Buildings and Grounds
have the responsibility for approvals under the authority of the
Superintendent of Public Instruction. Other agencies such as the
Division of Home Economics Education, the Division of Trade and
industrial Education, the Division of Agricultural Education, and
the Division of School Lunch provide services in planning of special
areas of buildings. Specialists in the Bureau of Instruction, the
Supervisor of Library Services, Supervisor of Elementary Educa—
tion, and Supervisor of Art and Music Education also can be very
helpful in planning specialized areas.

Three major responsibilities of the local board of education
and the superintendent in developing long range master plans for
the building program are:

1. To determine the scope of the educational program and the
ability of the community to accomplish the educational objectives.

2. To properly locate the school facilities on suitable sites of
adequate size.

3. To attempt to provide school plants and installations of
tunctional design and construction to facilitate the educational




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A program of education for a district or a school requiresa
frame of reference. \Vhy have a school? \Vhat shall we teach?
How shall we teach it? What are our educational beliefs? What
are our objectives for the individual school and for all the schools
of the district? Are our objectives consistent with—Knowledge
of how children learn? Needs of children and youth? Needs of our
community? and, The broader needs of society? These questions
should involve the thinking of many people if we are to arrive at
valid answers. The cooperative development and continuous study
of a philosophy and objectives for each school and the school dis-
trict are an ever-present challenge to efficient and effective edu-
cational leadership.

The following statements of viewpoint and criteria for phi-
losophy and objectives are consistent with modern education poli-
cies and practices.


Education exists for two major purposes. First, to develop to
the fullest extent the potentialities of the individual and Second, to
Protect and promote the welfare of society. These two goals depend
upon each other for accomplishment. The individual achieves llIS
fullest self-realization only when serving and being served by the
forces of the social interaction. In like manner society is at its best
only when it is composed of socialized individuals. It shouldte
the purpose of the school to strive toward these two goals durlng
the time when it has the child in its care. If this is to be done ef‘
fectively it is essential that the teachers understand and be in SYm‘
pathy with both the child and society. ,

Understanding the child implies knowing his potentialities, 1115
needs, his interests, his desires and his fears. It also includes a
knowledge of his home, his family, his background and, in short, as
many hereditary and environmental factors as possible.

Understanding society means not. only that the school should
take cognizance of our form of government but of that of other
countries. It should help pupils to understand our own culture and
the culture of other people as well. It should teach pupils to know

1Adapted from Principal, Dec., 1950












t school requires a
at shall we teach?
1al beliefs? What
for all the schools
with —— Knowledge
,1th‘? Needs of our
’ These questions
'c are to arrive at
l continuous study
nd the school dis-
ind effective edu-

criteria for phi-
rn education poli-


rst, to develop to
ial and second, to
two goals depend
dual achieves his
ng served by the
:iety is at its best
ls. It should be
two goals during
is to be done ef-
d and be in sym-

ootentialities, his
; also includes a
and, in short, as

1e school should
of that of other
own culture and
t pupils to know

intimately the community in which the school is located and to un-
derstand the customs, standards, attitudes and aspirations of the
local citizenry. Such an understanding will help the school and the
community to plan and work together.

If the school is to properly develop the child’s potentialities it
must take into consideration the nature of his assets. These may be
classified as physical, intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual.
Proper development along these lines makes for a well integrated,
socialized personality satisfactory to one’s own self and to society.

Progress comes through growth and growth requires experience.
The child must be given experiences and must think and act upon
these if he is to grow intellectually and emotionally toward maturity.
Many of these experiences must deal with the concrete and tangible.
Many must be firsthand for the child lives largely in the here-and-
now. Experiences must be real, varied and significant. They must
challenge observation, thinking and evaluation. Indeed the child
must help in planning these experiences as well as in their execution
for he must become adept at planning if he is to achieve maximum

In order to be a good environment for growing children the
school should have certain characteristics. It should possess beauty,
simplicity and security. Beauty awakens in the child his potential—
ity for the aesthetic. Simplicity is in accord with his very nature
and security gives him a feeling of being wanted. The school,
which in a degree is the child’s second home, should be a place
Where the activities of his true home and the activities of the school
may be merged so that his parents and his teachers may meet for
mutual understanding. The school should be a community center
because it is striving to bring the welfare of the individual and
that of the community into closer harmony.


The Purposes of Education in American Democracy,1 published

b." the Educational Policies Commission, list four major groups of
Educational objectives. Perhaps these four groups of objectives are
1e most representative of the twelve—grade program 0f education.

Phe fOUr categories are the objectives of Self—Realization, the ob-


dmlNational Education Association and American Association of School
. 1nlstrators, Educational Policies Commission, The Purposes of Edu-

ca Ion in American D - t D c~ th Commission
1933, pp 5o, 72, 90, rosemocmcy’ waShmg on’ I H e













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jectives of Human Relationship, the objectives of Economic Effi-
ciency, and the objectives of Civic Responsibility.

The Objectives of Self-Realization

Education is concerned with the growth and development of
the individual ~

1. who has an inquiring mind;

2. who is skilled in listening and observing;

3. who speaks his mother tongue clearly;

4. who reads his mother tongue efficiently;

5 who writes his mother tongue effectively;

6. who solves his problems of counting and calculating;
7. who understands basic facts of health and disease;
8. who protects his own health and that of his dependents;
9. who wants to improve the health of the community;
10. who participates in sports and pastimes;

11. who has the ability to think rationally; and

who appreciates beauty and shows character.

The Objectives of Human Relationship
Education is concerned with the growth and development of
the individual
who puts human relationships first;
who enjoys a rich, sincere, and varied life;
who can work and play with others;
who observes the amenites of social behavior;
who conserves family ideals and skills in homemaking; and
who maintains democratic family relationships.

F” F“ H; 9° P3 t‘

The Objectives of Economic Efficiency
Education is concerned with the growth and development of
the individual
1. who knows the satisfaction of good workmanship;
2. who understands the requirements and opportunities for
various jobs;

3. who selects his occupation wisely;

4. who succeeds in his chosen vocation;

5. who maintains and improves his efficiency;

6. who appreciates the social value of his work;

7. who plans the economics of his own life;

8. who develops standards for guiding his expenditures;

who is an informed and skillful buyer; and . t
10. who takes appropriate measures to safeguard hls interess-





d development of

r .


d disease;

his dependents;


development of

omemaking; and

development of

nanship ;
pportunities fOI‘

urk ;

'd his interests-

of Economic Effi-

The Objectives of Civic Responsibility
Education is concerned with the growth and development of
the individual





who is sensitive to the disparities of human circumstances;
who acts to correct unsatisfactory conditions;

who seeks to understand social structures and social

who has defenses against propaganda;

who respects honest differences of opinion;

who has a regard for the nation’s resources;

who measures scientific advance by its contribution to the
general welfare;

who is a coope 'ating' member of the world community;
who respects the law;

who is economically literate;

who accepts his civic duties; and

who acts upon unswerving loyalty to democratic ideals.














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The following pages contain the school laws that must be com-
plied with by those who are planning school buildings to house
educational programs. The laws quoted herein are only those that
are concerned with the individuals doing the planning. They are
presented as authority on which planners must rely for the pro-
cedures which they should follow.

Statutes Relating to the Construction of School Buildings

162.010 Title to School Property. The title to all property
owned by a school district is vested in the Commonwealth for the
benefit. of the district board of education. In the acquisition of land
for school purposes whether by purchase, condemnation, or other-
wise, the title obtained shall be in fee simple. Any reversionary
interest in any land held by boards of education on June 14, 1934.
shall not deprive such boards of the ownership of the buildings 01‘
other improvements thereon. (1.954, c. 20, § 1)

162.030 Condemnation of Property for School Purposes. Each
board of education may, when unable to make a contract satisfac-
tory to the board with the owner for the purchase of real estate t0 be
used for school purposes, initiate condemnation proceedings under
any of the methods of condemnation authorized by KRS 416.010 to
416.080; KRS 416.120; and 416.230 to 416.310; and the title to land
so obtained shall be vested in fee simple. (1954, c. 20, § 2)

162.060 Plans for School Buildings to be Approved. The Supel"
intendent of Public Instruction shall be furnished a copy of all plans
and specifications for new public school buildings contemplated by
boards of education and for all additions to or alterations Of Old
buildings. He shall examine or cause to be examined all such plans
and specifications and shall approve or disapprove them in aCCQTd'
ance with the rules and regulations of the State Board of Educatlon-
N0 board of education may award a contract for the erection Of a
new building or contract for an addition to or alteration of an Old
building until the plan has been approved by the Superintendent
of Public Instruction.

(1 Materials

162.070 Contracts for Buildings, Improvements an
111‘, N01? Re'

to be Let on Competitive Bidding; When Advertiseme




that must be com-
buildings to house
ire only those that
lanning. They are
rely for the pro-


le to all property
:nonwealth for the
acquisition of land
mnation, or other-
Any reversionary
on June 14, 1934.
f the buildings 01'

)1 Purposes. Each
contract satisfac-
)f real estate to be
)roceedings under
y KRS 416.010 to
l the title to land
. 20, § 2)

'Oved. The Super—
copy of all plans
contemplated by

therations of old
ed all such plans

e them in accord-

ird of Education.

the erection of a

aration of an old

5 Superintendent

ts and Materials
isement Not Re-


quired. The contracts for the erection of new school buildings and
additions and repairs to old buildings, except repairs not exceeding
one hundred fifty dollars, shall be made by the board of education
to the lowest and best responsible bidder complying with the terms
of the letting, after such advertisement for competitive bids as the
board determines, but the board may reject any or all bids. All
necessary specifications and drawings shall be prepared for all such
work. The board shall advertise for bids on all supplies and equip-
ment that it desires to purchase, except where the amount of the
purchase does not exceed two hundred fifty dollars, and shall ac—
cept the bid of the lowest and best bidder, but the board may reject
any and all bids. ln independent school districts of cities of the
first class and in county school districts of counties containing a
city of the first class, no advertisement for bids for repairs shall
be necessary unless the amount involved exceeds two thousand
dollars, and no advertisement for bids for supplies and equipment

shall be necessary unless the amount involved exceeds one thousand
dollars. (1954, c. 172)

160.476 School Building Fund; Tax for, Other Resources; In-
vestment; Expenditures; Audit. (1) The board of education of
any district may, in addition to other taxes requested for school
Purposes, request the levy of not less than four cents nor more than
twenty cents on each one hundred dollars valuation of property
Sllblect to local taxation, to provide a special fund for the purchase
of sites for school buildings, for the erection and complete equipping
0f school buildings, and for the major alteration, enlargement and
complete equipping of existing buildings, provided, however, that
such tax shall come within the maximum school tax levy provided
by KRS 160.475. In addition to or in lieu of this special tax, any
board of education may pay into this Special fund at the close of any
fiscal Year the proceeds from the sale of land or property no longer
needed for school purposes and all or any balances remaining in the
general fund over and above the amount necessary for discharging
Obhgations for the fiscal year in full.

(2) The special fund provided for herein shall be kept in a
Separate account designated as “School Building Func .” The fund
Shall be kept in the depository selected by the board of education,

01‘ illVested in bonds of the United States, of this state, or county or

Hlllmieipality in this state, provided however, that such investments

lall be aPDI‘OVed by the State Board of Education.
(3) A11 expenditures from such fund shall be made solely for


















F .



the purposes enumerated herein and shall be made in accordance
with the school laws of the state at such times as the board of edu-
cation determines. The board of education shall cause to be made
annually an audit of the building fund by a certified public ac-
countant or by an accountant approved by the State Department of
Education. (19-16, c. 36, § 1 (3) )

160.477 School Building Fund, Voted Tax for; Other Resources
of Fund; Expenditures; Audits. (l) (a) Upon request of the board
of education of any school district, the tax levying authority of the
district shall adopt an ordinance or resolution submitting to the
qualified voters of the district, the question as to whether a special
school building tax rate of not less than five cents nor more than
fifty cents as requested by the board shall be levied on each one
hundred dollars of property subject to local taxation. This tax levy
shall be in addition to the maximum school tax levy provided by
KRS 160.475. The income from the tax shall be used for the pur—
chase or lease of school sites and buildings, for the erection and
complete equipping of new school buildings, for the major alteration.
enlargement and complete equipping of existing buildings, for the
purpose of retiring, directly or through rental payments, 8011001
revenue bonds issued for such school building improvements. and
for the purpose of financing any program for the acquisition im-
provement, or building of sehools. The question shall be so framed
that the voter may by his vote answer “For” or “Against.”

(b) The election shall be held at a time fixed in the ordinance
or resolution, not less than fifteen or more than thirty days from
the time the request of the board is filed with the tax levying 31"
thority, and reasonable notice of the election shall be given. Tile
election shall be conducted and carried out in the school district 111
all respects as required by the general election laws, and Shall be held
by the same officers as required by the general election laws. Th"
expense of the election shall be borne by the fiscal court except
where the election is held in a district embracing a city of the 51'“
five classes, in which case the cost of the election shall be b01‘ne by
the governing body of the city.

(c) If a majority of those voting on the question faVOI't
special school building tax levy, the tax levying authority shall whctl
the next tax rate for the district is fixed levy the special rate Spec“
fied by the board of education of the school district for the schotzl
building fund in addition to the levy provided by KRS 160'410'
(Subsection (1) amended, 1952, c. 77, § 1)








ade in accordance
) the board of ed11-
cause to be made
ertified public ac-
ate Department of

'; Other Resources
quest of the board
g authority of the
submitting to the
whether a special
its nor more than
vied on each one
on. This tax levy
levy provided by
used for the pur-
the erection and
major alteration.
buildings, for the
payments, school
iproveinents, and
.3 acquisition, ini-
1all be so framed

in the ordinance

thirty days from

,‘ tax levying au-

ll be given. The

school district in

and shall be held

action laws. T110

3al court exccpf

city of the first

hall be b01110 11."

estion favor the
ority shall when
tecial rate speci-
t for the school
v KRS 160.475.


in KRS 160.475, a special levy for building fund purposes as an—
thorized by KRS 160.476. which shall be in addition to the levy au—
thorized by vote as provided in subsection (1) of this section.

There may be included. in the maximum levy provided for

(3) In addition to or in lieu of this special tax, any board of
education may pay into this special fund at the close of any fiscal
year the proceeds from the sale of land or property no longer needed
for school purposes and allow any balances remaining in the general
fund over and above the amount necessary for discharging obliga-
tions for the fiscal year in full.

(4) The special fund provided for in subsection (1) of this sec-
tion shall be kept in a separate account designated as “Special Voted
School Building Fund.” The fund shall be kept in the depository
selected by the board of education, or invested in bonds of the United
States. of this state, or of any county or municipality in this state,
Provided however, that such investment shall be approved by the
State Board of Education.

(5) All expenditures from such fund shall be made solely for
the purposes enumerated in this section and shall be made in ac-
cordancc with the school laws of the state at such times as the board
of education determines. The board of education shall cause to be
Blade annually an audit of the building fund by a certified public

accountant or by an accountant approved by the State Department
ot Education. (1950, c. 142)

_ 337.510 Schedule of Prevailing Wages to be Included in Speci—

floations, Before advertising for bids or entering into any contract
10v construction of public works, every public authority shall ascer-
tam the Prevailing rates of wages of laborers, workmen, mechanics,
ilelDOI‘S, assistants and apprentices for the class of work called for
111 the construction of such public works in the locality where the
“’Ol‘k is to be performed. This schedule of wages shall be attached
to and made a part of the specifications for the work and shall be
Printed 011 the bidding blanks and made a part of every contract for
the COllstruction of public works.

337.520 Determination of Prevailing Wages. The wages paid
’s work to laborers, workmen, mechanics, helpers,
ants and apprentices upon public works shall not be less than

‘1'cva1hng Wages paid in the same trade or occupation in the
locahty. The

the same,

for ii legal day
the p

1311blic authority shall establish prevailing wages at
rate that prevails in the locality under collective agree-









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