xt77wm13r72j https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt77wm13r72j/data/mets.xml  Kentucky  1971 newsletters  English Eddyville, Ky.: Kentucky State Penitentiary  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Physical rights are retained by the owning repository. Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Please go to https://exploreuk.uky.edu for more information. Castle on the Cumberland Kentucky State Penitentiary -- Periodicals Journalism, Prison -- Kentucky Castle on the Cumberland, Autumn 1971 text Kentucky State Penitentiary v.: ill. 28 cm. Call Numbers HV8301 .C37 and 17-C817 20:C279 Castle on the Cumberland, Autumn 1971 1971 1971 2021 true xt77wm13r72j section xt77wm13r72j  




 United We Stend Divided We Fall



Honorable Louis Bo Noun Honorable Wendell Ford
Governor ‘ ‘ Lieutenant Governor


John C. Taylor Commissioner
Jo E. Baker Depoty Commissioner

W._Parker Hurley DmreotoruPPobation & Parole
Sewell Hardin - Chairmen

Mrso Lucille Robuok Glynn V McMinowey

Wendell Vanfioose ' David L. Davis

J. w. Win30 ‘ Warden

John W0.Drennon Aeeooo WardenwAdministration
w. G. Herndon Aeeooo Warden«0ustody

Jerry Wilson Aeeooo Weeden~Treatment

Duke Gurnutte ~ '» Ghief Counselor

R. P. Parker Senior Captain

Max C.~Salb, MD -Medioel Director ‘

Donald ceLe , Poemfieleaee Programs

:Fr. Dehma Clemons Catholic Chaplain

Revo F. P. Loman Proteetant Chaplain
Chas DuRain. Acting Editor Ted Lewis Silk Screen

Clifford Hall Preee Opera ‘ Herbert Gilbert Reporter
Mike'Lovelaee Reporter Gene Kirby Reporter

rThe CASTLE is a publication by the inmetes of the Kentucky V
State Penitentiary, near Eddyville, om.der the Supervision of
James R. HubbardG CASTLE ie an inmate canteen production.

cesmns AMTEKN , M1971


CASTLE is a periodio publication by the inmates of the Kentucky
State Penitentiary near Eddyville. The primary purpose of this
publication to offer the prison population an opportunity for ex-
pression? as well as to promote a better understanding between the
inmates and interested persons outside, The views and comments
contained herein do not necessarily reflect those of the Adminis~
trationo Permission to reprint all materials is granted provided
the source is acknowledged. CASTLE is a member of the Internation»
a1 Penal Press Associationg

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POETRX in ~ 15 - 16



ONCE urea A TIME _ 21 . '
cesrooms 22 §\\

If someone holds a mirror up to your character and shows you
that it needs washing, not whitewashing, the thing to do is go after
soap and water; Eroaking the mirror will do nothing to improve your
character“ '

noois Erandise

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6% as." me am

Doubtlessl because folks outside needed a laugh during the
long, hot, and {roubled summer, the last issue of the CASTLE was
well received by the freeworld presso Newspapers in New England
carried the prison shakedown story, and the wire services picked-up
our skit about the postcardso CASTLE received mail from Kansas,
Pensylvania and happily from Rhode Island.

Thomas Ross, a vice president of the Howard, Rhode Island Jay-
cees, read of our drive to raise funds for the Children's Home at
Paradise. He wrote a: say the effort was applauded around there and
offered to helpa The Jaycees of Howard work toward all sorts of
similar such charities which include sending magazines to prisons ,
and community involvement projects, In September they sent h,500
Xmass cards to Vietnan soldiers so that they would have cards to
mail back to families in the statess

The Howard Jaycees offered to send us h,500 Xmass cards free,
so that we could sell them and booster the Children's Home Funda
Unfortunately we could only accept l,000 cards which will be channel-
ed thru the Inmates“ Canteen at a small price. All money coming
from these card sales, like the money coming from the picture post
cards, and CASTLE sales, will go to the Children's Fund. The unsold
cards will be given to indigent inmates along with stamps in time
for them to get into the mail for Christmass, The sample cards Tom'
sent us were beautiful, the type you would expect to pay .50¢ or
more for.

We noticed that some of our cartoons and fillers were reprinted
by others around the prison press circuit. We consider this the
highest forn.of flattery. ,Usually these who reprint have the good
. manners/to give credit. One did note ,

Originally we had figured on some difficulties in interesting
anyone to write something, This was not the case, however. We got
more material offered than we could handle,

Herbert Gilbert and Mike Lovelace replaced Jimmy Washington as
‘the CASTLE's black reporters. Herb was in the morning following our
announcement that the job was open. Mike had been working on his
sketch even before Jimmy went tn the farm. Bruce Morton dropped by
and wrote a poem at the moment wepurdbdit to fill a page.

Gene Kirby started on a capsule history of the prison, but ended
up covering the pre-release programa In the course Of his visits to
the CASTLE office (appropriately known as the Department of' loose
squirrels), he decided to pass on to our readers a glance at some of
the odd goings on around here, V

Finally, our last issue carried a number of grammical, spelling
and typegraphical errors which were proptly brought to our attention.
These errors were overlooked deliberately, Standing on the premise
that everyone likes to be a proofreader, we left in the mistakes beu
cause we like to include a little something for everyoneo

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"No one could make him look like an idiot, nature got there first?
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Steps were taken recently to extent the correspondence privim
leges of the populations Each inmate will be permitted to have
seven (7) correspondents, composed of anyone he selects, following
approval by the counselorsu In the past, correspondents have been
restricted mainly to relatives with only one or two friends ’being
permitteda 'We believe the addition of seven correspondents, regardm
less of whether they are relatives, is a big step forward in permit”
ting inmates to keep contact with outside society0

Another added incentive for keeping the desired contact will be
approval fer having all correspondents added to the visiting list“
This means that any correspondent who is approved and added to the
correspondence list will also be permitted to visit if the inmate so
desireso ,


We believe the improvements made in the food service are worthy
'of inmates interest and would point out that noticeable improvements
are already in effecta We believe the Administrative staff, officers
inmates and others who have improved the food service up to this
point deserve quite a bit of credit and we expect much better things
in the future.

Mra Lawsen, the new steward, is becoming oriented to the instim
tutiong learning the staff and the operation and should show define
its improvements in the very near futureo We have to also keep inn“!
mind that the food service depends upon budget allotments, farm prhw~~I
duction and cooperation of the various departments concerned even
though every effort is made to serve the food in a sanitary and ape
ptizing mannero

We would ask the cooperation of all of the inmates in their use
‘of the dining room and their personal conduct. These measures will
assist us in seeing that better and more appetizing food is continu-
ally servedo


I believe all of the population would be interested in knowing
that we are striving to improve our recreation program with the fac-
ilities and equipment available. We just recently walled off a
section of the old cannery building and will move our weight lifting
equipment into this areao As you probably know some of the weight
lifting equipment has been kept on the outside and the remainder was
in a very confined area in the gymnasium. This made for poor care
of the equipment, safety hazards and an undesirable area with which
’to work out ine It is our wish that the new weight lifting uiit
will be so operated that it will require limited supervisionv


You will note from a recent addition of the daily transfer
sheet that typewriters have been approved for inmate purchaser Sev~
eral of the men have request these and we have arranged to have them
ordered through the commissary store“ We will restrict the purchase
of these machines to portableg non-electric because of space and
maintenance required in larger machines,


‘Ti ’4)


E3 j


We would like to call to the attention of the popnlation that
machines cannot be sent in or mailed in from home, They will have
to be purchased, by order, from the commissary onlyo


. We are in the process of making arrangements to reinstate our
college level classes with Murray State Universitya These classes
have been quite popular in the past and we would hope that many of
the high school graduates would be interested in furthering their
education through participation in these classeso We will keep you
informed as to developments. .

JOHN we. WINGQ, Warden

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Bangkok, Thailand (PP) The Thai Cabinet approved same new
regulations banning opium, heroin, marijuana, liquor, gambling faci—
lities, weapons, explosives, and live animals from all jails in that
countryo The director general of prisons was also authorised to
suspend the terms of prisoners who complied with the new rules, and
who premised not to repeat the crime that got them put away, and who
"behave properly and conduct regular religious servicesl"

Penal Press.


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If your neighbor does not keep pace with the ot
is because he hears a different drummer; Each man a
to step to the music he hears, however measured or
seem» ‘




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$3 >9 man’s answer as?



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Tree leaves were about ankle deep around the CASTLE office as
silk-screener Ted Lewis and acting editor Chas DuRafln tried to work
out a suitable pattern for this issue's cover. The only leaves
handy were those picked up around the prison yard (and a model time
plate which had disappeared from the leather shop).

The CASTTE's supervisor, Mr. James Hubbard was trying his level
best to show restrain about it all, but he was getting a sort of
pained expression on his face as the level of leaves grew to nearly
knee deep. Then Perry Joseph from the front leather stand wondered
into the office and casually asked, "How come all the Maple Leaves?"


For a few stormy minutes of awkward silence the four stood
around looking very sheepish. Finally Mr. Hubbard asked the inevit-
able, “How come you advertised a 'Multicolored Oak Leaf‘ for this
cover, and came up with this bright red Maple leaf?"

"Stupidity,“ was the excuse DuRain offered, "Pure, unmitigat-
ed stupidity."

As anyone who reads the CASTLE knows, one of our staff has a
rather active imagination. Well, recently he was feeling a little
under the weather, and decided ”that the time had come to write out
his will. And so he did. Bequeathing a fan to one neighbor wh
had none, a radio to someone else, and his television to another.
Then he went out to enlighten his benefactors. He came charging
back into the CASTLE office in record time and added a clause to the
will stipulating” that the appliances should be surrendered only in
the event that he died of natural causes.

The Children's Home Fund is not fairing as well as sponsors had
hoped. The account has raised to little more than half the announc-
ed goal., In effort to booster the account, they have devised some
rather strange schemes. Perry Joseph came up with a plot to sell
blood to local hospitals at five dollars a pint. He even got enough
pledges for an additional forty-five bucks. But the whole deal went
up in smoke when the first few samples were rejected because the
plasma was reckoned at ninety per cent bean soup.

Meanwhile, there is a dark rumor that our acting editor has
initiated a price war of a sorts with the Commissary. They still
charge .25¢ per post card, whereas DuRain is letting them go for
half that. But even these efforts have failed to raise the account
noticeably. That problem and faced with the job of assembling 700
odd cOpies of CASTLE, our editor was overheard mumbling, "I think
I'll just go slash my wrist. " GrK

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Do you know what they do with old-convicts? They take the silver
out of their hair, the gold out of their teeth, and the lead out
of their can, and scrap'em. <21,

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The road to hell is paved with good intentionsgfi fly”



Gene Kirby



, 3/3727 a, 9'.‘
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With an eye toward cutting recidivism, the state has devised a
pre-release program for short-time inmates. The program offers‘ all
sorts of advantages which enclude going outside to be interviewed
be prespective employers, no interest loans, and a well planned re-
erientation course. All of which is strictly voluntary.

The new program has a full-time placement officer, Mr. Bower-
master, whose office at the School Building is generally open all
day, five days a week. Mr. Bowermasterls principle concern is to
find jobs for out-going inmates, even at the expense of traveling
around the Western Kentucky area in pursuit of pnmspective employ-
ers. He will try to find jobs for which the short-timer is best
suited, but the job market is not at its highest peak right now.

No interest loans of up to $100.00 are available. The range for
qualifying for a loan is very broad. Some out bound inmates have
already benefited. . Elvis Capps who didn't have -bus fare to Iowa
was given $25.00 from the Release Program Funds. This was ill @dd-«
ition to the twentyaodd dollar.gate fee. Mr. Cole, who manages the
program here, mentioned that any money given through pre-release
fund will be on an individual evaluation.

Pre-release meetings are held at the School each thursday to
inform short-timers of conditions as they stand outside. No one is
compelled to attend, but each is cordially invited. The short-time
meetings are very informative indeed, each week aguest speaker is
presented. In recent weeks, Mr. Dunning of the Paducah Office of
the Kentucky.State Employement Service spoke to a group of about
twenty; He touched on such interesting subjects as specialized
training and educational programs available through his office.
And most interesting, how ex-convicts might avoid the prejudice so
often associate with just being an ex-convict. ,

A Hayfield attorney, Mr. Henry J. Wilson delivered a lecture
coVering such process as bankruptcy, credits and balances, and the
garnishee of wages. His talk was followed by a question and ans-
wer period in which each individual could get some points on a pro-
blem which was his in particular. ‘ ' ‘

Each passing week will see new guest speakers invited to the
question and answer sessions. We are told that one meeting will be
delegated entirely to restoration of Civil Rights which is as necess-
ary to those released by expiration as to parolees.

Surveying this and other prograssive moves recently initiated by
various state departments, one inmate was overheard saying, “They are
at least trying.“


a; as ee as as ea as as as as ea as as as as as as
It is byfar 'better to remain silent and be thought a fool, than
to open your mouth and remove all doubts.
_ OR:
Blessed is he, who having nothing to say, refrains from
giving wordy evidence of it. '711 -.




"Twoéthirds of the people in prisons, roughly ~- in all penal
institutions ‘-_ are people who have been there before and who will
be back again. ,We simply can't permit this to run that way any more
No other public business is run as badly as our prisons.
~ Chief Justice Warren E. Burger


Ohio Penitentiary Warden Harold J. Cardwell said that the re»
cent lifting of censorship on inmates" mail at the prison hedgero»
.ught a sharp increase in mailingso o .

He said the number of letters mailed each day has increased from

about 1,800 to h,OOO letters per dayo While mail is no longer can»
sored, it is examined for contraband° The state provides stationery
and one stamped envelope a week for each inmateo Inmates may buy
their own stamps for all additional letterso
. ' Associate Press

Richard Rico, a former inmate of St. Cloud Reformatory, has
been elected president of the Minnesota Penal Coalition, amnewly
organized group that seeks to bring about major changes in the state
corrections department and institutions»

He is currently a staff member of the Minneapolis Civil Rights
Department, He was elected to the top post after an audience Of
150 heard Dro David Fosel, newly named State Commissioner of Ger»
rections, pledge major reforms in Minnesota penal policieso

Penal Press via Prison Mirror, Minn.

Former prisoners will soon start serving as parole officers fer
50 odd Washington, DOC., Federal parolees. Earlier experiments in
Washington and Organ States proved that ex-prisoners have more re»
habilitative capabilities than professionally trained workerso
' Penal Press '


The New York State Supreme Court ruled that guards did not
violate the rights of 22 Suffolk County Jail inmates by disposing of
Morris, a mouse they had tamed and caged in defiance of a rule for»
biddingpetso ‘

Morris came to an untimely end last July when a guard flushed
him down a commodeo The jail inmates sued, charging the Morris8
'assassination‘ amounted to discriminatory and unequal treatmento

"Although petitioners complain that their rights have been
violated, they appear to have themselves been guilty of imprisoning
Morris without a charge, without a trial, and without bail," the New
Ybrk State Chief Justice Lo Barron Hill said in dismissing the suit.

He also noted that, since Morris had entered the jail withcut
signing in, as required by regulations, the guards had the right to
expel himo The judge did not condone the guards! use of "excessive
force." Penal Press





For the benefit of our outside readers who are interested in the
happenings around the prison yard, we shall continue what was formers
ly K.S.P. NEWS. However since the news is somewhat stale around the
prison by the time we go to press we have decided to change the title
of this columno Alsog this change gives us a chance to work in a few
of the unconfirmed, but persistent rumors. ed.

Twenty five inmates received their G.E.D. certificates at commen»
cement excerises after completing the required courses at the Educata
ional Departmenta All will be eligible to continue their education
through the college level courses soon to be available from Murray
State University. Mrs. Adron Doran, Director of persaial at Morehead
State University,delivered the commencement addresso According to
Coy Rushing, school clerky Mrs9 Doran's message was timely and well
taken. Those who received their G.E.D. certificates were:

Gerry Brown William Cabbil David Alan Case
Paul Cox Robert Cunigan Jimmy Edwards
Raymond E. Geary Ronnie Gibson Jehn Greene
Charles Hinds David Hopkins Clarence Jenkins
John Kruse Jehnson Raymond Johnson Coley Lewis
Anthony McNealey David May , Roger Pace
Robert Prather George Quarles Robert Redmon
Archie Townsend Carl G. Wayne ' Lonnie Wells

Thomas Wright


Eight inmates are enrolled in the newly formed art class at the
School. Mro Klesser said the 18 week course will start with a general
history and study of slides of the classic art works. begining studa
ents will work with pencils while those who have some acquaintance in
the subject will have a free hand to develop any style they wisho Ink
charcoal and pastels are already available to the studentsg and oils
will soon.tera part of the scene. Ultimately, it is hoped that this
prison can compete with some of the other prisons which put on art
exhabits profitablyo Certainly we have as much talent.





The Director of Educationg Mro Arthur Mo Reynoldsm sent as word
that soft cover books may soon be available in the Celihouses for the
convenience of night readerso Already on order are a variety of soft
cover editions in both fiction and nonwfiction which are slated for
distrabution to the cellhouses. Book shelves will be erected in the
cellhouses where inmates may pick up books on their way to their cell
and return them at their leisureo The books will be'alloted second»
ing to the number of prisoners in each unito


Mro we Fo Miller and his painters «are well on their way to
brightening up the whole penitentiar . #3 Cellhouse was the first to
get a new cost of paint» and #1 and .2 Cellhouses followed° #5 Cell»
house may have a short wait while the old cannery gets a few final
touches to become an extension of the recreation facilitieso


Since nearly every organization issues some sort of meritorious

award for outstanding performances, it is suggested that inmates also
need some sort of recognitiono Noticeing that guards get a service
award for long employement, and the inmates who belong to the Yoke»
fellows wear a pin on their collars, CASTLE hereby recommends trophys
for any inmate who has fought the chow line for five years running.
Those who qualify for the HAGNIFICANT ORDER OF THE GOLDEN SPOON will
get a little golden spoon to wear on their collars.
' In order to qualify for the recognition» the inmate must produce
two witnesses who wiii swear that they saw the appliant in the mess~
hail three times a day for the last five yearso These witnesses must
have unquestionable credentials° For example, two inmates witnesses
who have been twice convicted of forgery, and/or one inmate witness
who has twice been convicted of perjurya '


CASTLE has been asked to announce that Don Evens was recommended
for parole. He has sent his work papers to the Mayfield area» The
farmers in that Western Kentucky vicinity are hereby advised to sell
off all their chickens and be rid of them before Evens' release is
processedo w


7 Guards finally knocked out the only permanent floating crap game
in the penitentiaryo Acting on a hot tip from the fink departments
two guards swooped down on Hoodwinkle Harry, snatched up him and his
golloping dominoes and started toward the fronto If rumors reaching
the CASTLE office are anywhere near correct, Harry should go down in
history as_the greatest con artist of all times. Stories are that he
Efiatfthetarresting guards out of three bucks before they got him to

e ron o '

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Most of all a liar needs a good memory




Although millions of diverse words have been written on this
subject, it still remains an enigma that no one has been really able
to define. But, I will tryli I am new at the CASTLE and I an real»
istic in my views. I have hepes for penal reform for all, but like
I said, I'm for real, and for the most part, I am speaking for my
Black Brothers and disrespected Black Sisterss saying "Right On.”
I'll borderline in hopes of not becoming a dead Brother to my fellow
blacks and millitant to the white readers.‘ I welcome all comment
pro and con, and I wil I answer all questions in my articles. My
hope is for an overall MORE! MOREi so that I can keep alive the
true black views that are here in our penitentiary.

We all know that all crimes (or at least for the most part) are
an expression of conflict relationship. Consider most immediately
the conflict between the black criminal and the victim. The victim
may be passive or active at the onset of the crime, but then, you
can make the victim feel that he is not being victimized, just as if
there had been no previous conflict relationship. You will be cc-
casionally unconscious of any antisocial attitudes when you commit
a crime. So the criminal and victim can both be unaware of a crime
taking place. I put it like this so that you may understand that
the black man was brought to America with an antisocial attitude.
In 1619, Blacks, twenty (20) in number, landed at Jamestown, Virgina
is, taken from their home lands of peace and riches far beyond that
which any black man knows today. They were not aware of any trickm
cry or deceit, and the only asset that they were able to bring with
them was the art of survial and the willingness to overcome the ball
of confusion that they could foresee to come. 200 years later, the
Rec-Classical school was founded. It waged a war on crime, calling
it the intellectual revolution. I can not help but wonder if 'on
January 13, 1865, when twenthirds of the United States House passed
laws making Slavery a crime that Jermery Bertham felt the need for
laws to help keep the black man in line; because now they were
strong in number. The very next year, on June 16,1866, Congress
said in part, “all person born or naturalized in the United States
are citizens'... CITIZENS“ But a black brother can pick up the laws
of the constitution and find that even the U.S. Supreme Court saw
the 13th Amendment was no good then. Blacks still couldn‘t own land
and couldn't come to town nor give testimony in court where a white
man was party. “So far, the NeooClassical School was only good for
whitey". The point is that the black man was having a relationship
with trickery. Then whitey made a mistake; They gave a black the
Bible and a sympathetic white woman showed them the new world's way
of reading. Today the only thing a black can not do is to get tot al
equal freedom. So, to suppliment for this they turn to crime, on
conscious of any antisocial attitudes. To be like whitey, or better
was and is my black brother's goal. But, they fail to see the
paronia of being like the Jones. I say now, STRIVE FOR UNITYEEE
Knowledge and freedom was founded from the words of the Bible; for
most blacks, they were words that had no meaning at the time, later
after the English language was mastered, did each word fall into its
proper perspective to give meaning. Fight trickery with education,




and jungle instinct. When I said that the victim may never know
that he is being victimized its true. Get an education; arm your»
self with a skill; fill your skull with prevention for thicks; prom
sent yourself to the open market that has a demand for your trade.
Stalk your prey, draw your weapon (your DIPLOMA). Use whitey's
trickery, “a smiling face, a pat ~on the back." Do your job and’
write your black brother in D.C., when you feel that you are ready
to back him. Help move him up, and wait your turn to move up,STRIVE

Remember, motive is the reason for crime, its the subjective
aspect to the causation of crime.. So hold in mind that society as a
whole is a criminal, and to remind ourselves that crime is a major
problem, would seem superfluous. BE BEAUTIFUL BLACK.

Until we meet again,
“Power to the People? ‘
Bro. Herbert "Motion" Gilbert

(??????) '

How do you know you're free, if you've never been free
before? The dream of the slave was to be a freeman someday. From
the time, more than 350 years ago, when the first blackmen and
women were landed from a Dutch-manaof-war in the harbor of Janeen
town, Va. the act of oppression has been in the hands of the
white man: "

Since 1776 when the colonists revolted against Great Britain
and founded these United States hope still belonged only to the
white man! ‘ , '

Not until the early 19th century did the white man become
fully aware of the - many injustices and initiate many changes
The Northern United States began to protest slavery; Some whites
on religious grounds, and otherson.moral grounds. They shouted
their protest and believes that it was wrong for one human to own
another. White abolitionists such as William R. Garrison, and
Jehn Brown with others, each in his own way helped black liberat-

After the-Emancipation Proclamation the scares of the Civil
War hung heavily in the air. The black man had some inkling of
freedom, but with no education, money nor land, he soon learned
that he wasn't really free. No matter; he wasn't going back, so
he took his position as a second class citizen,

From the reconstruction until well into the 20th century,
blacks lived in a state of being second class citizens deepite
the tireless efforts of many whites like Frederick Douglas, Wil-
liam DuBois, and Walter.Whiteo

He finally realized that organization was the best instru~
ment the blackman could use in his rise out of the age of dark
ness, he started getting up from his knees and began proving to
himself that he can be just as successful as whites. He proved
that given a chance and an oportunity he could do anything the
“man“ could do - and then some. And many times excelling in his
chosen field° No longer ashamed of his color or his background,
today you can hear his shouts of self dignity — "Say it loud, Ilm
black and I'm proud." The blackman is proud of his beautiful and
glorious struggle. A history that is no longer used against him.

After 350 years the mental shackles have been broken, and
the status of the blacks in this country is no longer lowlya



 In the last 5 years, one has seen the shift in direction and
progress of the blacks. Whatever the path he chooses, he will
not be shoved or pushed. He is confident in his ability and proud
of his heritage.

The future will be determined by what we feel and what we

know is best for us and ours.
Michael Lovelace

LaGralge Lifer to Receive Degree

AP Harold Howard, whose IQ was reckoned at 69 when he
started a life term at the Kentucky State Reformatory 10 years
ago, graduates from college next month. .

Howard was paroled in 1967. He now works with delinquent
children in the poverty area. Last summer he was a delegate to
the White House Conference on Children and Youth.

Howard easily recalls the day in 1961 when he stood before
a judge in Louisville's Jefferson Circuit Court and pleaded guil-
ty to armed robbery.

, Howard was 16 years old at the time he committed the robbery.
He became involved in many fights in prison and spent time in sol-
itary cOnfinement. -

Prison officials gave him a series of mental aptitude tests
which revealed an IQ of only 69, and indicating he was seriously

H0ward questions the usefullness of testing anyone's IQ un—
der such circumstances. "You can be thrust into a situation like
that and fail the tests no matter how smart you are," he said.

He was placed in the third grade at the Reformatories' school
and leaped thru to the eight in a matter of weeks. He went on
famvthere to get his high school diploma. '

“I made the change," he said, ”because one day I realiZed I
had no skill, no education, £1 fact, nothing but calculated ar-
rogance." .He also found hop