xt783b5w6z22 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt783b5w6z22/data/mets.xml Flagg, Edmund, 1815-1890. 1853  books b92-280-32596682v2 English C. Scribner, : New York : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Venice (Italy) History 1797-1866. Venice (Italy) Description and travel. Venice  : the city of the sea, from the invasion by Napoleon in 1797 to the capitulation to Radetzky, in 1849 (vol. 2) / by Edmund Flagg. text Venice  : the city of the sea, from the invasion by Napoleon in 1797 to the capitulation to Radetzky, in 1849 (vol. 2) / by Edmund Flagg. 1853 2002 true xt783b5w6z22 section xt783b5w6z22 



                VIEW OF THE PENINSULA.

         BY EDMU ND FLAGG,

 EvrEYTIrmNG about Venice is extrmordinary. Her history is like a dremixi-her aspect
 like a roulnce.-BYRoN.


             IN TWO VOLU MES.

                       VOL. II.

                   NEW YORK:



             Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 185!, by
                            CllHARLES    EIUNEL,
In the Clerk's Offiee of the District Court of the V'nited States for the Southern Dis-
                               trict of New York.

  1z Spruce street, N. Y.


                   CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

                             CHAPTER I.

 Commencement of the Siege-The impregnable Lagune-Opinion of Addison-Tbe bite
 of Venice -Tbe sea-vwalls and dikes-The Grand Canal-The ferries-The streets and po-
 lice-The gondola-Churches and people-The isles,                              9

                             CHAPTER II.
 The Bridge of the Lagune-Defences and Defenders-The volunteers-Pep6's First Or-
 der of the Day-Military and naval forc s-Festivities-Skiriibhes--Finances-The3 Mint
 -Destruction of Archives-Fall of P'alma-Julia MIdodena-Italias women, .  .  21

                            CIh.APTER III.
                               " F'SIONE."
  Annexation-Infatuation of Charles Albert-Excitement at Venice-Milita-y demon-
stration-Meeting of the Assembly-The Grand Hall of Council-Rleports-Disentissi.,ir-
Maitiins viws--Annexatlon carried-The U. S. schooner 'Taney"-Close of the Rlepiublic
-l'roclamation of the new government-'ep6's views-Fusion of Lombardy with l'ied-
ni, .nt-Sardinian and other troops reach Venice -Gen. Antoninil-Governmrent, measures
-Military measures-Sortles from- Malghera and Brondolo-Itumors of successes-Charles
AIbert' defeat,   .     .      .   .   .   ..4.  

                            CHAPTER IV.

 Combat at Governolo-The two armies-Disease-Position of Charles Albert-Siege of
 Mantina-Stratagemn-Inaction of the King- Variance-Negligence of commissaries-Per-
 plexity-Franee-Austria-Temptations to peace-The Line of the Adige-Rtadetzkys
 departure fron Verona-Rivoli-Somma-Campagna-Custoza-Volt&-Truce refused-Tire
 Retreat-The Bridge of Lodi, .   ,     .   .   .     .   .    .   .   .   59

                            CHAPTER V.

                     THE MARSHAL AND THE KING.
 Rurnors at 'Milan -Preparations for defence-The king at Mlilan-Capitulation--Indigna-
 tion-Fliglit of the king-Entry of Radetzky-Character and conduct of (Ch:arles Albert-
 ArmiSitLice- Mazzini-The volunteerb-Mtilan-P1arma-Modena-Tuscany-Characterand
career of Radetzky, .T




                            CHAPTER VI.

                       THE LION AND THE CROSS.
 Dissatisfaction at Venice-Tbe Act of Fusion-Proclamation of Rloyal Commissioners-
lraogura.tion-Welden' sumrnons-The Reply-Rumors-Popular excitement-News of
the King's defeat-The Eleventh of August-Abdication of the Commissioners-Manin
assumes the government-Measares for defence-Proclamations of Manin-The Sardinian
fleet-Attacks of the Austrians-Measures of the Assembly-Promises of France-Media
tion,       .   .   .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .    .   .   .   .   92

                           CHAPTER VII.

                               DARK DAYS.
 The Triumvirate- Rizzardi-Energetic measures-Pep's circular to Italy for aid-Or-
 der of the day-Visit to Chioggia-Recall of Sardinian ships and troops-Recall of Nea-
 politans and Romans-Financial measures-Arrival of troops and supplies-Delusive
 hopes-Capitulation of Osopo-Hostilities suspended -Review of troops-Speech of
 Manin,.        . . . . . . . . . . . .                              . 113

                           CHAPTER VIII.
 The Circoll at Venice-Patnotic contributions-Lepanto-Sortie from Tro-Porti-Pre-
 sentition of a sword to Pep6e-Sortie from Brondolo-The battle of Mlestre-Death of Poerio
 -Bravery of boys-Bevilaqua-lreview of troops-Obsequies for the dead-Croat outrages
 at Mlestre-Diplomnatic restraint-Isolation of Venice-The Premier and the Envoy-
 U nited States squadron-Tbe principle of blockade-Kossuth on blockade, .  .  128

                            CHAPTER IX.
                        THE LAST DAYS OF '48.
  The finances-Communal paper-Contributions-Public pageants-ObseqNules-Lorn-
  ard League-Alexander Ill.-Barbarossa and the Pope-Naval procession-News from
  5e South-Departure of Roman troops-Organization of troops-Winter quarters-Tem-
  ests and wrecks-The two last decrees of 4-, .14T

                             CHAPTER X.

  France-Vienna-Students and Literati-Prague-Larmberg-Second revolution at VI-
ev'na-Latour-Bombardment-Surrender-Executions-Abdication of Ferdinand-First
camnpamgn in Hungary-The March Charter-Second Carnpaign-Fallof Hungary-Tho
Two Siciliies-Pome-Ferrara-Bologna-Modens-Lnccn-TuscanyGenoa-Monaco-
ban Marino, .168

                            CHAPTER X[.

  The Mask prohibited-Relations with France-Pastoral Letter-Demonstration to Man-
In-Speueh-Election  of Representatives- Illumination-Manin's Eloquen'e-Italian
unity-The king's speech-Gioberti-Hlis poliey and career-Anniversary festivities-In-
augnration of Fort Manln-Organization of Legions-The Bandiera-Moro-Contributious
-News from abroad-Disturbances.                                         176




                           CHAPTER XI.

                           "VIVA LA GUERRA."

 Meeting of the Assembly-Report of Manin-Conflrmation of the Triumvirate-Foreign
Relations-kEijiance-Aruy-Navy-4Lircoli-Projet of (Government,-kesignation of Tri-
umvirs-Popular excitement-Address of 2vlanin-Decree of Dictature-NI inistry-Decree
of Manin-Preparationas for war-Pepe's plan of campaign-Measures for defence-Anni-
versary-Nationai festa-The forcew and tbeir disposition-Combat at Conche,  .  188

                           CHAPTER XIII.

                        l,ESISTANCE AT ANY COST."

 Suspense-lflusions--'fhe terrible truth-Haynau's summons-The Twenty-eigbth of
 March-Excitement-The Asrsembly-The Decree of Resistance at any cost-The spirit
 of Dandulo-The blood-red badge-A     forced loan-Contributions-Benevolence-.
 News, 207

                           CHAPTER XIV.


  The armistice denounced-rhe causes-The hostile arnles-Radetzky's Order of the
l Jay-Address of (Chrzanowsky-Proclamation of Prince Eugene-Ramnrino-Mortara-
No)vara-Bravery of the king and his sons-Defeat-Abdication-Fight-Death-c bar.
acter of t lharles Albert-Armistice-Proclarnations--Milan-Bresci-N ugent-Haynau-
31awsacre-The ilyena of Bruscia-His career, and character, and end, .  .  .  218

                            CHAPTER XV.


  Departure of the Sardinian squadron-Blockade by the Austrian fleet-The Venetian
flcet-Pepe6s plin-Rumors at Venice-Aid from abroad-Koesuth and the Hungarians-
The Utnited States-lntrigue-lsolation of Venice-Errors of the foreign press-Fortitude
and endurance-Patriotism and liberality-Pageant and parade-Exposition of the Madon-
La of St. Luke-Pastoral Letter-Memorial of Tommaseo-Festa of St. lark-Speech of
Mauin,                     .   .   .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .     0

                            CHAPTER XVI.

                       DEFENCES OF THlE LAGUNE.

  Three zones of defence-Forts-Brondolo-Lombardo-Madonnat. Mlchael-St Felix
-4 aromeno-Sotto-Marina-l-an Pietro-Alberoni-The Great Tower-San Nicolo-St.
Andrew-San Frasmo-Burano-Mszzorbo-St. Julian-Batteries of the bridge and tho
Sslands-San Glorgio--Malgbera-Manin-Rizzardi-Garnfion of Malghera, .  .  2(32



                           CHAPTER XVII.


  Inrestment by D'Aspre-JTaynan succeeds Welden--Flrst parallel opened-Paoluzzi reZ
moved-.i idniglht bombardment-Imnposing cpectacle-The first victim-Preparations for
siege-Austrian batteries unmasked-Pep6's visit to Malghera-Damages snd losses-De-
brunners visit to Venice-Thbe bonmbs-Effiects of bombardment-A parlamentario-Ra-
detzky's court at Mestre-Summons to Venice-Manin's reply-Radetzky's rejoinder-Its
character and effect,.                                                   28

                          CHAPTER XVIII.

                            SORTIE AND SIEGE.

  Preparations for defence and attack-Sortles-The Swiss tallor-Tnundation-Incidents
of siege-Tburn succeeds Haynau-Socond parallel completed-Scarcity In Venice-Arri-
val of supplies-Sorties from Tre-Porti and Brondolo-Cruelty of Croats-Ine.-orablo
blockade-Fall of Bologna-Medal-The Jews-Terrific bombardment-Heroism-Tho
Bandlera-Moro-Damnages and losses--Horrors of war,. .    .   .   .   .   296

                            CHAPTER XIX.

                        EVACUATION OF MALGHERA.

  A trip to Vernice-Scenes in tho city-Peturn to Malghera-Continued bombarduieuf-
JEffect_-Reasons for evactation-Order to evacnate-The Plan-Evacuation-Demoli-
tion of the Bridge-Batteries of defence-Occupation of Malghera-Explosion at St. Ju-
lian-Austrian accounts, .812

                            CHAPTER XX.


  Batteries-Demolition of the bridge-A tragedy-Orders of the Day-Malghera and
Antwerp--Assembly convoked-Resistance re-afirmred-Ratification of the people-Do
Bruick' proposals-Conferences at Mestre and Verona-Public pageants-Religions fes-
tivals, ..28

                            CHAPTER I.


  Scarcity of food at Venice-Staples of Subsistence-The Commissariat-Measures for ro-
lief-Approach of famine-Explosion at La Grazia-Party of disorder-Maintenance of
order-Military Commission-Pepe's Order of the Day-Reforms and changes-The Navy
-Pep's visit-The Patriarch's epistle-Mlinor measurcs-News from abroad-The Fl-
ances,.   .   .   .   .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    .   .   348





                           CHAPTER XXII.


 Mfecting of Assembly-Rejection of De Bruck's proposals-Manln's communication-
 Objections to proposals-Argaments for and against-Manins circular to England and
 France-leplies-Austrian consistency,.8f

                          CHAPTER XXIII.


 Fort St. Julian-Other Austrian bstteries-Venetian batteries-3int' Antonio-San Se-
 condo-The secon(1 zone-Commandants of Defences--Peconnolssance--Attacks on Chi-
 oggia and its forts-Bombardment opened on Venice-Bombs reach the city-Firmness
 of inliabitants-P-sults of assault-Response of defences-lInprovements-Labor of citi-
 zen-l';vents of sievte-Bombs at Cannaregik-Tlhe steam-mill-Tbe barracks-Adventures
 of the Swiss-Insubordination-A military execution, .375

                          CHAPTER XXIV.


 Bombardment and cannonade-An unfortunate day-Series of disssters-Death of Rosa-
 rol I-Character and career-Battery Rosaroll-ol izzi-Boinbs in Venice-Mid night at-
 tack oii Sant' Antonia-lts conception and plan-Sustpicion of treason-Precautions-
 Aquiatic sortis-Bomb-bmdloons-Their charecter-Failure-Amusement of Venetians-
 Night assaults-A(tack and defence-Inaetion of the Fleet-Sortie from Brondolo-Re-
 treat of tie foe-The people of Venice-A pure democracy-Measures for relief and de-

                           CHAPTER XXV.


  Designs of beslegers-Suspenslon of fire-Defences strenzthened-New works at St. Ja-
ltan-Funday in Venice-Sunday night and l its scenes-Terrific assault at midnihlit-The
mystery solved-F ,ight of inhabitants-The Swiss-Asyluims for fuvitives-Reception-
Damlage to ( lurchles-Pailqes--an-e of prqiectiles-TIeir force and effe-t-Conflagra-
tions-Unaniumity of the people-Letter of the American Consul, .412

                           CHAPTER XXVI.

                           " LVA IN MASSA."

  Sortie from Brondoko-Enthusia-sm at Venice--Sortie from Tre-Portl-Peath to tUe
ratriarch -Cause of the riot-Ftil-ets of liuration- Apathy of electors-l cports of eorni-
niioners -- Absolute dieatlire Jeereed-lernice of fauine-  apitul tion ine ita!hle-
Pepe 's last Order of the Day-Measuires of defence-Party of resistance-Levy in mass-
Tondelli'a manifeztu_-Lanin's requibition-The result, .4.2



                         CHAPTER XXVII.

                               THE FLEET.

  Meeting of officers-Summons of Pep&-His firmness-The navy of Venice-Strange
inaction-Efforts of Manin-The fleet departs-Returns-The Causearlbaldl-The last
review-Manin to the Civic Guard.     .   .     .     .   .             445

                         CHAPTER XXVIII.

                                CHOLERA !

  Midnight bomtardment-Five days in Venice-Ravaiges of cholera-Measures for relief
-The victims-The American Consul-Effects of bombardment-The Swiss at San Be-
condo-Narrow escapes-Damages to batteries-Desolation.   .   .   .  . 458

                          CHAPTER XXIX.


  The Consular corps-A strange incident-Manin's letter to De Bruck-The reply-Corn-
inissiuners to Gurzkowsky-Manin to the people-The last Issue of paper-Cannonade
slnal-eks-Censee-lasubordination of troops-Boldness of Manin,  .   .     469

                          CHAPTER XXX.


 The last decree of the Republic-The convention of capitulation-Austrian policy-
 Anstriau magnanimity-Character of the terms-Spirit of conciliation-The nobles-Em-
 bprkation of Peps3 and Manin-Dictature of the Municipality-Tumult-The Swiss-Do-
 parture of the exiles-Capitulation complete,. .   .   .       .   .   .   49

                          CHAPTER XXXI.

 Entry of Radptzky-Landing at the Piazetta-Tbe troops-.8cene in the Plaza-The
 banquet-Rejoicing-The sons of St. Mark-The silence of hate-All honor to Venice!-
 There is but one Venice I..                       .       ..  .       49


 The cost of the Italian Revolution-Austria-Her public debt-Resources-Army-
Navy-Merchant marine-The siege of Venice-Its cost in lives and money. .  .  499



             THE CITY OF THE SEA.

                       CHAPTER L


  THE capitulation of Vicenza, followed by that of Treviso, and the
occupation of Padua and Mestre, and the complete blockade by
land of Venice herself, had not failed to cause a profound sensation
in that city. Austria, which only one month before was restricted
to the walls of Verona, Mantua, Peschiera, and Legnano, had now
reconquered all the terra firma of Venetia, as far south as the Po,
and as far west as the Mineio-the fortress of Osopo and the town
and fortress of Palma Nuova alone excepted. On the north and
east, the Lagune and its fortifications, and they only, arrested her
victorious course; and Venice, isolated and abandoned-cut off, as
it were, from all the world besides, and circled by her double belt of
fortresses, entered upon that memorable siege of fifteen months
duration, which, for its exhibition of heroic intrepidity, indomitable
perseverance-its self-sacrificingr endurance of destitution and disease
-bombardment and blockade, and its wonderful observance of
law and order throughout the whole terrible trial, has hardly
         VOL. II.-1



parallel in the annals of ancient or of modern times. The siege of
Mantua, under Wurmser, by Napoleon, and that of Genua, under
Mfassena, by the Austrian Ott, and tljat of Saragossa, under Palafox,
by Lannes, are, perhaps, the only three events of the present cen-
tury with which it can be properly compared; while history pre-
sents on no page of its chronicles the record of a continuous siege
of fifteen months, attended by bombardment and blockade, main-
tained against pestilence and famine. It seems rivalled, indeed,
only by the semi-fabulous siege of Troy itself; and it proves one
thing, if no other, that the Italians, and especially the Venetians,
are by no means that dastardly race they have been so falsely
deemed. " It was at Rome and Venice," says an able writer, " that
the Italian nation won her spurrs, and made good her claims to
join the communion of the noble and free states of the earth.
Venice, under the elected dictatorship of one man, put forward
energies and displayed virtues lhhich were little expected from the
most pleasure-loving and sybaritic city of the world. The wealthy
brought their stores, the dissolute shook off their luxury, the eflem-
inate braced themselves to hardships and exertion, and, without
assistance or allies, these heroic citizens kept at bay, for many
months, the whole force of the Austrian empire; and, at last, ob-
tained liberal and honorable terms. After two such examples as
these, the Italians can never again be despised as incapable or
cowardly, or be pronounced unfit for the freedom they seized so
gallantly and wielded so well. The comparison of 1848 with 1821
indicates a whole century of progress."
  The disastrous intelligence of the fall of Vicenza was announced
to the people of Venice by their able and eloquent champion,
Manin; and, depressed though they were, their spirits revived under
L;s words. " Venetians I" he said, " whatever our future fate-




whatever the fortune of war on land, the sea is ours !         Our Lagune
-it is impregrialble !"
  And, indeed, from her earliest origdij, Venice had alwaYs been
deemed " inpregiiable' by any force that could be sent against
her.  She proved impregnable to the fugitives of Aquilea, who, in
the fifth century, fled to her hundred islands before the barbaric
hordes of Attila, the Run, and Alboin, the Lombard; and equally
so to Pepin' and Barbarossa.      hlowever deeply and redly the bil-
low of blood mighrt roll over the fair plains of Lombardy, it ever
broke harmless, like a spent wave, on the shore of the Lagune.
"Thus far and   no farther" was a mandate never disobeyed.         Tle
Ottoman swept the Adriatic and the Grecian Archipelago with his
galleys, and ravaged Cyprus, Candia, Negropont, and the beautiful
Morea, with fire and sword; but he entered not-he dared not, en-
ter the Lagune.    Genoa planted     her power within sight of the
Campanile of St. Mark in the bloody and memorable war of Chiog-
gia; but there   her triumph    ceased, and    there  her power was
crushed. In that darkest hour of Venetian history, when, at Cam-
bray, all Christendom combined to annihilate Venice, and Louis
XII. of France established his camp on the border of the Lagune,

 In 894, Pepin, father of Charlemagne and king of Italy, having taken Chiogg Ia, Pelee-
trina, and even Malamnocco, then the capital, drove the Venetians to their central Island
of Rialto. and a -Abored his galleys in the canal Orfano, opposite the present Piazetta.
Here lie summoned the fugitives to surrender, and, upon their ret-isal. attempted to con-
struct a bridge of boats, which they destroyod. Subsequently, many of his galleys, strand-
ed by the falling tide on the shores of the Lagune, having been burned by the Venetians,
lie was forced to flee with the residue. Two pictures by Vicentino in the Sala dellt
Scmutinto of the Ducal Palace immortalize this attack and defence. In one, the Vene-
tians are lnu:ching loaves of bread at the foe to prove the hopelessness of their reduction
by famine! The CanaIe Orfano is said to owe the name it still retains to the number of
orphans caused by this attack. This canal has also an infamous fame, as Laving been
the spot where the "Ten" drowned their victims. To cast here a net was death 1-" The
Canal of Orphlans-the name was appropriate.




as already mentioned, and from a battery of six guns discharged
six hundred shots at random " in the direction" of the capital, it was
with no idea of reaching it with a single ball, but only that " pos-
terity might be told that the King of France had bombarded the im-
pregnable city of Venice !" And, at that subsequent epoch, when
the Viceroy of Naples, in imitation of this bravado, planted a battery
of ten guns of large calibre yet nearer the city, he could reach with his
projectiles only the white walls of the Monastery of San Secondo, on
an islet some hundred of yards In advance of the city's utmost verge.
Even Napoleon's batteries, erected on the same spot, nearly three
centuries afterwards, could never have reached the city, and could
themselves have been easily levelled by her gun-boats. With her
abundant preparation for a siege, and with the co-operation of the
fleets of England, she might, as has before been urged, have defied
even his almost omnipotent power, enhanced though it was by the
prestige of his name, but for that pitiable panic which deprived her
rulers of reason and caused her to yield without a blow: or, rather,
had her hour not come had she not been doomed by that Provi-
dence, which visits nations as well as men, to expiate by utter ruin
whole centuries of unutterable crime!
  But Venice, in 1848-49, despite the wonderful advance of fifty
years of the science of military engineering, as demonstrated by the
sequel, was, in some respects, far better able to sustain a protracted
siege, than in 1796-97; and the very fortresses, especially that of
Malghera, constructed by her great conqueror, made her so. A
brief description of those fortresses and of her local site-after all, her
surest guarantee of defence-may not prove inappropriate.
  Addison, who visited the place in the early part of the last cen-
tury, gives a description, which requires but slight modification,
even after the lapse of an hundred and fifty years:-;




   " Having often heard Venice represented as one of the most de-
fensible cities in the world, I took care to inform myself of the par-
ticulars in which its strength consists. And these I find are chiefly
owing to its advantageous situation; for it has neither rocks nor
fortifications near it, and yet is, perhaps, the most impregnable town
in Europe. It stands, at least, four miles from any part of terra
firma; nor are the shallows that lie about it ever frozen hard
enough to bring over an army from the land side; the constant
flux and reflux of the sea, or the natural mildness of the climate,
hindering the ice from gathering to any thickness. On the side
that is exposed to the Adriatic the entrance is so difficult to hit,
that they have marked it out with several stakes driven into the
ground, which they would not fail to cut on the first approach of
an enemy's fleet. If we could, therefore, suppose them blocked up
on all sides by a power too strong for them, both by sea and land,
they would be able to defend themselves against every thing but
famine; and this would not be a little mitigated by the great quan-
tities of fish that their seas abound with, and that may be taken up
in the midst of their very streets; which is such a natural magazine
as few other places can boast of."
  The site of Venice, it need, perhaps, be hardly repeated, is a
number of islands at the head of the Adriatic. Around these
islands the water expands itself into shallows, called the Lagune,
over a surface of more than fifty square miles. The depth of water
varies with the tide, which has an ebb and flow twice in twenty-four
hours; and, at low water, a considerable extent of territory, not only
around the marshy borders, but in the very centre of the Lagune,
is left completely exposed. Through the Lagune, however, are cut
canals of various depths, in all directions, always navigable for
          Lagum-plural of Lagvfta-a marab, moor, fen, bog, swamp.




smaller craft, their cou se bein'g marked out by ranges of posts on
either side. South and east of the Isles of Venice, at a di-tance of
four or five iniles, lies the open sea ; while at a similar average dis-
tance on the north and west sweeps the line of terra firma, like the
arc of a circle, extending from Brondolo, at the western extremity,
to the mouth of the little river SilU, on the eastern, a distance of
forty or fifty miles. The point of the city nearest to the mainland
is the north-west, towards the towns of Mestre and Fusina, the dis-
tance being about three miles. The chord of the irregular arc
formed by the shore of the mainland and enclosing Veniee on the
north and west is a long low narrow sand-bank, called the Littorale
of Pelestrina and Lido, which lies between the open sea and the
Lagune, protecting it like a natural breakwater from  the waves of
the Adriatic. This sand-bank, or Agyere, is about half a mile wide,
and some twenty or thirty miles in length in the immediate vicinity
of the Lagrune. although its full extent from Brondolo to Grado is
nearly eighty miles. Through this lone and narrow bank cut six
channels leading from the Gulf to the Lagune and harbor of Veniee,
the principal of which are called the ports of Malamocco and Lido;
while it is protected externally from the abrasion of the waves by
gigantic sea-walls called Murazzi, miles in length, its entrances or
ports being protected by dikes equally gigantic, protruding several
thousand feet into the sea. To Austrian rule, Venice owes ItInch of
these immense works, especially the dikes, the first stone of which
was laid with all the pomp and splendor of the Catholic church, by
the old Emperor Ferdinand, October 13th, 1 838, when he passed
through Venice, with all his court and foreign ambassadors, on his
way to Milan to assume the iron crown of Lombardy.
   Col. Salvini, an engineer at Venice under Napoleon, was the pro-
jector of the dikes at Malamocco. They are of ponderous masonry,




and the cost was three millions of Lire, or half a million of dollars.
The sea-walls were restored and perfected under the same supervi-
SiOl. These sea-walls, or Afarazzi, are works of a Cyclopean char-
acter, and would compare favorably with those at Cherbourg, the
most stupendous in the world. They are formed of enormous
blocks of Istrian marble based on piles, elevated ten feet above the
highest flood, and extending 5,270 metres-nearly three miles.
They were commenced in 1740 and completed in 1780, at a cost of
seven millions of francs.  Napoleon undertook their restoration and
perfection in 1806; but the work was suspended, and was not
resumed until, under Austrian rule, 1825.    The entire extent of
artificial works, sea-walls and batteries, along the Aggere which sep-
arates the Lagune from the sea is three leagues. The natural origin
of this Ayyere, or sand-bank, is, doubtl.ss, that of the islands of the
Lagune and of the Lagune itself-namely, the debrits brought down
from the Tyrol by numerous and rapid rivers, abruptly met and
heaped up by the repulsive power of the billows of the Adriatic.
The site of the city itself is these islands, shoals, or sand-heaps, some
seventy in number, large and small, united by about three hundred
bridgres, mostly of marble. It is cut into two nearly equal parts by
the Grand Caual, which is exceediunrly serpentine, averaging about
two hundred feet in width and about twenty in depth, and lined
with magnificent palaces from one extremity to the other, a distance
of about three miles. This canal is spanned by the Rialto Bridre,
ascended and descended by steps, like all the other bridges of this
strange city, and covered with small shops, chiefly of jewellers.
The Rialto of Shakspeare and Shylock was a cantpo, a square, or

 The ancient Venetian inscription on the 3furazzi is as follows:-Ut sacra wStuaria
urbis et libertatis sedes, perpetuum conserventur, colowseas moles cx solido marmore con-
tra mare poenere curatures aquarum. Anno salutis, 1751; ab urbe condita, 1830.



16                  THE CITY OF THE SEA.

an open place, in the neighborhood, dignified as an Exchange at
that time, but now degraded to a Fish-Market. The present place
"where merchants most do congregate" is in the quadrangle, or
cortile of the Ducal Palace, or beneath the arcades of St. Mark.
The smaller canals are some hundred and fifty in number, varying
from ten to twenty feet in width, and from ten inches to as many
feet in depth-the walls of the houses being all of stone, and the
steps to their portals going up directly from the water.
  The ferries on the Grand Canal, and elsewhere in Venice, are
called Traghetti-the   singular being  Traghetto.   A  gondolier
is called, also, a barcarola and a gondola, a barche. Most of the
Traghetti stations, as at San Samuele, San Vitale, etc., have small
alcoves shaded with vines, in which the passenger can await the
Charon, or the Charon the passenger, shielded from the scorching
rays of the Venetian sun. These ferrymen are furiously abusive of
each other on the slightest provocation. One would suppose a col-
lision inevitable. The only weapon they ever use, however, is their
tongue.   But personal abuse is characteristic of the lower classes all
over Italy, and the language is rich in emphatic epithets. The
modern costume of the gondolier, when in full dress, is white pants,
a red sash, a colored cap, and an embroidered velvet jacket.
   The streets of Venice, which are exceedingly narrow, labyrinthine
and intricate, varying in width from twenty feet to two, and averag-
iDg, perhaps, six, are more than two thousand in number, two of the
most noted, frequented, and regular of which, are the Merceria and
the Freazeria, lined with stores, where are offered for sale dry goods,
fancy goods, and, indeed, goods of almost every description. Here the

   Most of these peculiar features of Venice have been glanced at already in the Intro-
duction: but, for the sake of a clear comprehension of much that follows, the repetition
may possibly be pardoned.



ladies of Venice do their " shopping." The streets are constantly
cut by canals crossed by bridges of stone with a single arch, ascended
and descended by steps, and high enough for a gondola to pass be-
neath. To " lose one's self," in these narrow, tortuous, innumera-
ble streets is the easiest thing imaginable. In a two minutes' walk
from the Square of St. Mark a stranger may become utterly bewil-
dered; and a compass and chart are almost as indispensable in the
City of the Sea as on the sea itself! One can not perceive even the
sun or stars, because of the towering height of the houses on each
side; and hardly more of the sky can be caught than if one were
in the bottom of a well! Indeed the lofty walls of the structures,
on either side of the streets of Venice, render them dusky even at
mid-day, and shady even in mid-summer. At night, the city is
well lighted with gas, and by lamps in the older quarters suspended
across the streets, which, together with the effective police, deprive
the blind alleys and culs-de-sac of Venice, of those facilities for noc-
turnal assassination, with which its very name is associated. There
is not, probably at this present writing, a safer city in the world, by
night, or by day, so fai as violence or crime of any kind is concerned,