xt78930nsc75 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt78930nsc75/data/mets.xml Packard, A.S. (Alpheus Spring), 1839-1905. 1872  books b92-269-32003557 English Naturalists' Agency, : Salem [Mass.] : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Cave animals. Heteropygii. Mammoth Cave (Ky.)Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915. Mammoth Cave and its inhabitants, or, Descriptions of the fishes, insects and crustaceans found in the cave  / with figures of the various species, and an account of their allied forms, comprising notes upon their structure, development and hab habits, with remarks upon subterranean life in general ; by A.S. Packard, Jr., and F.W. Putnam. text Mammoth Cave and its inhabitants, or, Descriptions of the fishes, insects and crustaceans found in the cave  / with figures of the various species, and an account of their allied forms, comprising notes upon their structure, development and hab habits, with remarks upon subterranean life in general ; by A.S. Packard, Jr., and F.W. Putnam. 1872 2002 true xt78930nsc75 section xt78930nsc75 





           IN H-1-A BITAN-TS,

               OR DESCRIPTIONS OF TIlE



                LIFE IN GENERAL.






   SALEM      PRESS.

Corner of Liberty and Derby Streets,

        SALEM, MASS.

    F. W. I'LTNA N & CO.


                  PER E F -A C E.

  THE following pages were first p)ublished in the " Ameri-
can Naturalist " for December, 1871 and Jamnlary, 1872, with
the excej)tion of the Synopsis of the fatmily including the
Blind fishes of the cave, which  'as first published in the
" Annual Report of the Peabody Academy of Science for
  In bringing- the several articles together in the plresellt
form but slight chlanges have been made, p)rincipal:ly in the
form of a few additional notes.
  It will undoul)tedly be the good fortune of some visitors
to the cave to discover other kinds of animals than those
nlentiolle(l in the following pages, and to observe new facts
relating to the habits of the various species. For it must
be reiiiemnbered thrat all the observations thus far recorded
have been made by but a very few of the thousands wlho
annually visit the Mammoth Cave, and that no thorough zo-
ological exploration of the cave has yet been undertaken.
Should any new flacts be observed, or unknown species dis-
covered, the authors of this little work would be pleased to
be informed of them, and communications oni all such
matters are solicited for publication in the pages of the
                                     THE AUTHORS.

PEABODY ACADE.MY OF SCIENCE, &eleu, Jlcss., Feb. 1872.

 This page in the original text is blank.



                            AND ITS


                       CHAPTER 1.
                       BY F. W. PUTNAM.

  AFTER the adjournment of the meeting of the American Associ-
ation for the Advancement of Science, held at Indianapolis, in
August last, a large number of the members availed themselves of
the generous invitation of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad
Company, to visit this world renownedl cave, and examine its pe-
culiar formation and singular fauina.
  The cave is in a hill of the subearboniferous limestone forma-
tion in Eidmondson County, a little to the west and south of the
centre of Kentucky. Green river, which rises to the eastward in
about the centre of the state, flows westward passing in close
proximity to the cave, and receiving its waters thence flows north-
westerly to the Ohio.
  The limestone formation in which the cave exists, is a most in-
teresting and important geological formation, corresponding to
the mountain limestone of the European geologists, and of con-
siderable geological importance in the determination of the west-
ern coal fields.
  We quote the following account of this formation from Major S.
S. Lyon's report in the fourth volume of the Kentucky Geological
Survey, pages 509-10.
  "The sinks and basins at the bead of Sinking creek exhibit
in a striking manner, the eroding effect of rains an(d frost - some
of the sinks, which are from forty to one hundred and ninety feet


From the AMERICAN NATURALIST for December, 1871.



deep, covering an area of from five acres to two thousand. The
rim of sandstone surrounding these depressions is, generally,
nearly level; the outcropping rocks within are also nearly horizon-
tal. Near the centre there is an opening of from three to fifteen
feet in diameter; into this opening the water which has fallen within
the margin of the basin has been drained since the clay when the
rocks exposed within were raised above the drainage of the coun-
try, anul thus, by the slow process of washing and weathering, the
rocks, which once filled these cavities, have been worn and carried
down into the subterranean drainage of the country. All this has
evidently come to pass in the most quiet and regular manner.
The size of the central opening is too small to admit extraordinary
floods; nor is it possilble, with the level margin around, to suppose
that these cavities were worn by eddies in a current that swept the
whole cavernous member of the subearboniferotis limestone of
western Kentucky; but the opinion is probable that the upheaving
force which raised these beds to their present level, at the same
time rupltured and cracked the bIds in certain lines. that after-
wardls the rains were swallowed into openings on these fractures,
producing, by denudation, the basins of the sinkhole country, and
further enlarging the original fractures by flowing through them,
and thus forming a vast system of caverns, which surrounds the
western coal field. The Miammotlh Cave is, at present, the best
known, and, therefore, the most remarkable."
  So much has been written on the cave and its wonders, that to
give a description of its interior would be superfluous in this
connection, even could we do so without unintentionally giving
too exaggerated statements which seems to be the natural result
of a day underground, at least so far as this cave is concerned,
for after reading any account of the cave, one is disappointed at
finding the reality so unlike the picture. As the Association party
was accompanied by one who, while a most enthusiastic collector
and explorer, was also a calm recorder of statements made by
the geologists of the party, we cannot do better in conveying to
our readers the general geological character and structure of the
cave than to copy his account.
  " As we expected to remain within the cave a long time, our
trusty guide, Frank, had provided himself with a well-filled can
of oil, to replenish our lamps, and with this strapped upon his
back lie led the way into the thick darkiless. We shall attempt
no description of the cave. Its darkness must be felt to be ap-
preciated, and no form of expression, understood by mortals who
have never descended to its cavernous depths, nor trod its gloomy

W. P. FIsHBAcIc, Esq., of the Indianapolis Daily Journal.




corridors, can convey anything like an adequate i(lea of the place.
After spending fifteen hours within its chambers, it is absolutely
nauseating to read the descriptions which have bseen current in the
letters of newspaper corresl)on(lents for a quarter of a century,
and even the vigorous and( pictiiresque language of Bayard Taylor
becomes tame and commonlplace when it attempts to (lescribe this
subterranean wonder of the worl(.
  How and when the cave was lnadle, were the leading questions
in the min(ls of the geologists. They (1o not believe that the cave
was the immediate result of some violent upheaval of the strata,
which left these vast crevices and chambers of which the cave is
composed ; neither (lo they share the poplular b)elief that the rapid
and violent action of some subterranean stream of water has
worn these deep channels throuigh the limestone ; on the contrary,
they find conclusive evidence that the same agencies are at work
and the same changes in plrogress to-(la that lhave been slowly,
steadily and quietly, thlrouirhL vast lperiodls of time. accomp)lishing
the marvellous won(lers that now astonish the beholder. The cave
is wrought in the stratuim known as the St. Louis limestone, which
in some lplaces reaches a thickness or depth of four hundred feet.
This stone is dissolvedl whenever it is subjected to the influence of
running or dripping water impregnatedl vith carbonic acid gas.
Water expose(l to the air readily absorbs this gas, and surface water
percolating through small fissures of the limestone, (lissolves it.
Another fact should be state(l. When, (luring this lprocess of so-
lution, the water becomes thorougilly imnpregllate(l with lime, it
loses its power to dissolve the stone. The following conditions,
then, were.essential to the l)rodluctions of the cave, assuming  lhat
is not disputed by geologists, that the place where the cave now is,
was once nearly solid limestone. First, that there should l)e fis-
sures in the strata, allowing the ingress of the surface water. Sec-
ondly, there should be a l)lace or places of exit for the water charged
with limestone in solution.  WVithotut the latter, the water would
become charged with lime, fill tup the crevices, and the (lissolving
process would cease. These condition-s are all present to-dlaV, and
have remained the same (luring the countless agres that heave passed
awav while the work has b)een in progress. There have (lommbtless
been times in the history of the cave, when, owing to a greater
flow of water, the work has progressed more raj)i(lly thlalm at plres-
ent, b)ut that the results have been accomplished in the maniier
state(l, rather thmn by the proce-s of attrition by rapid currents of
large volumes of water, seems to be the general opinion of scien-
tifie men. This theory is strengthened by the fact thlat vhere the
cave attains its greatest heights, andl reaches its lowest (lepiths,
the dripping waters have never ceased their labors, an(l are busily
at work to-(lay. In the Mammoth Dome, for instance -rarely
seen bv visitors, on account of the dangers and fatigute incident to
the journey - where the chasm attains a height and depth of more




than two hundred and fifty feet, a cascade falls from a great height,
and keeps the entire surface of the rocks covered with dripping
water. This, falling into a deep pit below, finds an exit through
which it bears away a portion of the lime composing the rock.
After a walk of thirteen hours, our guide informed us that he would
conduct us to the Mammoth Dome if we felt able to bear the
fatigue of the journey. Foot-sore and weary, we were not in a
favorable condition for so arduous an undertaking, but Mr. Thomas
Kite of Cincinnati, who had visited the locality thirty years ago,
urged us to go, and told us the sight of this Dome was worth all
the rest. Provided with magnesium and calcium lights, we crawled
and climbed our way to the brink of the pit, the bottom of which
was reached by a rickety ladder, slippery and dripping with water.
A portion of the party descended, and when all were ready the
lights were ignited, and the immense dome was revealed to us in
all its majestic beauty. Upon our return, three hearty cheers were
given to the good friend at whose earnest solicitation we under-
took this part of our journey.
  We are indebted to Professor Alexander Winchell. of the Uni-
versity of Michigan, for the following abstract of his views con-
cerning the formation of the cave.
  "The country of the Mammoth Cave was probably dry land at
the close of the coal period, and has remained such, with certain
exceptions, through the Mesozoic and Cwnozoic ages, and to the
present.  In Mesozoic times, fissures existed in the formation,
and surface waters found their way through them, dissolving the
limestone and continually enlarging the spaces. A cave of con-
siderable dimensions probably existed during the prevalence of the
continental glaciers over the northern hemisphere. On the dis-
solution of the glaciers, the flood of water which swept over the
entire country, transporting the materials which constituted the
modified drift, swept through the passages of the cave, enlarging
them, and leaving deposited in the cave, some of the same quart-
zose pebbles which characterize the surface deposits from Lake Su-
perior to the Gulf of Mexico. Since the subsidence of the waters
of the Champlain epoch, the cave has probably undergone compar-
atively few changes. The well one hundred and ninety-eight feet
deep, at the further end of the cave, shows where a considerable
volume of the excavatory waters found exit. The Mammoth Dome
indicates probably, both a place of exit and a place of entrance
from above. So of the vertical passages in various other portions
of the cave.'
  We believe that the views of Professor Winchell are in harmony
with those of the other eminent geologists of the party, and when
it is considered that the geologists of this excursion stand in the
front rank of the most eminent scientific men of the world, their
views upon this interesting subject are well worthy of attention.
Before dismissing this branch of the subject, we will take occasion




to correct a popular error concerning the formation of the beauti-
ful structures that adorn the ceilings of some portions of the cave.
In the dryer localities, where the floors are dusty and everything
indicates the prolonged absence of moisture, the ceiling is covered
with a white efflorescence that displays itself in all manner of
beautiful shapes. It requires no stretch of the imagination to dis-
cover among these, the perfect forms of many flowers. The lily
form prevails, and the ceilings of many of the chambers are cov-
ere(l with this beautiful stucco work, surpassing in delicacy an(l
purity the most beautiful workmanship of man. These are not
produced, as many suppose, by the dripping of water, and the
gradual deposit of sulphate of lime upon the outer portions. The
stalactite is formed in this manner, but these are neither stalacti-
form, nor are they produced in a similar way. Dripping water
is the agency that forms the stalactite, while the efflorescence
in the dryer portions of the cave cannot take place where there is
much moisture. The growth of these beautiful forms is from
within, anl(d the outer extremities are produced first. They are
the result of a sweating process in the limestone that forces the
delicate filaments of which they are composed through the pores
upon the surface of the rock, their beautiful ctrve(d forms result-
ing from unequal pressure at the base, or friction in the apertures
through which they are forced. Mr. L. S. Burbank, of Lowell,
Mass., has kindly furnished us with the following abstract of his
opinions upon this interesting subject.
  'The rosettes, wreaths, and other curve(l fibrous forms of gyp-
sum, in the Mammoth Cave, occur only in particular strata of the
limestone which (lo not appear in the first part of the long route.
  Their formation may be exl)lained in this way: that portion of
the rock where they are found consists of carbonate of linme, with
some impurities, and containe(l originally the stilphide of iron, or
iron pyrites, disseminated in small grains or crystals, and also in
rounded nodules or concretions, sometimes of considerable size.
  By exposure to air and moisture, oxygemi unites with both the
sulphur and the iron, producing sulphuiric acid and oxide of iron.
which combined, form a sulphate of iron. Then a double de-
composition takes place; the sulphuric acid unites with the lime
to form the gypsum ; the carbonic acid of the limestone combines
with the oxide of iron, forming a carbonate of iron, and this, on
further exposure, parts with the carbonic acidl, and leaves the
brown coating of oxide, which is seen in many places omn the sur-
face of the rock.
  The gypsum is thls constantly formihig in the rock, and, being
soluble, is carried by the water to the exl)ose(l surface where it
  The crystals appear to grow out from the rock 1)y additions from
beneath, which continue to push the ends first formed, an(1 if these
do not become attached to other parts of the rock, straight needle-




like fibres are often produced.  Very commonly, however, the
crystals begin to form when a small nodule of the iron ore is ex-
posed at the surface; the parts first formed become attached to
the surface around the edges. and as the chemical action proceeds
towards the centre of the nodules successive leaf-like layers are
thrown out, and the rosette form is the result. Along lines of
fracture in the surface of the rock, the crystals are curved in op-
posite directions.
  The wreaths and other figures formed by the chains of the ro-
settes, may be caused by the chemical action described taking place
around the edges of large masses or concretions of the iron ore.
  These crystalline forms occur only in the dryer parts of the
cave. Where there is more moisture, as in the ' Snow-ball room,'
the gypsum merely forms white, rounded concretions, originating
from nodules of the iron ore on the roof and sides of the cave."'

  With these general remarks on the cave we give a brief account
of its interesting fauna, comprising representatives of the Fishes,
Insects, and Crustaceans. No Mollusks nor Radiates have as yet
been discovered, but the lower forms of life have been detected
by Tellkampf, who collected several species belonging to the gen-
era Jlonas, Chilomonas, and () Chilodon.

'In the following pages it will be noticed that the authors have expressed widely
different views as to the origin of the peculiar forms of subterranean animals.




                      BY A. S. PACKARD, JR.

  REPRtESEN-TATIV'ES of all the grand divisions of the Insects and
Crustaceans have been found in this cave, and if no worms have
yet 1)een detected, one or more species would undoubte(lly reward
a thorouogh search.
  We will enumerate what have been found, beginning with the
higher forms. No Ilymenol)tera (bees, wasps, and ants) or Lepi-
doptera (moths) are yet recorded as being peculiar to caves. The
Diptera (flies) are represented by two species, one of Anthomnyia
(Fiig. 122) or a closely
allied genus, and the see-              Fig
ond belonging to the sin-
gular and interesting ge-
nus Phora (Fig. 123).
The species of Antho-t
myia  nsually  frequentZ
flowers; the larvw live in
decaying vegetable mat-
ter, or, like the onion
fly, attack healthy roots;
while thle maggots of                                 1
Phora live in decayingi
substances. It would be                Ahy
prestlnhltuloIls in the writ-
er to attempt to describe these forms without collections of spe-
cies from the neighborhood of thle cave, for though like all the
rest of the insects they were found three or four miles from thle
mouth, yet they may be found to occur outside of its limits, as
the eyes and the colors of the body are as bright as in other
  Among the beetles, two species were found by Mr. Cooke. The

 Froi the AMERICAN NATURALIST for December, 1871.




Anopthalmus Tellkampfii of Erichson, a Carabid (Fig. 124), and
Adelops hirtus Tellkampf (Fig. 125) allied to Catops, one of the
Silphidee or burying beetle family. The Anopthalmus is of a pale
reddish horn color, and is totally blind;  in the Adelops, which
is grayish brown, there are two pale spots, which may be rudi-
mentary eyes, as Tellkampf and Erichson suggest. No Hemip-
tera (bugs) have yet been found either in the caves of this coun-
try or Europe. Two wingless grasshoppers (generally called
crickets) like the common species found under stones (Ceutho-
philus maculatus Harris), have been found in our caves; one is
the iadeoefcus subterraneus (Fig. 126 nat. size) described by Mr.
Scudder, and very abundant in Mammoth Cave. The other spe-
       Fig. 1-24.    cies is C. stygia Scudder, from Hickman's
                       cave, near Hickman's land-   Fig. 123.
                       in-, upon the Kentucky river.
                       It is closely allied to the
                       Mammoth Cave species. Ac-
                       cording to Mr. Scudder, the
                       specimens of C. stygia were
             -    J   found by Mr. A. Hyatt " in  Phora.
 X    00000000 k    the remotest corner of Hickman's Cave,
       l Xf00000Xh in a sort of a hollow in the rock, not par-
                      ticularly moist, but having only  Fi 15
                      a sort of cave dampness. They
                      were found a few hundred feet
                      from the sunlight, living exclu- I 2
                      sively upon the walls."  Even
                      the remotest part of that cave is
                      not so gloomy but that some     adS
  lAnophthalmus Tellkampfii.  sn
                       sunlight penetrates it.
  The other species is found both in Mammoth Cave, and in the
adjoining White's Cave. It is found throughout the cave, and
most commonly (to quote Mr. Scudder) " about 'M artha's Vine-
yard' and in the neighborhood of 'Richardson's Spring' where
they were discovered jumping about with the greatest alacrity
upon the walls, where only they are found, and even when dis-

In Erhardt's cave. Montgomery Co., Virginia, Prof. Cope found "four or five spec-
imens of a new Anopthalmus, the A. pusio of Horn, at a distance of not more than three
hundred feet from its mouth. The species is small, and all were found together under
a stone. Their movements were slow, in considerable contrast to the acti vity of ordi-
nary Carabidae." Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 1869. p. 178.




turbed, clinging to the ceiling, upon which they walked easily;
they would leap away from approaching footsteps, but stop at a
cessation of the noise, turning about and swaying their long an-
tennm in a most ludicrous manner, in the direction whence the
disturbance had proceeded; the least noise would increase their
tremulousness, while they were unconcerned at distant motions,
unaccompanied by sound, even though producing a sensible cur-
rent of air; neither did the light of the lamp appear to disturb
them; their eyes, and those of the succeeding species (R. stygia)
are perfectly formed throughout, and they could apparently see
with ease, for they jump away from the slowly approaching hand,
so as to necessitate rapidity of motion in seizing them."
  Mr. Henry Edwards has discovered a wingless grasshopper in a
limestone cave at Collingwood, Massacre Bay, Middle Island, New
                            Fig. 126.

                       Hadenecus subterranets.
Zealand. Says Mr. Scudder, who has described the species in the
"1 Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History" (Vol.
xii, 1869, p. 408) under the name Hadenmcus Edwardsii, "the
cave is close to the sea shore, and near a very large coal deposit,
which occasionally crops out in the interior. The HIadenowci were
rather numerous, but very difficult to catch, disappearing in the
crevices of the rocks on the approach of lights. They appeared
to be most abundant near the streams of water which percolated
through the rocks." The wingless grasshopper of the European
eaves is the Hadenocus palpatus Scudder, first described by Sulzer
under the name Locusta palpata.
  The Thysanurous Neuroptera are represented by a species of
Machilis, allied to our common Machilis variabiUs Say, common in
Kentucky and the middle and southern states. So far as Tell-




kamnpt's figure indicates, it is the same species apparently, as I
have received numerous specimens of this widely distributed form
from Knoxville, Tennessee, collected by Dr. Josiah Curtis.
  It was regarded as a crustacean by Tellkampf, and described
under the njame of Triura caverniicola.        lIe mistook the labial
and maxillary palpi for feet and regarded                 F
the nine pairs of abdominal spines as teet.              Fig. ]27.
The allied   species, 311. ict riabilis Say, isi  
figured in vol. v. pl. 1, fig. 8, 9 (see also
p. 94 of vol. v of the -NATUtRALIST).
  An interesting species of Campodeat of
which the accompanying ctt (Fig. 127) is              -,
a tolerable likeness, tflotgh (lesignled to il-
lustrate  anothier species   (C'. staplyliwts               A
W\estSt.) was discovered 1by     M1r. Cooke.  
Both the Eturopean an(l otl common spe-
cies live  nd(ler stones in damp places, aiid
the occurrence of this form in the water is                         I
quite remarkable.     The other species are
blid(], and I coul(l (letect no eyes in the
Mammlloth Cave slecimell.
  A  small spider was captured        by Mr.
Cooke, but afterwvards lost ; it wvas brown             Camp adea.
in color, and   possibly dlistiuct from    the
AnrtJ','oljat m'juuun0tl1iq Tellkf. (Fig. 128) which is an ev-eless form,
white and very small, being brit half a lile in length.     The family

   Profe-or Agt:s-iz in ki, brief notice of the Manmmoth Cave animials. does not (riti-
cise Tellkampf', refei-ence of this animal to thle crustacea; and so eminent an authority
upor the :li-ticnllates a, Schiddte remarks thalt while- Dr. Tellkamif's account atford.
us no netals of forming amy concluision as to its proximiiate relations," that, however,
it ' plapears to belong to the orier of Amphijodl. and to have a most remarkable
structure." Tellkanmpf's figuire of M1achilis is entirely wrong in representing the labial
alindmaxillary valii a-s ending in claws, thus giving the (reature a crustacean aspect;
and ndeed lie d, scribes themt as trutie feet!
  t C0inpodef Cookei n. sp. Cloely allied to (C. Ainericana,but it is much larger; the an-
tenn.e are 24-jointed instead of 20-jointedl as in C. Arnericean, and reach to the basal
0bldoininal segment. while in C. Amnericean they reach only to the second thoracic; the
terminal joints are nailcth longer than in thwat species, the penultimate joint being one-
third longer. Lait thr ee abdominllal segmentS unequal (equlal in C. Am7nerisana) the penul-
tillmate very short, not half as long as the terminal, which is onger and slenderer than in
C'. A'aaericoae, while the three ar-e miuch narrower in proportion to the rest of the body
than in the other species. IHind femiora longer than in C. Amer;cana. Entirely white
and pilose. Length 2.5 inchi the largest C. Aimericana being .15 to .20 inch. ,Anal sty-
lets broken off.) ,everal specimens were seen by Mr. C. Cooke, but only ilie was cap-
tureti in a ponl of water, two or three inches deel, in company with thle C: cidotea.




of Harvest men is represented by a small white form, described by
Tellkamipf under the name of PIclalmigodes arhi(ata (Fig. 129) but
now called Acaithocheir arCata Lucas. The body alone is but half
a line long, the legs measuring two lines.        It should be bJorne in
mind that many of the spiders, as wvell as the Thysanura, live in
holes and (lark places, so that we would naturally find themn in
caves.   So, also, with the Mvriopods, of which a most remarkable
               Eig. ]28.              form    (Figs. 130. alnid    130a  
                                      front of head) was       foundl by
                                      Mr. Cooke, three or four miles
                                      fromh the mou0tth of the cave. It
                           V         is the only truly   hairy  species
                                      known, an approach to it being
           7             t             , foundiiiPseitdotreisiia  Vudii
                                      Cope. It is blind, the other spe-
                                      cies of this group which Protes-
                           / J   g    sor Cope found     living in caves
                                      hlaviniig eyes. The long hairs ar-
         Anthrobia monmouthia.        range(l aloig the back, seemn to
sutgest that they are tactile organs, and of more u-se to the Thotis-
and legs in making its way about the nooksanld cranies of a per-
pIetually (lark cave than eyes would be.         It was found    by   Mr.
Cooke under a stone.
  Prof. Cope has contributed to the IProceediti-rs of the Amnerican
Philosophical Society" (18/6', ). 171 ) an interesting account of the

 Spirostrephon (.seudotreniie) (Copei n. sp. Head with rather short. dense hairs; no
eyes, and no ocular depression behild the antennae. the smtrfae(e of the epicranitinm being
well rounded to the antennal sockets; behind the insertion of the antennme the ii les o(f
the head are much mtiore swollen thaui in S. lwctaris. Akntennie slenlder, with short
thick hairs; relative length ot' joints, the 6;tl being lonigest; Qth. 4th. th. 3d, 5th, 7th, 1st,
the 7th joint being nmiuch thi(ker thanx the 8th. Twenity-eight segments be-iles the heald:
they are entirely smooth, striated neither longitudinally nor tran versely; a few of the
anterior segments rapidly decrease in diameter towards the head. The segmients are
but slightly convex, and on ectch side is a shoulder, bearing three tubercle, in a traits-
verse row, each giving rise to a long stiff hair one-half to two-thirds as long as the seg-
ment is thick; these hairs standl up thickly all over the back, and may serve at onice to
distinguish the species. No pores. Feet long and slender, nearly als long .a, the au-
tennre, being very slender towards the claws. Entirely wvhite. Length of body .35
inch; thickness 04 inch.
It is nearly allied to Pseudotrenzia Vudil of Cope. It will le noticed that Profesor
Cope characte-izzes the genuis Spirostrephon as having " no pores "; though we find it
difficult to reconcile this statement with that of Wood who dlescribes S. inctarios as
having 'lateral pores." ('ope sepalrates Pseuidoltremia frno niiirostrel)phi fiir the rea-
son that the segments have '-twvo porue; on each side thec median lille." The pre:selnt
species has no pores. but seems in other characteu-s to be a true Spirostrephon, and we
are thus led to doubt whether Pseudotremia is a well foutnded genus.




cave mammals, articulates and shells of the middle states. Ile
says that " myriopods are the only articulates which can be
rea(lily found in the remote regions of the caves [of West Vir-
ginia] and they are not very common in a living state."  The
Pseadoptreuiai caveriwnruto which he describes, "5 inhabits the deep-

                             Fig. 123.

                         Acanthocheir armata.

est. recesses of the numerouis caves which abouind in Southern Vir-
giinia, as far as human steps can penetrate. I have not seen it
near theii mouiths, thouigh its eyes are not undevelopedl, or smaller
than those of manv living in the forest. Juidging from its remains,
which one finds under stones, it is an abundant species, though

         Fig. 130.
1  i -

Fig. 130a.

    Spirostrephon Unpet.
Spir-ostrephon Copei.

rarel, seeil by the dim light of a candle even after considerable
search. Five specimens only were procure(1 from about a dozen
caves."  Thie secon(1 species, P. Vadii Cope, was found in Mont-
gomery Co. and he thinks it was not found in a cave. Professor
113yatt i nfornis me that he saw near the " Bottomless Pit" in Mam-


A X)- ;d 0f 0.,2 fa EAS W        G



inoth Cave, a brownvIish centipcle-like myriopoi. over all illch ill
lellgth, which moved oil ill a raipid zigzag inotion. Umnlbmtmimiately
lie di(l not capture it.
  Next to the ili mm fish, the    lid(l crawlisli attracts the aIttelltiou
of visitors to the cave.    This is the (miotburs    ql'leidu.s (Ii .
                     m'r 1il, i.                18;1. froin II:n)eii's
                                                 Diloiurniaphi of thle