xt78930nw33z https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt78930nw33z/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1953-07 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Basic Health Course for Secondary Schools of Kentucky", vol. XXI, no. 5, July 1953 text 
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Commonwealth of Kentucky







(Grades 9 or 10)


Published by


Superintendent of Public Instruction






Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post oflice at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.


Vol. XXI JULY, 1953 No. 5



In addition to rendering assistance in planning the basic health
course in Kentucky high schools, an effort has been made to provide
an outline for this course. This bulletin, prepared by C. W. Hacken-
smith, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, deals with
many of the subjects which are so important in the development of

good health habits. I urgently recommend its use in the teaching of
health and healthful living in the secondary schools of this state.

Superintendent of Public Instruction



(Gxades 9 or 10)



/5.7 515’
with l by
.t of ‘ C. W. HACKENSMITH, PhD.
g of Department of Physical Education
University of Kentucky


Published by the

Wendell P. Butler
Superintendent of Public Instruction



































This bulletin has been organized to meet. the requirement of the
(Tode for llealth and Physical Education (SEE 53-2).

As a general rule. teachers ol’ health have their own ideas of what
constitutes and how they will provide health instruction. The materials
in this bulletin must not be viewed as the l’inal word in health in-
struction but rather as a guide to be used on its own merits and limita-
tions or in combination with an accepted textbook.

Regardless of how the basic health course is employed by the
teacher of health, emphasis should be on local and state health needs
and problems as well as national.

This bulletin was made possible through the interest and assist-
ance of Dr. L. E. Smith, former Executive Secretary of the Kentucky
Tuberculosis Association, and Mr. Hambleton Tapp, former Director
of Health and Physical Education, Kentucky State Department of
Education. The author is also deeply indebted to the following people
for suggestions and criticisms of the various units in the basic health
course: Miss Martha Van Meter, Director of Health Education, In-
diana State Department of Health; Dr. Don (lash Seaton, Head of
the Department of Physical. Education, University of Kentucky; Mr.
E. B. VVhalin, Director of the Division of Health Education, State
Department of Education; Mr. John Robinson, Superintendent of
Schools, Danville, Ky.; Dr. Static Erickson, College of Agriculture
and Home Economics; and Dr. E. M. Thompson, former Director of
Public Health, Fayette County.

Professor of Physical Education

University of Kentucky














This bulletin is the last in a series of four designed to guide and
aid the teacher, pupil and administrator in meeting the provisions of
the Code for Health and Physical Education.

The volume may be used in planning, establishing, presenting
and improving the general health program in the secondary schools
of the state. According to several health education specialists, the con—
tents of this work are excellent in every respect, and the Common-
wealth is fortunate that the author, Dr. Charles \V. Haekensmith, of
the Physical Education Department, University of Kentucky, was
willing to devote practically a year ’s time to the strenuous task of
preparing the bulletin.

The four bulletins will mean much or little to the children of
Kentucky, depending upon the interest and determination of the
school administrators, particularly the superintendents. If these, the
superintendents, will devote several. faculty meetings, or better still
conduct workshops (prior to the beginning of. the school year) to
make the principals and teachers thoroughly acquainted with the four
bulletins, the code and the bulletins can be an effective means of es-
tablishing an eminently successful health and physical education pro-
gram in Kentucky—one which will achieve practical results in mak-
ing for healthier, happier, longer—lived citizens. If the superintendents
will lead in launching the program, keep vigilant and concerned as
to its success, neither the State Department of Education nor the
State Department of Health will have the least doubt as to ultimate
success. But the superintendent must take the lead, generate spil’ity
enthusiasm and determination for the program’s success to his prin-
cipals, supervisors and teachers.

Hon. \Vendell P. Butler. State Superintendent of Public In-
struction. joins me in expressing gratitude to Dr. Hackensmith for his
superb contribution to the betterment of Kentucky. Occasion is taken
also to express appreciation to Dr. Ellis F. Hartford (College Of
Education, University of Kentucky) and to Dr. Don Cash Seatoll
(Physical Education Department. University of Kentucky) for able
contributions toward making the bulletins possible. These bulletins
eompare favorably with the best contributions done in the fields of
health and physical education throughout the nation.



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This material was first published in this form May 1948. Dr.
C. W. Hackensmith, the author, has made the necessary revisions and
it is now re—printed. This publication was prepared with the coopera-
tion of Dr. Hambleton Tapp, who was then Director of Health Edu-
cation, Department of Education.


Dim’siun of Health and Physical Education



























INTRODUCTION .................................................................. 407
SECTION I PERSONAL HEALTH ................................................. 417
Unit 1 Personal Hygiene .......................................... 419
Unit 2 Personal Health Appraisal ........................ 425
Unit 3 Dental Health ................................................ 432
SECTION II HEALTH PROTECTION __________________________________________________ 437
Unit 4 Safe Water Supply ...................................... 439
Unit 5 Protection of Milk ........................................ 443
Unit 6 Satisfactory Methods of Removal and
Disposal of Garbage and Sewage .............. 447
Unit 7 Heat, Ventilation and Light ...................... 452
Unit 8 Superstitions, Popular Beliefs, Home
Remedies and Health Advertisement ...... 457
SECTION III SAFEGUARDING HEALTH ____________________________________________ 463
Unit 9 Communicable and Non—Communicable
Diseases ____________________________________________________________ 465
Unit 10 Health Professions and Agencies .............. 481
Unit ll Nutrition __________________________________________________________ 491
Unit 12 Mental Health _______________________________________________ 501
SECTION V SAFETY AND FIRST AID ______________________________________________ 515
Unit 13 Safety ______________________________________________________________ 517
Unit J4 First, Aid _________________________________________________________ 530
SECTION VI TRAFFIC SAFETY EDUCATION __________________________________ 543
Unit 15 Safety Education for Pedestrian
and Bicyclist ____________________________________________________ 545
Unit 16 Safety Education for the Driver and
Pupils in the Use of the School Bus ........ 550
BIBLIOGRAPHY __________________________________________________________________ 562


 .. 407

.. 417

.. 432

.. 437


.. 443



.. 452

.. 457

.. 463


.. 481

.. 489


.. 501

.. 515

_ 530


.. 550

.. 562



The Code for Health and Physical Education1 which became ef-
fective September, 1948, stated that health shall be included in each
pupil’s program of daily living and learning and that a specific course
in basic health shall be required of each pupil in the upper four years
of high school, preferably during the ninth or tenth year. it is evident
that the originators of the code were cognizant of the fact that all the
health instruction required for efficient participation in daily living
in home and community can not be encompassed in one compact course
in either the ninth or the tenth grade. The inference is, then, that much
of the health knowledge and learning experiences which can not be,
treated in the basic course must evolve from health instruction in re-
lated areas.

It is the purpose of this Bulletin to present units of heath in-
struction applicable to the ninth 0r tenth grades that will assist the
teacher of health in Kentucky secondary schools. The framework of the
units of the suggested basic health course for Kentucky secondary
schools has been constructed around the major health needs common
to Kentuckians.

A study of the economical and social factors influencing the lien-
tucky citizen, a review of the incidence of disease, an evaluation of
the Vital Statistic Reports of the State Department of Health, and
the evaluation of the opinions of county health officers, school admin-
istrators and teachers of health education indicate that the content
of the health course in the secondary school should include considera»
tion of the following health problems:

1. Prevention and control of communicable diseases.
N0n~communicable diseases.
Sanitation in the school, home and community.
Leisure time pursuits.
Personal Hygiene.
Lack of health service, personnel and facilities.
Mental hygiene.
\._.,_9' Prenatal care.
lKentucky. Code for Health and Physical Education. Frankfort, Kentucky:

State Department of Education, Division of Health and Physical Education,
December 12, 1947. (Mimcogruphcd)


















. Dental hygiene.
ll. Maternal and child health.

12. Alcohol, tobaggo and drugs.
13. Quackery and superstitions.

14. Sex education.

15. Safety education.

16. Care of the physically handicapped.

17. Preparation for marriage and parenthood.

Method and Materials. A basic health course for the ninth or
tenth grade, as stipulated by the Code for Ilealth and Physical Edu-
cation, must of necessity limit itself in scope and any attempt to en-
compass all of the Kentucky ’s health needs in a semester’s course. is a
sheer impossibility. The selection of health materials to serve as a
satisfactory guide, for teachers in secondary schools, therefore, be-
comes a paramount problem.

The advice of authorities in the fields of mental health, dental
hygiene, nutrition, sanitation, and safety education and representa—
tives of health agencies was sought in an attempt to select the most
pertinent and useful materials in the organization of a basic health
course. An evaluation was made of health bulletins secured from
various state departments of education. Plans of organization con—
tained in these bulletins and health materials suitable and applicable
to Kentucky were freely utilized. The sources from which valuable
material and guidance, was secured included the following:

i. lllinois State Department of Education. A. Program of Safety

Education for the Secondary Schools of Illinois, by Don Cash
Seaton. Circular No. 299a. Springfield, Illinois. 1939.


Minnesota Department of Education. Individual and (loin-
mimity Health. Junior High School Health and Safety Edu—
cation Curriculum Bulletin No. 16. Minneapolis. Minnesota.

3. Mississippi State. Department of Education. Manual fW‘
’I'eaching Health for the School.»- of ilrliississippi. Bulletin
No. 118. Jackson, Mississippi. 19-17.

4. Ohio State Department of Edueation. School and Commun-
ity Health. Educalion. Sponsored jointly by the Ohio Depart—
ment of Education and Department of Health. Columbus,
Ohio. 1946.

i). Oregon State Department. of Education. Health Guide Units
for Oregon Teachers (Grades 7-12) by Howard S. Hoym‘dll.
Salem, Oregon. l946.










‘( Hr-



(5. Texas State Department of Education. Guide to Safe Living
for Secondary Schools, Safety Education Including Driver
Education. Bulletin No. 462. Austin, Texas. 1945.

After careful consideration of lx'entuekv’s health needs the ad—
. 1

vice. of. state health authorities. representatives of health ageneies, and
an evaluation of outstanding state eourses of study, the author organ-
ized the basic health course for ninth or tenth grade pupils in Ken—
tucky secondary sehools into the following seetions, units, and topies:




Section 1, Personal Health (30 elass periods)

1. Unit 1, Personal Hygiene
2. Unit II, Personal Health Appraisal
3. Unit III, Dental Health

Section ll, Health l’roteetion (30 elass periods)

1. Unit IV, Safe Water Supply

2. Unit V, Protection of Milk

3. Unit VI, Satisfactory Methods of Removal and Disposal of Gar—
bage and Sewage

Unit VII, Heat, Ventilation, and Light

Unit VIII, Superstitions, Popular Beliefs, Home Remedies, and
Health Advertisements


Section Ill, Safe-guarding Health (30 class periods)

1. Unit IX, Communicable and Non—communicable Diseases
2. Unit X, Health Profession and Agencies

Section IV, Nutrition and Mental Health (30 class periodsl

1. Unit XI, Nutrition
2. Unlt XII, Mental Health

Section V, Safety Education and First Aid (30 elass periods)

1. Unit XIII, Safety
2. Unit XIV, First Aid

Section VI, Traffic Safety Education (30 class periods)

1. Unit XV, Pedestrian and Bicyclist Education
2. Unit XVI, Driver education and Pupil Use of the School Bus

1. Teacher Reference

2. Pupil Reference
3. Health Agencies

The bulletin issued by the Kentucky State Department of Edu-

cation eontaining these units is not intended as a textbook. The bul-
letin is intended as a teacher guide to provide a fuller and richer
Organized progran’i in functional health. Teachers’ ideas vary greatly
as to what should be taught in health but the suggested units will, at



















least, insure a fairly uniform program of health instruction. The units
are not inflexible and additions and changes will depend on the ability
and educational training of the health teacher as well as pupil in-
terest. The basic content in each unit has been presented in such a way
that teachers with little or no special t 'aining in health education can
follow it if they read the references included at the conclusion of each
unit. Teachers with special training in health education should have
no difficulty in following the plan of the units and teaching from

It is intended that each section should be. teaehable in 30 class
periods. The units within each section have been apportioned such
time as will permit them to come within the 80-day time limit,
The allotment of days to each unit was done as fairly as possible under
the circumstances. Only actual teaching of the units will prove the
adequacy or inadequacy of the apportionment of time for each unit.

The author is cognizant of the tremendous amount of material
contained in the 16 units. It is hoped that in subjects such as general
science, science, home economics7 biology, and others that treat health
phases of this course of study will continue to do so. It is 'z'mpcratt‘ve,
however, that the teacher of health in related areas shall. have a clear
imderstamling with the health instructor about what shalt be (Wt
shall not be covered in their subject area.

The time allotment of 24 class periods for Unit XVI on Traffic
Safety Education is, without a doubt, wholly inadequate for effectivc
teaching. Traffic education is too important as a phase of youths high
school education to be compressed in a unit of 24: lessons. Should a di-
vision of labor be effected and teachers of health, in related areas re—
duce the teaching time of the course of study on health instruction,
behind the wheel training for pupils may be satisfactorily included
and is provided for in the unit. The pupil ’s training may be provided
through home—school cooperation, dual control cars furnished by auto-
mobile manufacturers, automobiles owned by motor clubs or garftt’tCS
and loaned to the school, and dummy automobiles (a junk ear with
necessary parts intact).

Teacher references have been selected with care with a view to
provide information necessary for the successful teaching of the.
various units. It is assumed that the school in part will provide the
teacher many of these references for her or his use. \Vhere only a few
of the books can be secured through the school, the teacher is provided




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many additional references which may be secured free or at small
charges from official and non-official organizations.

Pupil references include free materials from officials and non-
official health agencies and special books which might well be the
start of a health section in the school library. The textbooks included
as pupil reference at the close of each unit were those books on health
instruction utilized and listed most frequently by Kentucky teachers
in a survey conducted by the author in the Spring of 1947. It is hoped
that the teacher will coordinate the units of this course of study with
the text of his or her choice.

Organization for Health Instruction. A survey of health in-
struction and correlation of health instruction indicated that Ken-
tucky secondary schools use a variety of methods to organize health
instruction. In Wyatt ’s2 survey of health and physical education in
1946, he found that 40 per cent of the 484 high schools reporting
taught health as a specific subject, usually in the junior year, and
that only 13 per cent required the subject.

A separate course in health education has particular merit in the
senior high school and is recommended by Health in Schools3 as the
most effective means of providing an adequate instructional program.
Subjects dealing with the field of biology are included in most high
school curricula and such a class can be increased in scope to include
a variety of human conservation problems, both personal and com-
munity, With biological science serving as a background of explanation
for many of these problems. As pointed out in Health in Schools.

The emphasis should be shifted [in biological courses in high
school] from bones and blood vessels to problems of living. Con—
cepts of racial improvement, public health, and adequate personal
and social living are the sources of curriculum materials. Such a
course is most profitable in the junior or senior year in high school.
It should meet daily for at least one semester, preferably for two,
and be recognized as on par with other school offerings. The
course might be called “Problems in Human Conservation,” “Human
Biology,” “Personal Living,” or something similar.4


S ”Wyatt, Clarence Hodges. The Status of Health and Physical Education in
econdary Schools in Kentucky (1945-46). Frankfort, Kentucky: Kentucky De-
Partment of Education Bulletin, July, 1946, Vol. XIV, No. 5. p. 434.

Sh “Health in Schools, Twentieth Yearbook of the American Association of
c 001 Administrators. Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, De-
cember, 1946, p. 73.

‘Ibid., pp. 73—74.


























If health education is taught in the junior year, which is the prev-
elant custom in Kentucky secondary schools, it seems less desirable
to offer the course for one semester or a year. in this level, health is
better taught as an ongoing program throughout the three years on
a two-day a week basis, alternating; with some other subject in the
curriculum. The course should be definitely coordinated with the
health topics treated in general science, science, social studies, Eng—
lish, physical education and other subjects to unify and avoid dupli-
cation of effort.

Many Kentucky secondary schools practice the alternation of
health instruction with physical education. The most common pro-
cedure is to schedule health class two days per week and physical
education three days. The average class period is 45 minutes per
meeting. There are definite advantages in this cmnbination such as

(1) the simplification of scheduling classes where one group meets
in the gymnasium and the other in the classroom, (2) the close asso—
ciation of the physical education teacher with the pupils places them
in an excellent position to know their health needs, (3) the very
nature of the physical education period provides opportunities for
learning experiences in valuable health habits such as cleanliness,
safety, posture, and many others, and (4) the fact that sexes are
usually segregated for the activity period which provides opportunity
for the discussion of certain phases of body development inherent to
both groups.

This plan, however, also has its disadvantages in that (1) the
pupils resent being deprived of an activity period in order to study
health principles, (2) the fact that some physical education teachers
assume the attitude that health instruction is just another burden,
(3) the tendency of schedule-makers to overload physical education
class enrollment which is a handicap to efficient teaching in both
health and physical education, (at) the lack of classrooms for instruc-
tion in health, books, lib ‘ary materials, and teaching aids, and (5) the
fact that many physical. education teachers are not too well—trained
to teach the subject. The administrator can, however, eliminate many
of these disadvantages through proper scheduling, employment 0f
qualified teachers of health and physical education, and adequate

In Kentucky high schools health instruction is frequently 001‘-
related with biology, general science, and science. ln addition to th15
fact, science majors indicated, at least an excellent foundation in the







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t to

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basic sciences which should assist them in health instruction. Since
biology, general science, and science are. taught each year, health in-
struction can be and is quite frequently, in Kentucky high schools,
included in the course content. In his interviews with schools admin—
istrators, the author frequently found that general science, science,
and health instruction are alternated during semesters. The ideal
would be to correlate health instruction units throughout the science
or general science courses, but such an approach requires a science
teacher who is not too concerned with technicalities and who is alert.
to the health needs and interests of boys and girls.

Whatever the method of organization, the instruction of health
must not be looked upon as an incidental affair but. rather as a course
with the important task of helping pupils to improve living. For that
reason, administrators must give the course every chance to succeed as
they would any other course in the curriculum. The practice of relegat-
ing the health instruction classes to the auditorium or gymnasium
should be abandoned and regular classrooms with classes no larger
than the average, credit allowed 011 a par with other subjects, teach—
ing materials provided, and teachers prepared in health education
should be the modern trend if school administrators are really sincere
in their belief of the value of health instruction to healthful living.

In the organization of health classes that are taught each year,
care must be exerted to avoid the ('ivereinphasis of general areas. it
health instruction is given in the junior high school level, personal
health problems may be emphasized in the seventh grade, nutrition
in the eighth grade, and safety and first aid in the ninth grade.
Flexibility is to be desired. but monotonous repetition is to be avoided.

Method of Instruction. Many health teachers in Kentucky sec-
ondary schools are already employing definite methods of instruc—
tion. The conduct of a class in health instruction does not differ ma-
terially from the method used in other courses. The choice of method
will vary, however, with the size of the class, maturity of the pupils,
availability of source materials, teaching environment. and the train—
ing and experience of. the teacher.

Methods of teaching listed below are. in use at. the. present time
by Kentucky health teachers and much of the material has been
drawn from their reports.

1- Discussion: As a general rule high school pupils will gain
much from a well—conducted class discussion. Pupils will have an






















opportunity to fill gaps in their health knowledge and to question
health practices based on beliefs that are not substantiated by scien-
tific or authoritative facts. These discussions may be led by groups
under pupil leadership. Several Kentucky health teachers employ a
panel or round-table discussion which is interesting and can be used

2. Activities and Projects: Activities growing out of interests
and the solution to problems arising from discussion or reading pro—
vide excellent opportunities for pupils to work in real situations. As
an example, the question of certification of milk may lead to a group
visit to the local dairy company, or a reported prevalence of Rocky
Mountain Spotted Fever in the area may stimulate reading on the
cause and prevention of the disease. This method permits the teacher
to break away from the formalistic type of teaching and helps to
build initiative and self-direction in pupils. Projects should be care-
fully planned and enough time permitted to carry them to completion.
These projects may be either group or individual and several may be
conducted simultaneously in the same class.

Kentucky health teachers, if the survey of methods employed in
teaching health is a criterion, do not. fully appreciate the significance
of community health resources as a valuable aid in originating activi-
ties and projects that provide learning experiences. Many teachers
admit that health agencies in the community are deeply interested in
cooperating but few take advantage of this fact. \Vhen community
health agencies and facilities are utilized in activities or projectS,
however, the health teacher must make careful arrangement with the
parties concerned and either acknowledge his or her appreciation
verbally or preferably by letter for the indulgence shown.

3. Provision of Scientific Material: The library or the teach-
er’s classroom should make available to pupils books, pamphlets,
magazines, monographs and bulletins to assist pupils in working out
their problems. Much of the material of official organizations such
as the Kentucky State Department of Health and its divisions as well
as non-official organizations such as the Kentucky Tuberculosis ASSO-
ciation, National Safety Council, and the National Dairy Council have
publications that will add much to the school library or classroom
materials on health.

4. Audio-Visual Instruction: The value of. audio-visual and
visual aids in the teaching of health has been established in many





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Kentucky high schools. These aids include graphs, charts, posters,
slides, silent and sound motion pictures, specimens, Objects, and many
others which help in effective teaching. Again, many of these audio-
visual and visual aids are available to teachers free or at a low cost
if they will but take the initiative to write official and non—official
organizations. All materials, however, especially from commercial
sources, are not satisfactory for classroom teaching and an evaluation
committee or the school administrator and teacher should judge the
propriety of utilizing various commercial materials.

Posters and charts become worse from wear after use year in
and out. Some of these teaching devices have value for many years if
stored away properly after use and conditioned before use. When the
material arrives through the mail, it should he rolled in reverse to
make it flat and bordered with scotch tape to avoid tearing. In storing,
posters and charts should be kept flat, enclosed in heavy wrapping
paper and the paper held secure with seoteh tape. A sto “age place
may be an ordinary paper carton or wooden box kept in a dry area.

5. Special Lectures and Dcmonstrations: This method of in—
struction is frequently employed in Kentucky secondary schools.
Special lecturers are obtained to give health instruction with or with-
out motion pictures in venereal diseases. (.‘lassrooin teachers utilize
the personnel of county or city hoards of health, local physicians or
health specialists, and (masionally industrial managers. Demonstr-
tions already in use in many Kentucky high schools include those in
home nursing, Kentucky State Highway Patrol. safety squads of the
Bureau of Mines, T}. S. Forestry Service, local fire, and police depart—
ments, laboratory demonstrations, and many others. These lectures
and demonstratimis should be integrated with the regular classroom
instruction and should not be impromptu.

0. Teacher It’a‘mnplc: The example set by the teacher may be
considered a method of health instruction because youth is influenced
b." the attitude and practices of the persons with whom he associates.

Coordination of Effort in, Health, Instruction. One of the
Serious criticisms of the high school health instructional program is
that often several teachers and departments conduct. programs in this
field without. regard to duplication of effort and with little or no i11-
terest of what is being done by the other. This situation is an especial
hazard in Kentucky secondary schools since correlation of health in-
struction as well as an organized health course appears to be the
future standard of health instruction.



















The school administrator, health teachers and represe