xt78cz323m5r https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt78cz323m5r/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1939 journals kaes_circulars_219_02 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 219 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 219 1939 2014 true xt78cz323m5r section xt78cz323m5r COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
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  Fmuma 1. An infertile egg which has been kept at 103 degrees F. for 48 hours. It is
sull good for food. The white spot in the center is found in all eggs.
Lexington, Ky.
June, 1939
 . Published in connection with the agricultural extension work carried on by coopera-
nouof the College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, with the U. S. Department of
Azriculture and clistributecl in furtherance of the work provided for in the Act of Congress
oi May 8, 1914.

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- Fromm 2. A fertile egg which has been kept at 103 degrees F. for 48 hours. Blood has _
formed and made the egg HEHE for food. l‘l`2l
’ . l<‘l`s in
l ic ( is
1. Large, 24-26 ounces per dozen 1. Small, less than 22 ounces b(m_d
2. Egg shaped per dozen ‘ '
3. Clean 2. Round or long my
4 Infertile 3. Dirty or bloody kw M
. 5. Mark-eted weekly or oftener 4. Fertile I I
6. Uniform in color 5. Marketed infrequently lu Lg?
7. Strong shelled 6. Mixed in color ‘“`”'$ S
‘ 8. From properly fed hens 7. Thin shelled lwirc <
8. From improperly fed hens
llizm L

 Circular N0. 219
ln the production of good market eggs both exterior condition
and interior quality must be considered.
Exterior Condition is determined by cleanness and strength oi
shell, size, and uniformity of shape and color.
Buyers do not pay premium prices for dirty eggs. in order that
the eggs produced may be clean, hens should be confined in the
laying house until one or two o`clock in the afternoon when the
ground outside is muddy. Most of the eggs will haye been laid by
that time and the flock will then haye ample time to range.
M . . .
l·rames coyered with poultry netting may be hung from the raf-
ters in such a way as to keep the hens off the dropping boards during
the day, and may be raised at night to allow them to go on the roosts.
The frames should be made in sections lf} feet long and as wide as
the distance from the rafters to the lower front edge of the dropping
hoard. -
Plenty of litter on the floor of the laying house is a means of
keeping the feet of the hens clean in order that they may not soil
the eggs. There should be at least one nest for eyery four hens. The
nests shoultl be kept bedded and clean. The eggs should be gathered
twice daily and marketed weekly or oftener.
Eggs with strong shells stand shipping and handling much better
llliill Cws with thin shells, Plenty of shell-formin >‘ material, such 215
hh , t
limestone or oyster shell. should be kept before the hens all the

 »l ]\v(’llIII('/{j' [{.Yl(’ll.S`lU}l (lirctt/ar No. 2/9
ti111c. Hens should receive direct SllllSl)illC (or cod liver oil) il tht ;\ lrt
shell-lorniing material is to be deposited properly. imlm,l,(
these ch
. . . - . _ 'l`he
ll1e size, sl1ape and color ol eggs are largely deternuttetl ht ..1
. . . . ...4 ttnttct <
breeding. \\’e1ght 15 one ol the lactors whtch deternttne tl1e gmtl, I ms
. . . . ` :11 e ‘  
ol eggs. \\’e1ght ttsttallv IS expressed 111 o1111ces per dozen eggs, [gg, V kn].
.   . . ’ . . . " szuue e
ol llI$;ll quality \\’l11Cl1 l)l`lllg the best prices \\'C1Qll at least 2~l outieev . I 1
per dozen. 1 l1e small eggs   ounces per dozen or less) should 111); .1 il
. , ('ll(iC l>
be sold with the larger eggs as they lower the grade. \erv large- I (l N1
. . ’ ‘ rt 2
eggs, which ()ll.Cl] 11ave two yolks, should 11ot be marketed. Marleet l lm
` ‘ . 5 . _ et 11·t
eggs should be oval 2lll(l llllll()1`lll 111 shape. Very l()llg` eggs are easily l i
broken when packed i11 an egg case Hlltl il` broke11 are likely to soil l·ert
other eggs. l·°. .\l`te
. . . . . . . . .. egg inet
ll1e color ol tl1e shell IS no 111d1cat1o11 ol tl1e tluatttv or loot] l'lh(iI_
. , . ’ ll ·
value ol tl1e   Some buyers, however, preler brown-shell eggs lim ml
2lll(l others white. Brown-shell and white—sl1ell eggs should not he MNH (H
. . _ ‘
placed 111 the sa111e (`21l`l()ll or egg case because ol tl1e unattraetue _ _
· — tltteet tt
appearance created. __ _
ll erior 1 tta i v is t e e `llllll` 11* e 11se o ` an egg cant e. ow , _
lt I ltl lll cdl/th l gg ll H 1]
. 1e
cyer. lll()Sl larmers do ll()l have an   candle, so lllttsl rely on the U .
. . . . ‘ 1 te ts
[)l`C(`2lllllt)llS necessary to prevent detertoratton belore tl1e eggs are
marketed. \\lllC]l an egg is liresh the air cell is very small, not met [lm
(HIC-Clglllll ol 2111 inch i11 (l(f1)lll. .·\s tl1e   ages evaporation tale ol I
or onions. Eggs which are allowed to cool belore they are plll lllltl lllllllilll
lllC Ugg (TEISC llZl\'C it lt>\t'e1` rate ol cvaptyrgitityii than those wlticlt i1l`l` llliilllll
put llll() tl1e case \\'2ll`lll. (Joolness lowers tl1e rate ol` evaporation tuttl ttrotlttc
matntatns quality. TED

 Good lfggs for 1\»Ir11‘/wl 5
l11 _—\ ll`€Cl}'·lN()\'lllg yolk or a 1hi11 wl1i1e is an indication ol age or
lHll)l`()l)Cl` handling. Sonic eggs which are s1ric1ly lresh n1ay have
1l1ese cl1aracteris1ics, b111 only occasionally, 11o1 as a rule.
The color ol 1l1e yolk is inlluenced by 1l1e leed consunied. I-lens
lil “·f1i(·l1{ (li) no1 YCCCIVC HU ?llJUU(l2lHC€ ol` gl`CC1l lCC(l ()1` yellow Corn
ll" |;i1·eggs wi1h pale yolks. Alfalfa, clover or lespedeza hay have 1l1e
lgl ¤illllC ell`ec1 o11 yolk color as gl`CCl] leed. Some C()llSLll]I€1`S prelcr eggs
CC` “—j111 pale yolks. ln 111os1 insmanees 1he Ollly reason lor 1his prel`e1·-
ml 1-my is 1h21L 1he lllgllilllflllly eggs which 1hey have been buying have
`g° ]1;11l pale yolks. The [ood value ol` eggs wi1l1 deep yellow yolks is
  1~1]11al or superior 1o 1hat ol` eggs wi1h pale yolks.
1 1
,11 l·`er1ile eggs illClll)2llC slowly 211 21 lClll})Cl`2llLll`C as low as (58 degrees
li .\l`1er a sl1or1 period ol lIlCUl)21I.lOl1, blood appears, reiidering 1l1e
1*ggi11edible. Much of 1he loss i11 Il`l)Cll·lil`()lll type 11ot1m]\— l”""'ld°
aids i11 tl1e l)l`()(lllC[l()ll ol` lll()I`C eggs per llCll but also i11 protl11i·jug °""“"ml
better eggs. .»\ lilylllg house in wl1icl1 l1e11s 111ay be confined during
wet, muddy weather is Zlll intportant aid in tl1e 1)l`()(lll(Tll()ll ol` elem) Very S
eggs. A deep litter sl1ould be kept o11 the floor all tl1e time. l’1~11t·i(1C very 11
sufficient nests, bedded witl1 clean hay or straw to prevent IJreak;1gC, Solled
Eggs, with [ew exceptions, are clean \\'llCll laid. Keep tl1e111 ele;1i1_ Thmé
Itrwstns. .·\ liertile egg starts gCl`i]l deyelopinent at ($8 degrees IZ
lnliertile eggs have llt) germ deyelopinent. (jonline or sell the 111;1l1· GRADE]
birds alter tl1e ll2l[Clllllg season. N0i11
Average 1
. , . . . . llOtEXC€€~
Carr of lzggs. Gather tl1e eggs ll`C(]llCllll}`l lour lllllCS a day Is llt)l Shell
too often. .~\11   just laid is i11 tl1e best condition. Keep it as llC§l]` Ah-Cf
. tl1is condition as possible. Do ll()I keep market eggs i11 a place \\'llCl`t‘ l°“`·n°t U
. - ` . . Yolk:
tl1e temperature exceeds (18 degrees l·. or goes below lreexing. developm
_ Q V _ _ Whitt
i\'[(lT/ifllllg lnggs. Lggs te11d to deteriorate w1tl1 age. Market bodies.
them as soon as possible; at least ()ll(YC a week. GRADE]
_ Kentucky li?ll`lllCl`S wl1o are lll?ll{lllg poultry an lli`ll)()l`l2llll 5t)lll`t`i' mtlygeéi
ol inco111e should be i11terested i11 producing 2lll(l selli11g eggs ol 1l1<· over ik 11
i . - .   .   .   .. rvlkmay
best quality. ln Kentucky the tountiy stoiekeepei, lnukstei tlll(l bmdyme
produce buyer pay lor eggs according to count, regardless ol tpialiu;
. X . . _ 1 UNDERC
therelore, ll`l sell protection, tl1ey 11111st pay a lower price. lt is Au
. . — . . e·
l(ll()\\’ll tl1at eggs ll`()lll tl1e llll(l(llC west do 11ot l)l`lllg so good ll l)l`l(`t' 01- gy
on lll() major lll2ll`l{ClS as do eggs lil`()lll certain otl1er sections ol` lllt‘ Edibl
. , ` , . . . . .... . I y0lks,mc
United States. l oor quality is tl1e principal (T2lllSC ol tl11s (ll%(`l`1IIllll.l· __
‘ I- ... .·. · .' - '-_   1V ‘Wher
_ 11011. la1 lllLlh wl1o (ne ])l()(lU(lllg high quality eggs should be pattl mmm. tl
lor tl1e111 accordingly. Il tl1e local ]ll2ll`l·iC[ does not pay lll()l`(‘ lot °`1?_$l‘f”{ld
t { . dotnuttnd,
eggs ol` l1igl1 quality tl1e prod11cer sl1o11ld try to {ind il lll&ll`lxCl \\’lll(`ll
does. Under existing conditions tl1e lapse ol` ti111e l‘l`()lll protliicer 111
(`()llSlllllCl` is so great l,ll2l[ l.llC quality ol` tl1e egg is lowered decitletlly
\\'llCll l.llC (T<)llSlllllCl` gets it. Many [locks are too Slllllll to justily 1l1t1
producer i11 lll2ll
All edible eggs not fulfilling the minimum requirements of Grades l
VC o1·2.
1(· Edible eggs may include eggs with blood clots firmly adhering to the
,l_ yolks, meat spots Boating in the whites.
j(| ‘ Where the yolk is mobile and remains near the center of the egg and moves slightly
laterally. that is, from one side to the other, it is not an indication of weakness and the
rn- FEE should be included in the top grade. Where the movement of the yolk is upward or
I dowmrwd, it is an indication of weakness; the egg should go in second grade,

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