xt78kp7tqq8v https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt78kp7tqq8v/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1934-05 volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "The Public School Program and The Public", vol. II, no. 3, May 1934 text Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "The Public School Program and The Public", vol. II, no. 3, May 1934 1934 1934-05 2021 true xt78kp7tqq8v section xt78kp7tqq8v  



President ‘

of). O Cotnmonwealth“ of Kentucky 0




The Public School Program
and The Public


University of Kentucky
Lex1ngton, Kentucky

Published by


Superintendent of Public Instruction







Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

Vol. ll 0 May, 1934 O No. 3






Many educational gains have been made during the past year, both
in Kentucky and throughout the nation. A new school code has been
put on our statute books. Federal aid was made available for the
extension of terms and for adult education during the present year
and Congress is now considering measures which provide for addi-
tional Federal aid for education during 1934-35.

These things have been accomplished because facts have been
gathered, sound plans, based on a study of the facts, have been formu-
lated, and a definite effort has been made to interpret these plans to

the public.

Permanent progress in a school district, in a state, or in a nation
can come about only when there is a general understanding of the
aims, functions and needs of education. Schools have been created by
the people for their own welfare and advancement, are supported by
the people through taxation and, in every sense of the word, they
belong to all the people.

As a result of the comprehensive program which has been under
way during the past two years, Kentuckians have renewed their
interest in schools. The future success of the school program will be
imperiled if this interest is allowed to wane. Along with the
“regular” school program, there must be developed a continuous
plan of interpretation in order that the thinking of the people may
keep pace with the development of educational practice. School ad-
ministrators and teachers should keep this important objective in
mind as they make their preparations for the coming school year.

Supt. of Public Instruction









1' the Pages
year “The Schools Belong to the People” 2
addl- “The Purpose and Functions of a Compulsory Attendance Law”—
Moss Walton 4—5
been “Responsibility for the District Educational Program”.......___.; ________________ 5
ms to “Excerpt from Address of James H. Richmond, Superintendent
of Public Instruction" 6—7
iation “Emergency Educational Programs Administered Through the
)f the Division of Special Education”——Homer W. Nichols ............................ 8—11
leg {3: Recent Vote Indicates House Members Favor $12 State Per Capita.... 11
’ they “Education in the Program for National Recovery"—
Jessie Gray, President N. E. A 12—13
under “For Prospective Purchasers of Encyclopedias"——Ruth Theobald,
their Supervisor Public School Libraries 14
‘ be ,
Euthe “The Relation of the Public School Superintendent to
. the Public School :Program” 15—16
e may “The Teacher Must Relate the School Program to Communlt}r
’01 ad- Interests” 16
ive in





The large number of boys and girls of school age who do not
attend regularly the schools provided for them is a problem of vital
importance to both state and local school authorities. A comparison
of the number of children of school age with the number enrolled and
the number in actual attendance gives a striking picture of the work
yet to be done if the schools are to fully discharge their obligations
to the children and to the citizens of the state. The Kentucky Educa-
tional Commission was sensitive to this problem, as evidenced by the
provision in the new school code for an administrative setup designed
to aid in its solution.

State compulsory attendance laws are not new. Laws requiring
children to attend school were first enacted by Massachusetts in 1852.
With the enactment of compulsory attendance laws by Mississippi in
1918, every state in the union had finally become committed to the
policy of requiring children between certain ages to attend school for
some part of their lives and for a part or all of the school term. The
problem has now passed from the state of securing initial legislation
to that of strengthening existing laws and providing for their enforce-

The early administrative organization for enforcement of com-
pulsory attendance laws in most cases consisted of one person known
as the attendance officer. This individual was not required to have
any training for the job. His chief duty was conceived to be that of
receiving lists of children who failed to appear at school from day to
day and make sure that such children did appear. Another duty was
to seek out truants upon the streets or in the stores and take them
directly to school. His function might have been tersely expressed
“go out, find them, drag them in”. Such an officer rarely under-
stood school work and was unable to act as intermediary between the
school and the home. He had little or no understanding of the prob-
lems which the child was facing either in home or at school.

The newer conception of the function of an attendance ofiicer is
that, first of all, he should be a social worker who is competent to
study the social conditions which cause non—attendance at school. He
is far more concerned about the attitude of the child toward school
than he is to force an instantaneous return. He realizes that an op-
portunity has been lost if the child returns without having changed
his ideals and ambitions.

The aims of the attendance officer should be to bring about a
better understanding between the school and the home; to study
reported cases in such a way that the child ceases to be the problem


 he was at school; to encourage children applying for work certificates

to remain in school if not absolutely needed to support the home ;'and
A to help place children in the right kind of positions if work is neces-

If this newer and broader conception of the functions of an at-
0t tendance officer is to be carried out, it is absolutely essential that the
al person selected to administer our compulsory attendance laws be
)11 properly trained for the work. .
rk - Responsibility for the District Educational Program
2: The superintendent of schools must direct not only the “regular
be public school program”, but that part. of the administrative program
ed designed to keep the public informed as to the relation of public school

procedure and activities to community interests; he, therefore, must
1g be constantly alert to the changing demands of society and the needs
',2. of individuals; he must studiously revise or reorganize not only that
in part of the school service rendered directly through the schools but
he that part having to do with keeping the public in accord with the ad-
or ministrative program. U nobtrusively, yet persistently, he must invoke
he ways and means to stimulate his board of education in the promotion
on of a program designed to instill into the public mind a proper under-
:e- standing of the school procedure and activities and a due appreciation

of the ideas and ideals embodied in the theory of public education.

m- A program of this nature should be promoted by the district
vn board of education, initiated and directed by the superintendent of
V; schools, and carried out in the main by the instructional staff through
(to the cooperation of the P. T. A. and other community organizations;
'as it should develop an intimate correlation between the public school
am program and other community interests and activities; it may be
ed organized around four questions repeatedly raised concerning the
3r- public schools——


1. Why should public education be provided at public expense?
'b' 2. What is the function of public education?

3. What good does public education do?


t What are the legitimate needs of the public schools?




—0 . ——O




WHAS, 7:00 P. M., MAY 3,1934

“Kentucky is confronted with the imminent collapse of that
agency which is second only to the home in its influence upon Ameri-
can ideals and government. I refer to the public school, Democracy’s
cornerstone, the only safe foundation for the new social and economic
structure which we hope to build.

“Lack of adequate support for schools has been a chronic condi-
tion of the Commonwealth. This explains why many of our people
are not sensitive to the series of shocks sustained by our schools dur-
ing the years of the depression. The next few weeks will determine
whether we shall enable our. schools to operate with a reasonable
degree of efficiency or permit conditions to become even worse than
they have been during the past year. This is the zero hour for educa-
tion in Kentucky. The time is past for academic discussions and
feverent oratory; the time has come for earnest consideration of the
problem at hand and for speedy and decisive action to solve that

“To carry out the provisions of the new school code and to make
possible economical but efi‘icient operation of our schools during the
coming year, there must be provided a per capita for the common
schools of not less than $12 and sufficient additional funds to enable
the institutions of higher learning to operate on a reasonably high
plane of efficiency. Twelve dollars is not an arbitrary figure, nor has
it been set for trading purposes. This is an absolute minimum, and
there is a growing feeling that the per capita should be larger as soon
as funds are no longer necessary for emergency relief. An eminent
national authority on school finance has stated that a $20 per capita
would not be excessive in Kentucky.

“As you know, the state per capita was $9 in 1931-32 and $6
during the present school year. It has never been higher than $10.25.
Some persons who have been misinformed and others who have selfish
motives have indicated that in requesting a $12 per capita school
leaders are seeking a total sum for education larger than has ever
been made available in this state. This is not true.

“School revenues have, in the past, been derived from two sources
—local taxation and state taxation. This year, for the state as a
whole, local units bore approximately three-fourths of the burden and
the state government one—fourth. In 1930-31, when Kentucky stood
forty-second among the states in combined educational ranking, the
total amount available from both state and local taxes for common
schools was approximately $25,900,000. At the close of the present






1-0.»an m m m r+|-—4 A



 year there will have been expended approximately $15,900,000, a
reduction of $10,000,000 within the four-year period. This decrease
in total school support has been due to a shrinkage in both local
revenues and in the Common School Fund. Funds to make up this
deficit may be secured in two ways: ( 1) by an increase in local taxes
and (2) through an increase in the amount distributed by the state.
Certainly no one would advocate the first method, because the burden

that of local taxation is already great and, furthermore, many counties are
181‘)? now levying the maximum local tax permitted by law.
cy s

“Of the $15,900,000 available this year, the state contributed $4,-

)nnc 300,000, while the remaining $11,600,000 was derived from local taxa-
, tion. It is estimated that local revenues for the school year 1984-35
ndl' will be approximately the same or less than during the present year,
0918 while the school census will be 730,000 children, an increase of 10,000.
11511“ To bring school revenues to the 1930-31 level of $25,900,000 would
fllne require a per capita distribution of $19 by the state. A per capita
able of $16 would make available a total sum equal to that expended in
Jhan 1931-32, while a $10 per capita would bring school revenues only to
uca- the level of. last year, which was conceded to be wholly inadequate.
and “It is true that a $12 per capita is twice as large as was the per
the capita this year and $1.75 larger than it has ever been; however, due
that to the shrinkage of local revenues, the distribution of a $12 per capita
would result in a total revenue to the common schools of approxi-
lake mately $20,400,000, which is approximately five and one-half million
the dollars less than the amount expended during the school year 1930-31.
“an “Whether or not their children are entitled to the educational
a e opportunity which a $12 per capita will make available is for the
hlgh people of Kentucky to decide. Citizens of other states have not failed
has their children in the hour of need. West Virginia recently enacted
and a. revenue law, including a sales and income tax, which will insure a
soon state per capita of $20. Indiana has distributed during the present
06,111 school year some $9,700,000, or approximately $14.50 per pupil. The
Plta state of Texas distributed $16 per capita this year, will increase it to
$17.75 next year, and in addition will provide a $3,000,000 equaliza-
1 $6 tion fund. Contrast these with the $6 per capita available for Ken-
).25. tucky schools this year. '
ES}; “Virginia has recently enacted legislation which will provide a.
(30 distribution by the state of $463 per year for each teacher, to be
ever supplemented by additional funds from the local district. Kentuck-
ians can boast this year of an average salary for the 10,000 teachers in
rces rural elementary schools of only $390, with nearly a thousand teachers
is 3 receiving as little as $180 for the entire year. These states which I
tildd have mentioned are either our neighbors or are states of similar social
the and economic structure. Kentucky is not as wealthy as many of the
mom states of the nation, but certainly we can try to match the efl'orts of
sent states with no greater resources than our own.”





The emergency educational program in Kentucky has been built
around eight federal authorizations which define the fields to be
served, namely

1. Rural school extension.
Adult illiteracy.
Vocational education.
Vocational rehabilitation.
General adult education.
Nursery schools.

Aid to college students.
Rural school continuation.


Of these eight authorizations the following five have been directed
under the splendid leadership of James H. Richmond, Superintendent
of Public Instruction, through the Division of Special Education.

Illiteracy or reading and writing English for adults.
General adult education.

Nursery and preschool age classes.

Vocational rehabilitation.

Aid to college students.


These special programs in emergency education were carried on
under the administration and supervision of the regularly employed
school administrators in various school units and eligible institutions
throughout the Commonwealth. Although financed by federal relief
funds it became a definite program of. education providing educational
opportunities for the forgotten or neglected. Due to the fact that the
whole program was intended primarily as an emergency for unem-
ployed teachers it was at first considered as a valid experiment and
,‘later as a successful program filling a real need not otherwise pro-

Considering the war-time rapidity and swiftness with which this
program was promoted and organized and building up work-made
projects to employ the unemployed teachers throughout the Common-
wealth, its success as an educational program has been most phenome-
nal. The effective and far reaching results achieved have been largely
due to the splendid interest and cooperation of school administrators,
teachers, students, and teacher training institutions throughout the
Commonwealth. Direct informational reports from pupils, teachers,
school administrators, and state institutions are evidence of the effec-
tive, successful results. The following quotations received by this
office in connection with these programs will be found interesting and





$360.?me 53"!


 “You will never know in this world just how much this program has
really meant to this city. It has been an encouragement, hope, and real
life to many families. It has given nursery training to many children whose
parents were not able to do anything for them, and having them in school
we could give them free meals through the relief work, and this has meant
food to many children who Were absolutely suffering for food. We have
done our very best to cooperate with you and with the Federal Government
in this program. If We have failed anywhere it has not been our desire to

lilt do so.”

be “I am happy to be able to write you and say that our classes in adult
education are going over in a splendid way.”

“The interest is growing. Our enrollment is increasing.”

“I realize after sitting in on two of these conferences with you that
you have a real big job on hand, but I think you are handling it beautifully
and I want to compliment you on the fine piece of work you are doing.”

“There are many of these people who are being served by this type of
school who would have never learned to read or write. As it now is these
people are being reached.”

“I heartily recommend the continuance of this project in Bell County

ted ‘ and in Kentucky, especially our Mountain Counties.”

a t “I think that I can safely say that it has been a wonderful success in

~11 this county. It is reaching the forgotten class of people and it is wonderful
to see the change of attitude of these people since they have learned to read
and write their names. They are not at all like the same people.”

“In fact, there is no doubt at all but that this work is perhaps the
finest piece of relief now offered by the Government. You see it ministers
to the spirit as well as to the stomach. More power to you.”

“We have a class of crippled home—bound children and they are thrilled
to have regular visits from the teacher, a real angel of hope dispelling

on despondency from forlorn human souls.”

fed “For our part we think that these schools are filling a real need."

Dns “Some of the students would like to be able to raise funds in order to

lief continue the schools.

nal “Will be glad if you can continue these schools. I have visited each

th school a number of times and am well pleased with them."

e “I have never seen more interest shown in any other class. Our poor

31nd boys and girls are thrilled with the chance to earn some college credits.”


ro- So we must end the beginning of the second best story ever told,
second only to that of the lowly Nazarene who taught, healed, and

his restored while here on earth. Hundreds of similar quotations are on

i d e file in this office. .

on- One hundred sixty-four teachers with (‘Iualifications ranging from

ne— Elementary Certificates t0 Ph. D. degrees taught 5,920 adults to read

ely and write English and furnished other general educational instruc-

)1‘S, tions. These teachers were paid $39,805.58. Five hundred sixty-one

the other unemployed teachers gave general instructions to 15,430 unem-

§TS> ployed and other adults in subjects of general advisement such as

“39' library reading projects, homemaking, art, lecture courses, training in

111; ethical and moral values, lessons in health and sanitation, physical

m education, extension courses for college credit for unemployed high

. O O



school graduates, fundamental principles of governments, recent gov-
ernmental activities, and various grade subjects. These teachers were
paid $74,589.39. Two hundred and fifty other unemployed teachers
were employed to help 3,940 undernourished children of preschool age
at a cost to the Federal Government of $37,004.15. In the program
of vocational rehabilitation 258 teachers and other training agencies
were employed to give short training courses to 361 adults who possess
permanent partial physical disabilities. These teachers and training
agencies were paid a total cost of $13,226.97. The average length of
term for these classes up to April 30 was approximately sixteen weeks;
the average number of hours taught per day by these teachers—4; the
average cost per hour for instruction—5815c, average number of
pupils enrolled per teacher—21 ; and the per capita cost per month
for each pupil—$1.40.

The entire cost of the programs according to records of this office
in illiteracy, vocational rehabilitation, general adult education, and
nursery and preschool age projects for the period mentioned in this
report was $164,626.09, enrolling 25,651 different pupils and giving
employment to 1,233 different unemployed teachers and other work-
ers. It is but fair that you should know that not one cent of this
fund was expended for the administration or supervision of these
programs. It was an additional labor of love voluntarily carried on
by already overworked state and local school administrators and
supervisors throughout the Commonwealth. We do not have at this
time definite information as to the amount expended for student aid.

Classes were conducted in 112 counties and 87 cities of the Com-
monwealth, enrolling persons from 3 to 90 years of age excluding the
ages of regularly enrolled school pupils.

Universal education has been introduced by the American people.
This universal education is the bedrock of American institutions, and
through all these years the American people have based their hopes
and built their plans upon education for all. The people have pledged
their resources for its support. Our reliance upon education has
been complete. This generation, including all its people, is entitled
to the best educational programs that the Nation can support. We
must go forward. Intelligent planning and Federal participation
are, therefore, imperative.

We have information that the history of this glowing story of a
work well done will be continued through the school year, 1934-1935.
A conference to evaluate the work of these programs during the past
year and to develop plans for the future is called to meet at Washing-
ton, D. C., the week of May 21st. After this conference we hope to
be able to give more detailed information concerning the emergency
educational program for next year.





1g At the request of the Compromise Committee of the House of
of Representatives, a. roll call vote was taken Friday, May 25, to _de-
s; termine whether the members favored a per capita of $9 or $12 during
he the next two years. This Committee, created by the House to work
of out a revenue plan, desired this information in order that it might
th calculate the total sum needed for support of all governmental
ce Fifty-six members indicated that they favored a $12 per capita,
1d twenty-one a $9 per capita, and twenty-three were absent or did not
is vote. The roll call was as follows:
k- Allen, Belknap, Boling, Beatty, Bowen, Bright. Corbett Brown, Bruton,
is Bullitt, Cantrill, Chandler, Coleman, Cropper, Curtis, Davis, Dickson, Fergu-
se son, Fitzpatrick, Gammon, Garnett, Gnau, Hall, Handy, Harmon, Harrison,
Hettinger, Hill, Hobbs, Howard, Hulette, T. M. Johnson, J. H. King, Leo
)n King, Kirtley, Knuckles, LLane, Love, McWaters, May, Milam, Clarence
1d Miller, ‘Munford, Myers, Pritchett, Rayburn, Sandlin, Sartin, Scott, Spencer,
liS Tackett, Towles, Ward, Webb, Wicker, Williams and Coughlin.

Asbury, Baker, Marshall Barnes, Bedford, Wallace Brown, Crenshaw,
18 Dunlap, Evans, Gilbert, =Gottschalk, McKinley, sMattingly, Milli‘ken, Pieratt,
Price, Rankin, Schneider, Sparks, Taylor, Thornton and Tracy.


es Harold L. Barnes, Cunningham, Collins, Demumbrun, Embry, Floyd,

3 d Francis, Harris, G. C. Johnson, Keesee, McCarthy, McIntosh, lMcMasters,

« Meadors, H. H. Miller, W. H. Miller, Nufer, Persky, Peters, Phelps, Renfro,

as Thomas and Speaker Rogers.


78 _ The per capita will be determined in the appropriation bill, which

)n is not expected to be introduced until revenue measures have been de-
c1ded upon. As the Bulletin goes to press, the report of the Com-

a promise Committee has not yet been submitted. School administrators

5 should watch the newspapers for developments in connection with the

st legislative program.








JESSIE GRAY, President
National Education Association

During the past few months the state of Kentucky has made an
outstanding contribution to the cause of education in the United
States through the distinguished services rendered to the National
Committee for Federal Emergency Aid for Education by State Super-
intendent James H. Richmond and by James W. Cammack, J r., Direc-
tor of Research in the Kentucky State Department of Education.
Mr. Richmond is chairman of the Committee; Mr. Cammack is its
executive secretary. A brief review of the achievements of the Com-
mittee is given below. Large credit for the successful work that has
been accomplished is due to the able leadership of Superintendent
Richmond and Mr. Cammack.

Early in January, 1934, at the call of U. S. Commissioner George
F. Zook, a committee of representative educators met in Washington
to consider the responsibilities of the federal government to education
during the present crisis. A six-point program was developed. In
brief, it called for:

1. An appropriation of $50,000,000 to keep schools open during the school
year, 1933-34. ,

2. An appropriation of $100,000,000 to help maintain schools during 1934-36,
the fund to be distributed upon the basis of reasonable evidence of
needs and resources.

3. An additional substantial appropriation to be distributed to all the
states for the year 1934-35 in order that educational institutions may be
adequately supported. The instability of educational support even in
more fortunate states and communities endangers the effectiveness of
the schools and the safety of the nation. The situation is so critical
that the people are justified in using federal funds to insure normal
operation of the schools.

4. Local funds to be released for school maintenance by refinancing school
district debts and providing federal loans to school districts on the
security of delinquent taxes, frozen assets in closed banks, or other
acceptable securities.

5. Out of any new appropriations made for public works, not less than 10
percent to be allocated for buildings for schools, colleges, and other
educational enterprises. These grants should cover the entire cost.
Major attention should be given to the needs of rural schools.

6. An appropriation of $30,000,000 to be administered by the United States
Office of Education to assist students to attend institutions of higher

To bring this program to the attention of federal authorities the
National Committee for Federal Emergency Aid for Education was

This Committee has pursued a vigorous and effective program.
It has assembled as much information as possible With reference to



school conditions, and has brought the needs of the schools forcibly
to the attention of federal authorities. In addition, its activities have
done much to awaken educators to the responsibilities of the federal
government in the field of education, and to enlist for the schools the
active interest and support of the general public.

Material progress has been made in achieving the objectives of
the six-point program:

First, through the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
schools that otherwise would be closed are being kept open in rural
communities. The liberalized ruling, announced by the Federal
Emergency Relief Administration on February 1, 1934, brought relief
to needy districts of less than 5,000 inhabitants. It accomplished in
large measure the purposes of Item 1. in the six-point program, and
brought relief more quickly than would have been possible through an
appropriation from Congress.

Second, in harmony with the purposes of Item 6, aid for worthy
needy college and university students is being extended, again using
federal relief agencies already in existence. Approximately 70,000
students are now in college on a work relief basis receiving $15.00 a
month on the average from the Federal Emergency Relief Adminis-

Third, federal grants and loans for school building purposes
have been extended during the current school year through the Public
Works Administration. According to a recent report, approximately
$70,000,000 have been allotted this year in loans and grants for 434
school building projects of various types.

Fourth, a number of important steps have been taken to obtain
for the schools adequate federal support during the year 1934-35.
Bills have been introduced into Congress covering Items 2, 3, 4, 5,
and 6 of the six-point program. Public hearings before the Educa-
tion Committee of the House of Representatives on the general prob-
lem of federal emergency aid for education, were held February 26,
to March 1, 1934:, under the able leadership of Chairman James H.
Richmond. Prominent educators and laymen presented arguments
in support of Items 2 and 3. Hearings were also obtained with the
Reconstruction Finance Corporation Subcommittee of the Banking
and Currency Committee of the House of Representatives on Item 4
of the six-point program. Whether federal aid is extended through
Congressional legislation or through relief agencies already in exist—
ence, it seems unlikely that the needs of the schools next year Will be

The National Education Association appreciates the opportunity
that it has had to cooperate with Mr. Richmond and his Committee
in the furtherance of this cause.






Certain facts regarding the purchase of encyclopedias have been
brought recently to the attention of the State Department of Educa-
tion. The receipt of inquiries from prospective purchasers with
respect to sets of books now being sold in the state indicates that
school men may appreciate a word on this subject.

The Division of School Library Service of the State Department,
subscribes for several standard book lists that are issued regularly.
Among these is the Subscription Books Bulletin, a publication edited
by a committee of the American Library Association. This committee
makes candid and disinterested statements regarding subscription
books, the result of careful examination of the volumes in question.
These opinions, therefore, can be relied upon as authoritative; and
the quarterly publication of the Bulletin insure’s recent information.

The Supervisor of Public School Libraries will be glad to answer
inquiries from any school administrator who desires to purchase
encyclopedias and who wishes information regarding the set under
consideration. Funds for the purchase of library books are, in the
majority of cases, reduced, and the utmost care in book buying is
necessary. Low prices too often mask an inferior work and such a
purchase may result in a distinct loss for the school.

The encyclopedias listed in the state approved lists for elementary
and secondary schools are as follows:

Champlin, J. D. ed. New Champlin Cyclopedia for Young Folks: (1)
Literature, Art, and Mythology; (2) Pers