xt78pk06x764 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt78pk06x764/data/mets.xml Butterfield, Consul Willshire, 1824-1899. 1873  books b92973338b9822009 English R. Clarke & Co. : Cincinnati, Ohio Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Crawford, William, 1732-1782. Crawford s Indian Campaign, Ohio, 1782. Sandusky (Ohio) --History --Revolution, 1775-1783. An historical account of the expedition against Sandusky under Col. William Crawford in 1782; with biographical sketches, personal reminiscences, and descriptions of interesting localities; including, also, details of the disastrous retreat, the barbarities of the savages, and the awful death of Crawford by torture. text An historical account of the expedition against Sandusky under Col. William Crawford in 1782; with biographical sketches, personal reminiscences, and descriptions of interesting localities; including, also, details of the disastrous retreat, the barbarities of the savages, and the awful death of Crawford by torture. 1873 2009 true xt78pk06x764 section xt78pk06x764 





Expedition against Sandusky





I 782



C. W . B U T T E R F I E L D



C L A R K E & CO 1873 .

E ntered, according to act of Congress, in the y ear B Y C. W . B U T T E R F I E L D ,


In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

campaign was one of the most notable of


the distinct military enterprises of the Western Border W ar of the Revolution. Nevertheless, it has heretofore found but little space upon the page of American History. T his, however, is not surprising, when we consider that its most striking incidents occurred within a brief space of time, and beyond the bounds of western civilization. On account of the paucity of authoritative published statements relating to the expedition, I have been compelled, from the commencement, to depend, to a considerable extent, upon authorities in manuscript. whenever practicable, to fountain sources. Nor can this I have relied be regretted, as it has caused the pushing of investigations, upon traditions, only when better testimony was wanting; and not even then, without careful consideration and the closest scrutiny. It is believed, therefore, as much reliability has been attained as could well be, concerning events transpiring mostly beyond the extreme western frontier of our country during the turbulent period of its struggle for independence. T he melancholy fate of Crawford caused a profound sensation throughout the United States. greatly affected by it. Washington was He made it the subject of a special


Prefatory. So prominent a soldier and

communication to Congress.

citizen had not, during the Revolution, met such a cruel death. It took a strong and lasting hold upon the sympathies of the people. memory. Pennsylvania and Ohio   each, in naming a county in honor of him   have clone signal justice to his " T h e fate of this unfortunate officer has excited, and w ill continue to excite, so long as the history of the West shall be read, the most painful interest and the liveliest sympathy." I have attempted faithfully to record the leading incidents of his life, and to narrate, with particularity, the circumstances attending its close. T o James Veech, Esq., of Allegheny, Pennsylvania; H on. W illiam W alker, of Wyandotte C ity, Kansas ; Dr. W illiam A . Irvine, of Irvine, Warren county, Pennsylvania ; John D . Sears, E sq., of Upper Sandusky, O hio; and Robert A . Sherrard, Esq., of Steubenville, Ohio, I beg to express my sincere acknowledgments for their unremitting endeavors to aid me. To the many friends who The custodians of the have in various ways kindly assisted me, I take pleasure in tendering my warmest thanks. public archives at Washington and Harrisburg have furnished valuable materials; as also have the officers of the Western Reserve Historical Society at Cleveland, and the Librarian of the State L ibrary at Columbus. In the preparation of this work I have sought to give the real motives which actuated the patriotic borderers in inarching into the wilderness ; and have endeavored, by



untiring effort, to bring before the public such particulars of the campaign as seemed worthy of perpetuation. It w ill be seen that it was not an unauthorized expedition   a sudden and wild maraud ; but was set on foot by the proper authority, and carefully and considerately planned; that, instead of unfurling the black flag and marching with an intention to massacre inoffensive Indians, as has been so frequently charged, it moved under the banner of the United States, and for the sole purpose of destroying enemies, not only of the western frontier, but of our common country, thereby to give ease and security to the border. C . W . B.
B U C Y R U S , C R A W F O R D C O U N T Y , O H I O , May, 1S73.


The portrait of Brigadier-General William Irvine, facing the title-page of this work, is from an oil painting by B . Otis, a celebrated portrait painter of Philadelphia, after one by Robert Edge Pine, an eminent English artist, who came to America in 1 784. forty-eight. Extracts from letters of Irvine, in the following pages, are from originals, or from copies in his own handwriting or that of Lieut. John Rose, his aid-de-camp   with few exceptions, which are noted. Quotations from letters to Irvine are from originals, unless otherwise stated. Most of these letters are in the collection of Dr. William A . Irvine, grandson of the General. The original was taken in New Y ork, when Irvine was a member of Congress,   aged


C H A P T E R I .   War u pon the Western Border of Pennsylvania and V irginia. 1777   1781,

C H A P T E R I I.   Brigadier-General William Irvine i n C ommand at F ort Pitt   Affairs i n the Western Department. October, 1781    A p r i l , 1782, . C H A P T E R I II.   An E xpedition Projected in Western Pennsylvania against Sandusky. A pril 4    May 7, 1782, . . .



C H A P T E R I V.   Rendezvousing and Organization of the Sandusky E xpedition. 15-24:!! M ay, 1782, 1732    81 . . 121 62

C H A P T E R V .   Biographical Sketch of W illiam Crawford. 1782, C H A P T E R V I.   Sketches o f the Officers under Crawford,

C H A P T E R V II.   March o f the A r m y from Mingo Bottom to S andusky. 25th M ay   4th June, 17S2, 13

C H A P T E R V III.   Preparations by the Enemy to Repel the Americans, C H A P T E R I X.   Sketch o f S imon Girty, the White Savage, C H A P T E R X .   Battle of Sandusky   June 4, 1782, C H A P T E R X I.   Retreat o f the American Army. C H A P T E R X II.   Battle J une 6-14, 1782, . . . . '57 . 182 .202

June 5-6, 1782, 214

o f O lentangy   Return o f the Americans. 233

C H A P T E R X III.   Alarm o f the Border   Determined Spirit of the B ordermen, 258


. . . . .281 .311

C H A P T E R X IV.   Personal Incidents and Sketches, C H A P T E R X V.   Stragglers Captured by the Savages,

C H A P T E R X VI.   Captives in the Wilderness   Indian Barbarities, 327 C H A P T E R X VII.   James P aull   His Escape from Death   His Subsequent Career, . 362 C H A P T E R X VIII.   Dr. John Knight's Escape through the O hio W i l derness. 13th June   4th July, 17S2, 369 C H A P T E R X I X .     A Race for Life   Escape M ac-a-Chack, of John Slovcr from 375 n t h June, 379

C H A P T E R X X.   Awful Death of Crawford by Torture, '782,


E xpedition against
I N 1 782.





T the commencement of the struggle of the A merican colonies for independence, the scattered settlements west of the Allegheny mountains had little to fear from the hostile armies of Great B ritain. T heir dread was of a more merciless foe. N o r were their fears groundless ; for the Indians of the Northwest, i nfluenced by B ritish gold and the machinations of E n glish traders and emissaries, soon gave evidence of hostile intentions. Explanations by the Americans that the questions in dispute could not affect their interests, were made in v ain. I t was to no purpose that they were exhorted to take part on neither side. Painted and plumed warriors were early upon the war-path, carrying death and destruction to the dismayed borderers   the direct result of a most ferocious policy inaugurated by



Crawford's Expedition

E ngland   " letting loose," in the language o f Chatham, " the horrible hell-hounds of savage war," upon the exposed settlements. T he warfare thus begun was made up, on the side o f the savages, o f predatory incursions of scalping parties; the tomahawk and scalping-knife sparing neither age nor sex, while the torch laid waste the homes of the unfortunate bordermen. As a natural consequence, retaliatory expeditions followed. These were not always successful. A t times, they were highly disastrous. Occasionally, however, the foe received a merited chastisement. A t this day, it is difficult fully to appreciate the appalling dangers which then beset the frontiers; for, to the natural ferocity of the savages, was added the powerful support of a c ivilized nation, great i n her resources, whose western agents, especially at the beginning o f the war, were noted for their brutality. T he center of B ritish power and influence, in the Northwest, was at D etroit, where Henry H amilton, " a vulgar ruffian," was in command; succeeded, however, before the close of the war, by Arentz Schuyler de Peyster, who, although carrying out the policy of the B ritish g overnment, did so in the spirit of a " high-toned gentleman." Indian depredations received their inspiration and direction from this point. It was here the Wyandots from the Sandusky   a river flowing north through Sandusky Bay into Lake Erie   were enlisted in the interests of Great B ritain. It was here these Indians and

Against Sandusky, 1782.


the Shawanese from the Scioto and M iami rivers    northern tributaries of the Ohio   received aid to murder, pillage, and destroy on the border settlements of Pennsylvania and V irginia. I t was here other tribes were made close allies of Great B ritain, for the express purpose of turning them loose upon peaceable settlers   upon unarmed men, and helpless women and children. T he important post, however, of F ort P itt   Pittsburg   was, from the commencement of hostilities, in the possession of the Americans, and the center of government influence and interest west of the Alleghenie s. A t the very beginning of the war of the R evolution, J ohn Neville   afterward famous as a v ictim o f the " W hisky Insurrection "   took possession of the dilapidated fort, at the head of a body of V irginia m ilitia, and held it u ntil superseded by a Continental command. H i s Indian policy was one of strict neutrality; powerless, it is true, with all the western tribes except the Delawares, who were located upon the M uskingum, a northern affluent of the O hio. I n holding this tribe in check, he was aided by George M organ, congressional agent o f Indian affairs in the West, and by M oravian missionaries who had gathered together many of these Indians in establishments upon that
( 1

S o c a l l e d , a t t hat p e r i o d , b e l o w t he m o u t h o f S andy c reek ; a fter-

w a r d , h o w e v e r , k n o w n as the T u s c a r a w a s , a bove t he c onfluence o f the Walhonding.


Crawford's Expedition

river, in what is now Tuscarawas county, O hio, where they were taught the blessings of c ivilization and C hristianity. T he frontiers of Pennsylvania and V irginia suffered terribly by this irregular warfare   legitimate, from the stand-point o f the savages, but murderous and wanton i n its instigators. On the 2 7th o f July, H amilton, at D etroit, had already sent out fifteen parties of I ndians, consisting of two hundred and eighty-nine braves, with t hirty white officers and rangers, to prowl on the borders. I n September, F ort Henry   Wheeling   was furiously attacked ; but, after a gallant defense, the assailants were repulsed, and withdrew across the O hio. I n the spring o f 1778, there appeared upon the theater of conflict a new element of destruction to help on the work o f devastation and death   tories, outlaws, and deserters from the States ; renegades among the I ndians   "of that horrid b rood," wrote H ugh H . Brackenridge, o f P ittsburg, in 1 782, " called refugees, whom the devil has long since marked as his o wn." These desperadoes and go-betweens came well nigh


of a Late Expedition against the Indians ; with an AcCol. Crawford; John Slover from and the Wonin street. Dr Knight and Captivity, Market

count of derful 1782.

the Barbarous Execution of Escape of Philadelphia:

Printed by Francis Bailey, in
p. 23, note. This


A n X i n the d ate, as w i l l b e s e e n , w o r k i s r eferred t o i n the f o l l o w i n g Narrative."

is a c c i d e n t a l l y o m i t t e d . p ages e ither as " K n i g h t ' s

N a r r a t i v e , " or " Slover's

Against Sandusky, 1782.


changing the neutral policy of the Delawares to hostility against the Americans ; frustrated, however, by the prompt action of Brigadier-General Edward H and, who had succeeded N eville i n command at F ort P itt, and by the undaunted courage of the missionaries upon the M uskingum. Other tribes were inflamed to a white heat o f rapacity against the frontier settlements by the wiles of these wicked men. Pennsylvania and V irginia now began to bestir themselves to protect their distant settlements. A force was raised to garrison the advanced posts upon the western borders. Congress also determined to make common cause with these suffering States. T he new-born nation aroused itself to chastise the savage allies o f Great B ritain i n the West. In May, 1778, Brigadier-General L achlin M cintosh, o f the Continental army, succeeded H and i n command of the Western Department, of which the headquarters was F ort P itt. H e brought with him a small force of regulars, for the defense of the frontier and ulterior operations. Congress, in the meantime, having received official information of the real cause o f the great activity of the western Indians, determined upon an expedition against D etroit; rightfully concluding that the reduction of that post would be the quickest and surest way of bringing ease to the suffering border. M cintosh, therefore, was ordered to move upon Detroit   the neutrality of the Delawares having mean-


Crawford's Expedition

while been assured, at least for the present, by a treaty at F ort P itt, on the 17th o f September. H e descended the O hio with a force of regulars and militia, in the month o f October, to the mouth of Beaver, a northern tributary of that river, where, on the present site o f the town o f that name, about thirty miles below Pittsburg, he erected a fort, which was called, in honor of the projector, F ort M cintosh. I t was a small work, built of strong stockades, and furnished with bastions mounting one six-pounder each   the first millitary post of the U nited States established beyond the frontier settlements, upon the Indian side of the O hio.

F rom the expensiveness o f the undertaking, Congress was reluctantly compelled to abandon the expedition against D etroit. I n lieu thereof, M cintosh was ordered to proceed against any Indian towns, the destruction of which, i n his o pinion, would tend most effectually to intimidate and chastise the hostile savages. A fter due consideration, M cintosh decided to move against Sandusky   a Wyandot town upon the upper waters o f the river o f that name   and contiguous villages and settlements. For that purpose, he marched into the wilderness westward, with a thousand men ; but, upon reaching the Muskingum, it was decided to proceed no further u ntil spring. A halt was accordingly called, and a fort built near the site o f the present town of Bolivar, in
M S . Order-Book of General M c i n t o s h : Irvine Collection.

Against Sandusky, 1782.


Tuscarawas county, O hio, on the west bank of the river, and called, in honor of the president of Congress, F ort Laurens. Leaving a garrison of one hundred and fifty men, under the command of C olonel J ohn G ibson to protect the post, M cintosh returned with the rest o f his army to F ort P itt. C olonel G ibson, at F ort Laurens, soon found h imself i n an uncomfortable position. In January, 1779, several hundred B ritish Indians laid siege to the fort, and continued its investment for six weeks, reducing the garrison to the verge o f starvation. The savages were then compelled to return home, as their supplies had likewise become exhausted. Soon after the raising of the siege, M cintosh arrived with provisions and a relief of seven hundred men. C olonel G ibson was succeeded by M ajor Frederick V ernon. M cintosh having again returned to F ort P itt, was afterward relieved by Colonel D aniel Brodhead, who now took the command of the W estern Department.

F ort Laurens, the first military post erected by the American government on any portion of the territory now constituting the State o f O hio, was finally evacuated i n August; not, however, u ntil the garrison had again been reduced to terrible straits. W ith the abandonment of this fort, ended the first campaign undertaken against Sandusky from the borders of Pennsylvania and V irginia. Its failure was due not so much

C o l . Brodhead's O r d e r - B o o k :


F r o m t he I r v i n e C o l l e c t i o n .


Crawford's Expedition

to the want of men, as to the lack of means   the s inews of war were wanting. F ort M cintosh was also soon after abandoned, together with several smaller works of defense near the O hio. T he withdrawal of all forces from the Indian countrycaused great alarm and indignation in the settlements on the border. E arly i n 1 780, a meeting of citizens was held in Westmoreland county   the then western frontier county of Pennsylvania, including all of the State west of the Laurel H ill   and resolutions passed requesting the re-occupation of the abandoned forts. B ut the pressure of the war upon the Atlantic States prevented this; and nothing was left the borderers but to protect -themselves as best they c ould. Small parties frequently pursued the Indians into the wilderness with good success ; but now, to add to the general dismay, the Delawares, who had so l ong withstood the i nfluences and threats o f the B ritish and their savage allies, declared for war   only a small band remaining friendly to the Americans; the residue joined the Confederacy o f the Northwest. Informed of the disaffection of the Delawares, C olonel Brodhead organized an expedition against them. Nearly half his force was volunteers. Their rendezvous was at F ort H enry   Wheeling. They numbered about three hundred. They crossed the O hio, and made a rapid march, by the nearest route, to the principal D elaware village upon the Muskingum. It occupied the

Against Sandusky, 1782.


site o f the lower streets o f the present town of Coshocton, O hio. T he army reached the point of destination on the evening of the 1 9th o f A pril, 178 1, completely surprising the Indians. Their town was laid waste, and fifteen o f their warriors were k illed and twenty taken prisoners. Another village, two and a half miles below, on the east bank of the river Muskingum, was also destroyed. Brodhead then proceeded up the valley to a town, the present site o f Newcomerstown, Oxford township, Tuscarawas county, where he met some friendly Delawares who were then occupying the place. These Indians, placing themselves under the protection o f the U nited States, accompanied the army on its return to F ort P itt. Before leaving the Muskingum, Brodhead sent for the Moravian missionaries, whose establishments were at no great distance up the valley, to confer with them upon the existing state o f affairs. There were three v illages o f the " Christian Indians"   New Schonbrunn, Gnadenhiitten, and Salem, all situated within what is now Tuscarawas county. The missionaries from these contiguous villages soon made their appearance at B rodhead's camp, where they met a cordial welcome. The A merican commander advised them, in view of the hostile attitudeof the Delawares, their peculiar situation    "between two fires," and the increasing jealousy of the belligerents, to break up their establishments and ac-


Crawford's Expedition

company him to Pittsburg. This they declined doing, and they were left to their fate. T he failure o f M cintosh, in his designs upon Detroit and the Wyandot towns tipon the Sandusky, greatly discouraged further attempts in that direction. T he heroic George Rogers Clark, however, under authority o f V irginia, aided, to some extent, by Pennsylvania, now undertook the task of getting together a sufficient force to justify an attempt against the western Indians and Detroit. Brodhead, at F ort P itt, was ordered to aid him, with arms and ammunition, to the extent of his power The troops were to rendezvous at the falls of the O hio   Louisville; the Wyandot towns were to be the special object of attack. M uch enthusiasm was manifested in the Western Department in aid of the expedition. The Pennsylvania force o f one hundred and seven mounted men, under command of Colonel Archibald L ochry, the prothonotary and lieutenant of Westmoreland county, on their way down the river to join Clark, was attacked by the Indians, from an ambush, about eleven miles below the mouth of the Great M iami river, in what is now the State of Indiana, and all killed or captured. This most unfortunate affair occurred on the 2 4th o f A ugust.


Pioneer Biography,

v o l . i , p . 273.

A small


c alled e vent.

L o c h r y ' s c reek, p erpetuates

t he m e m o r y a nd l ocality o f t his

Against Sandusky, 1782.


Clark was reluctantly compelled to abandon the expedition. W ithout waiting the result of Clark's campaign, an expedition had been, in the meantime, concerted against Sandusky   Upper Sandusky, as it was sometimes called, to distinguish it from L ower Sandusky, a Wyandot town where Fremont, the county town of Sandusky county, O hio, now stands   by Colonel G ibson, who had succeeded Brodhead in temporary command at F ort P itt   so eager were the oppressed people of the border to destroy that most prolific hive of mischief to the frontier settlements. Extensive preparations were made, and troops ordered to rendezvous at F ort M cintosh on the 4 th and 5 th o f September. A large number of volunteers was enrolled, leading citizens of the Western Department taking an active part in the project and offering their services to Colonel Gibson for the campaign. But the borderers were doomed to disappointment. There were insurmountable obstacles in thewav T he scheme was therefore abandoned. T he western frontier was now menaced with a B ritish and Indian invasion from Canada. The Department of the West was in confusion. F ort P itt was little better than a heap of ruins. The regular force was wholly incompetent to the exigencies of the service. It consisted of the remains of the E ighth Pennsylvania and o f the Seventh V irginia regiments. A dispute between Colonels Gibson and Brodhead, as to the command,


Crawford's Expedition

added greatlv to the disorder. The garrison was in want of pay, of clothing, of even subsistence itself. T he m ilitia of the Department was without proper organization ; and, when called into service, destitute, to a great extent, of military knowledge and discipline. T he c ivil government of the country was even in a worse state than the military. A controversy had long existed between Pennsylvania and V irginia as to the ownership of what is now Southwestern Pennsylvania, including P ittsburg. Each asserted and exercised an organized jurisdiction. This had seriously embittered many individuals of the two States against each other. N or was this personal and private excitement the worst consequences attending it. Public bodies of both States were affected by it. Violence and indecorum marked their conduct. Officers of each commonwealth acted oppressively. The people were divided in their allegiance. Arrests and counter-arrests were the order of the day. T he controversy, however, as between the two governments, ended in 1 780; but the people, to a certain extent, had come into open disrespect of their own State from having long contemned the authority of a neighboring one. Hence, there was a general restlessness, and a desire on the part of many to emigrate into the wilderness, beyond the O hio, to form a new State. Such was the disorder   the confusion   which beset the Western Department at the moment of the threatened invasion. Washington fully appreciated the diffi-

Against Sandusky, 1782.


culties. Something must be done, and done quickly. A bove all things, a commander was needed at F ort P itt, possessed not only o f courage and firmness, but of prudence and judgment. The commander-in-chief, with great care and concern, looked about him for such a person. H i s choice for the position, after due deliberation, fell upon Brigadier-General W I L L I A M I RVINE , o f Carlisle, Pennsylvania, then at the head of the Second brigade of that State   a corps of great and merited distinction. Washington having communicated his decision to Congress, that body, on the 2 4th o f September, ordered General I rvine to repair forthwith to F ort P itt and take upon himself the command of the garrison at that post, and of the Western Department, u ntil further orders. He was empowered by Congress to call in, from time to time, such aids o f m ilitia as would be necessary for the defense o f the post under his command and the protection o f the country. The executives of V irginia and Pennsylvania were requested to direct the proper officers of the militia in their respective States to obey such orders as they should receive from General Irvine for that purpose. A t this period, the. president of the Supreme Executive C ouncil o f Pennsylvania   a body constituting the supreme executive power of the State   was de facto, as well as de jure, the governor of that commonwealth.

E x t r a c t f rom M i n u t e s o f C o n g r e s s , b y C h a r l e s T h o m p s o n , S ecre-

tary : M S .


Crawford's Expedition

T hat office was held by William M oore, the councilor for Philadelphia, who notified the lieutenants o f Westmoreland and the new county of Washington   officers having a general command and supervision of military affairs therein   that, as the C ouncil was disposed and had resolved to pay due respect to the requisitions of Congress and afford General Irvine all the assistance i n its power; they should call forth, agreeable to law upon his requisitions, such militia as might be necessary for the defense o f F ort P itt and the protection of the country.

Benjamin Harrison, governor of Virginia, did not, however, issue like orders to the lieutenants of M onongalia and Ohio   border counties of that State   until in the following May; and when issued, were practically inoperative, on account of an existing law, prohibiting the removal of the militia of Virginia beyond its l imits. Moreover, the extended frontiers of these c ounties, as they then existed, reaching from the northern end of the " Pan-handle " to the waters o f Middle

' M S . I nstructions : O c t o b e r n , 1781.

I r v i n e P apers.

" T r a d i t i o n , i n a ccounting f or the s trip o f l and d r i v e n i n w e d g e -

like b etween O h i o a nd P e n n s y l v a n i a , c o n s t i t u t i n g w h a t i s c alled t he P an-handle, states t hat i t was o w i n g t o an e r r o r i n r e c k o n i n g t hat t he five d egrees o f west l ongitude r eached s o far to the w e s t , a nd t hat s et-

m uch d issatisfaction w as e x c i t e d w h e n t he r esult w as d efinitely

tled, as great i mportance w as a ttached t o the c o m m a n d o f the O h i o r iver b y the a uthorities o f e ither S tate. " W h e n t he State o f O h i o w as f o r m e d , i n 1 8 0 2 , the P a n - h a n d l e first

Against Sandusky, 178a.


Island creek, required a ll the able-bodied men of their sparse and scattered settlements for home protection.
s h o w e d i ts b eautiful p r o p o r t i o n s o n the map o f t he U n i t e d r eceived i ts n ame i n l egislative debate, from H o n . J ohn S tates. It


d elegate f rom B r o o k e c o u n t y , t o m atch t he A c c o m a c p r o j e c t i o n , w h i c h h e dubbed t he Spoon-handle."    History Alfred Creigh, LL-D. A p p . , p p . 36, 3 7 . of Washington County. By


Crawford's Expedition




I L L I A M I R V I N E , who had been ordered to the command of the Western Department, was born near E nniskillen, county Fermanagh, Ireland, on the 3 d of November, 1741. H i s ancestors originally emigrated from Scotland. H i s grandfather was an officer in the corps of grenadiers, which fought so gallantly at the battle of the Boyne. O f his parents we know less than we could wish, but enough to show that both were highly respectable. Not less so was the early life of W illiam himself, which gave evidence of good character and superior abilities. Y oung Irvine's elementary education commenced at a grammar school in E nniskillen, and was completed at the College of D ublin. H aving come to an age when it was proper to select a profession, his own choice led strongly to that of arms; and a friend of the family   Lady C ole    went so far as to procure for him a cornetcy of dragoons ; but, owing to a quarrel with his colonel, he resigned his position. H is parents then entered him a student of medicine and surgery, under the celebrated Cleghorn. That the p upil was worthy the preceptor may be fairly presumed from the fact that, on closing his studies, he


Against Sandusky, 1 782.


was immediately appointed surgeon of a B ritish ship of war. T he incident last mentioned took place during the long contest between France and England, which began i n 1754, and terminated in 1763, "when Wolfe and A m herst conquered Canada," and " the vast but frail fabric o f French empire in the West crumbled to the dust." I t was in the course of several years o f hard and constant service, that, becoming acquainted with the condition o f society in this country, he took the resolution o f seeking a professional establishment here; and accordingly, within a few months after the declaration o f peace, arrived in America, followed subsequently by two brothers   Captain Andrew Irvine and D r . Mathew Irvine, the celebrated "fighting surgeon" of Lee's L egion. Attracted by the number and character of his countrymen, who had located themselves i n the interior of Pennsylvania, he made his way thither; and, in 1764, became a citizen of Carlisle. N o r was he long in this new situation, u ntil, by diligence and s kill, he was able to recommend himself to general confidence, despite of manners habitually reserved, and sometimes seemingly

' I r v i n e m a r r i e d A n n e C a l l e n d e r , d aughter o f C a p t a i n R o b e r t C a l l e n d e r , o f C a r l i s l e , w h o was l argely e ngaged i n the I n d i a n t rade, a nd w h o s erved i n B r a d d o c k ' s c ampaign w i t h c redit a nd d i s t i n c t i o n . The

r esult o f t his m arriage w as a f a m i l y o f ten c h i l d r e n     f i v e s ons a nd five d aughters. 2


Crawford's Expedition

austere, and which utterly excluded the use of those gossiping and parasitical means so often and scandalously employed in giving birth and currency to medical fame. Irvine's personal ascendency, resting on foundations so little liable to change, continued unabated u ntil, i n 1774, he was called to take part in the great p olitical controversy which terminated in t