xt798s4jnk47 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt798s4jnk47/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1930 journals kaes_circulars_228 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 228 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 228 1930 2014 true xt798s4jnk47 section xt798s4jnk47 UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
J Extension Division ‘
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
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Lexington, Ky.   `
January, 1930. * 1
—` _ i
Published in connection with the agricultural extension work carried  
ON by (7OOl)€I`?`LIIOl1 of the College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, _‘
with the U. S. Department of Agriculture zmd distributed in furtherance I
of the work provided for in the Act of Congress of May 8, 1914. I

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 _ , CIRCULAR NO. 228 e _ ,_
Meal Planning ‘
By _FIoreii€e Imlay
Planning the meals for the day would be comparatively
simple if all members of the family were approximately the same
age, were doing the same type of work and were in good health.
But in most families there are the complications of some doing
light work and others heavy work, of the young child, the adoles-
cent, the middle-aged and perhaps older persons, or of members
who must eat only certain foods on account of illness. Besides,
food should be selected in relation to the family income and the c
time required in its preparation. `
The one who plans the meals should have a thoro knowledge
of the food requirements of the body, as well as of the nutritive
values of the various foods, in order that the children of the
family may get those elements needed for growth, and that both
the younger and older members may receive foods needed for '
energy and for keeping the body in good condition.
The following table gives the important constituents of foods
and the part which each plays in the body processes.
Food Constituents Children i Adults
Proteins Build body tissue and I Repair body tissue.
keep it in repair. I
Clirboliydrates II Give energy for play, fm-1 Give energy for work, for
Fats fl Wztrmth, und for crtrryingl Dluy, for WzU‘I1lLl1 {uid [OF
'Oll the body processes. icarrying on the body pro-
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 4 Kentucky Extension Circzelor N0. 228
- sil
Food Constituents I Children 1 Adults H1.
 _;"'  in
Minerals Help to build and repair Aid in body processes,
Calcium, bone, muscle, blood, etc. Isuch as digestion, heart ac-
Iron, Aid in body processes suchl tion, body secretions, etc.
Phosphorus, as digestion, heart action, l Help to repair bony and
Iodine, etc. body secretions, etc. Help. muscular tissues and build
to keep body in good con- I new red corpuscles. Help to
l dition. I keep body in good condi-
. tion.
Vitamins l Necessary for growth) Help keep the body in
land health. good condition.
Cellulose I Aids digestion. Helps ini Aids digestion._ Helps in
preventing constipation. lpreventing constipation.
Note that carbohydrates and forts do not have building
power, but only produce energy for warmth and activity. When E
more carbohydrates and fats are eaten than are needed for
energy and the body processes they are stored in the body as
fatty tissue. 1,
Proteins a1·e the tissue builders and are needed in compare- a
tively small amounts. The protein requirement for children will a
be met if a quart of milk, an egg and a serving of whole cereal q
are used daily, with an occasional serving of meat. A pint of S
milk, one egg, whole cereal in some form, and a serving of meat 11
or cheese will be sufficient to meet the adult’s daily protein needs. l?
. . s
M inemls are needed only in small amounts, but they are
very important in building bone and muscle, making blood, and t
aiding in all the body processes. Altho many minerals are
. . . . 1
required to keep the body in good condition most of them are
needed in such small quantities that they are supplied in any diet l
that includes a variety of foods. However, iron calcium and phos· (
phorus are so necessary that special attention should be given to 1
them in planning the menu. Calcium (lime) is necessary to j
harden the bones and teeth and to stimulate heart action. Milk ]
contains a larger proportion of calcium than other foods, and is ,
our best source of this element. A quart of milk should be used
daily in some form by children and a pint by adults. With our ]
present knowledge of food requirements it is practically impos-

 Meal Planning 5
sible to get sufficient calcium from other foods alone. See table
5 II for a list of foods suitable for supplying calcium. Iron is
- essential in building red blood corpuscles. It is undoubtedly the
most difficult food constituent to supply, because foods contain it
` in such small quantities. An insufficient amount of iron in foods
f` A
Il A x
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      e 4.  
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; Figure I. Types of foods which should be included in the daily diet.?
leads to lowered vitality, fatigue, a lack of resistance to disease,
L- and eventually an anemie condition. People who have finicky
ll appetites, especially teen-aged girls, frequently have anemia in
il quite a bad form. See Table ll for a list of foods suitable for
f supplying iron. Phosphorus is necessary in building bone and
.t muscle, but since foods rich in calcium and protein also contain
;_ phosphorus, the requirement is met when materials containing
9 suflicient amounts of these substances are included in the diet.
1 Vitczmins have properties which stimulate growth and help '
6 to build up resistance to certain diseases. A lack of vitamin A
6 results in stunted growth in children, sore eyes, and generally
it poor health at all ages. Vitamin B is necessary for growth,
_, helps to stimulate the appetite. and aids digestion. Beriheri, a
L) disease prevalent in the Orient, and pellagra, prevalent here in
the South, are induced by a lack of different parts of vitamin B ,
E inthe diet. Vitamin C promotes normal growth and health, and
helps to keep the teeth in good condition. A lack of vitamin C
S results in a disease known as seurvy.
d Cod liver oil is rich in vitamin C which is essential for the
r prevention of 1·iekets. It should be ineluded in the daily diet of

 6 ]f0iz{ut·A·y Eivicnsiion Circular N0. 228
the cl1ild during the winter when we do not get so much sunlight
as in summer. A detailed discussion of vitamins is given in a
leaflet which may be gotten from the Extension Division of the
College of Agriculture, on request. nt
In order that the family may be well fed, all food groups H?]
should be represented in the daily diet. Foods suitable for sup- ll;
plying protein, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins are listed gx
in the following table: B
Proteins Carbohydrates Fats
Lean meat Sugar Butter Ca
Beef Jellies Lard tc
Mutton Jams Vegetable oils .
. di
Lamb Syrups Corn 011
Chicken Molasses Cotton seed oil H
Pork Candy Olive oil St
Fish Breads Pork pz
Cheese Rice Bacon
American Macaroni Cream
Cottage Potatoes Nuts H
Eggs Sweetpotatoes lI
Milk Dates 0]
Beans (dried) Bananas O]
Cereals q,
Calcium Iron Vitamin A Vitamin B Vitamin C S
Milk Spinach Butter Asparagus Tomatoes U
Cheese Kale Cream Dried beans Cabbage—raw
String beans Chard Carrots Spinach Grapefruit;
Peas Liver Eggs String beans Orange tl
Dried beans Egg yolk Liver Whole wheat Lettuce Si
Lettuce Beef (lean) Milk (whole) bread Rutabagas
Carrots Dandelion Spinach Whole cereals Apples
Spinach Cabbage Cabbage Bananas
String beans Carrot Potatoes
Peas Cauliflower
Dried beans Celery
Whole wheat

 Meal Plammzg ,7
The distribution of the day ’s food in the different meals docs
not vary much for children, but for adults it depends to a great
extent upon occupation and habits. Breakfast probably varies
more than any other meal. For the adult who does sedentary
work and who eats a good lunch, a light breakfast of fruit, toast
or rolls and a beverage is sufficient ; but for the person who works
outdoors many hours doing muscular work more food is needed.
Breakfast for everyone should include foods with laxative quali-
ties such as cereals in some form and fruits either raw or cooked
with little sugar.
Wlien possible, it is a good plan to serve foods at night which
can be digested easily, such as creamed soups, creamed or but-
tered vegetables, fruit or vegetable salads, eggs, cottage cheese
dishes and simple desserts as fruits, custards, ice creams, etc.
If it be necessary to have a light lunch at noon, and the more sub-
stantial meal at night, greater use can be made of rich meats,
pastries, cakes, puddings and sauces.
The day ’s meals should be thought of as a unit to include all
the nutritive properties necessary for growth, energy, and keep-
ing the body in good condition, but care should be taken that no
one group of foods, food constituents as carbohydrates, proteins
or fats, predominate at a meal. It is much easier to use the full
quota of milk per person if it is distributed thruout the day. ‘
Special care should be taken to include in every meal a food con-
taining iron.
The analysis of the following summer menus is suggestive of
the manner in which they should be built up and adapted to the
seasons of the year.

 8 Kentucky Extension Circulczr N 0. 228
Breakfast t Dinner Supper and
Apple sauce Mashed potatoes Creamed eggs on toast
Cooked cereal with Baked young chicken Stuffed tomato salad
c1·eam Creamed carrots Rolls
Breakfast Dinner Supper
Bacon Cabbage with cream Butter
Toast (whole wheat) dressing Tapioca cream with
Butter Muffins peaches
Milk for children Butter Milk
Coffee for adults Chocolate blancmange
(if desired) Milk
Breakfast Dinner Supper
Berries Scalloped potatoes and Cheese souffle
Shredded wheat with ham Fresh vegetable salad
cream Buttered spinach (lettuce, tomato, cel-
Baccn Fruit salad ery, etc.)
Toast Caramel custard Baked apple
Butter Bread Rolls
Milk for children Butter Butter
Coffee for adults Milk for children Milk
(if desired) usii
Breakfast Dinner Supper
Cantaloupe Baked sweet potatoes Macaroni loaf with
Poached eggs on toast Creamed dried beef tomato sauce
(whole wheat) Scalloped corn Buttered string beans
Butter Lettuce salad Rolls
Milk for children Brown betty Butter
Coffee for adults Bread Peaches and cream
(if desired) Butter Sponge cake -
Milk for children Milk
In analyzing each day ’s menu, we End that the following _
food classes are always included; ' m
a. At least two vegetables, besides potatoes, one a raw vegetablé att
b. 'l‘wo fruits, one raw.
c. Whole cereal in some form.
d. One serving of meat. V
e. One quart of milk is allowed for children, a pint for adults,
(one cup in cooked foods, the rest as a beverage).
f. One egg per person; on the second day one-half egg per perSOH i
is allowed, in the custard and the rest in the fondue. S

 Meal Planning 9
The essential food properties necessary for energy, growth
and health are found in each day ’s menu.
t a, Vitamin A is found in the butter, cream, apple, egg yolk, spin-
ach, carrots and lettuce; vitamin B in the milk, cabbage, car-
rots, string beans, tomatoes, lettuce and egg, and vitamin C
in the tomato, apple, lettuce, string beans (cooked just until
tender), cabbage (raw).
b. One quart of milk for children and one pint for adults insures
the calcium requirement.
e. In the iirst day’s menu, the iron is found in egg yolk, peach,
cabbage, apple and whole wheat bread; the second day in the
spinach, egg, apple, ·whole wheat bread; and the third day in
the egg, string beans, apple, peaches and whole wheat bread.
d. The protein is contributed by the egg, meat, milk and whole
wheat bread. If meat were served in large amounts or more
frequently than once a day, the proportion of protein would
be too large.
'I e. The energy is supplied by the cereal, potatoes, bread, maca-
roni, butter, cream and sugar.
f. Whole cereals, coarse·fibered vegetables and fruits have laxa-
tive qualities.
These menus 1nay be adapted to other seasons of the year by
a. Vegetables and fruits in season.
b. Raw vegetables which can be stored, such as cabbage, car-
rots and celery.
c. Canned vegetables in place of fresh ones.
d. Apples, oranges and grapefruit as much as possible, supple-
menting them with canned and dried fruits. '
° e. Gelatin desserts and salads in place of those prepared with
fresh vegetables and fruits.
; If the following suggestions for planning menus are kept
in mind they will help to make the meals appetizing, interesting,
attractive and well balanced: l
1. Use the day as a unit· and make out at least one day’s menus
at a time.
A 2.. DlStl`lblllLG the protein, carbohydrates and fats thruout the day
, and do not have one type of food predominating at a meal,
such as potatoes, sweebpotatoes. white bread and rice, or
1 i meat, a cheese dish and mincemeat pie.

 l0 1fem‘uc7.¤y E.:;tcns·i0n Ci’I`CUlCl·7‘ N0. 228 1
3. Do not serve the same food twice in one meal, as tomato soup
and tomato salad, or creamed carrots and carrot salad. 2
4. Do not serve more than one strongly flavored food at a meal, 3
as onions and cabbage.
5. Balance the soft, solid and crisp foods. That is, do not serve
all soft foods at one meal and all solid or dry at another.
6. Do not serve several acid or several sweet foods at one meal.
7. Season foods mildly. '
8. Avoid serving several foods difficult to digest at the same
meal. .
9. Serve left-overs in a new form and always attractivley. When
possible do not serve them the next meal.
10. Have foods prepared in a palatable form-—greasy meats an·l
vegetables, and highly seasoned feeds are not appetizing to
most persons and are difficult to digest.
11. The daily menu should include;
a. One quart of milk for children, one pint for adults.
b. Two vegetables besides potatoes, one raw. (Green leaf
vegetables three times a week.)
c. Two fruits, one raw.
d. VVhole cereal in some form.
e. One egg and a serving of meat for adults. (A small serv- ’
ing of meat for children about three times a week.)
12. Serve light desserts, as raw fruits, fruit sauces or gelatins
and ices, with a heavy meal.
13. Serve rich desserts, as pie, steamed puddings, shortcakes, and
rich gelatin desserts, with a light meal.
14. Serve potato or macaroni salads as a main carbohydrate dish;
chicken, meat or iish salads as the main protein dish of the
15. Serve only one relish or jam at a meal.
16. Avoid serving colorless meals.
17. Lay the table attractively, using flowers when possible.
18. Serve cooling foods in summer and warming foods in winter.
19. Serve hot things hot and cold things cold.
20. Plan simple menus.
21. Consider cost carefully.
C Creamed Carrots
Wash, scrape and cut in one—half inch cubes. Cook in boil-
ing water until tender. (Use just enough water to cover.) Add
34 teaspoon salt for every quart of water. Cook until tender,
drain and add one cup of white sauce for two cups carrots.

   M cal Plcmmmg 11
Cup White Sauce
2 tbsp. butter % tsp. salt
Gall 3 tbsp. Hour 1 c. hot milk or milk and
vegetable stock
iw]. Melt the butter in the saucepan and add tlour. Mix thoroly.
~ Add the hot milk slowly. Cook until thick. Add the salt.
ame This same proportion may be used for all vegetables, Variety
may be given by the addition of grated cheese, diced ham or
men bacon, celery seed, onion juice, etc.
gmx Baked Ham With Potatoes
2 tbsp. butter 2 c. milk
% c. flour 4 c. raw potatoes (kg inch
2 tsp. salt thick)
leaf 1 slice of ham, 1 inch thick
Blend the butter, flour, salt and milk as for white sauce.
Sew _ Cook. Arrange the potatoes in an oiled baking dish, pour over
the white sauce. Lay the ham, which has the rind and some of
ating the fat removed, on top. The food should not come to within
more than 1 inch of the top of the dish in order to avoid cooking
· and over in the oven. Cover and bake in a moderately slow oven for
dish one hour. A hot oven causes the milk to have a curdled appear-
f th; ance. Remove cover to brown and finish cooking. '
Cheese Souffle
4 eggs 1 tbsp. butter
1% c. milk 1 c. grated cheese
inter- 1 c. fine dry bread crumbs % tsp. salt
Heat the milk, bread crumbs, and butter in a double boiler. .
Add grated cheese to the hot mixture and stir until the cheese
has melted. Add this mixture to the well-beaten egg yolks.
Fold the hot mixture into the stifliy beaten egg whites containing
. boil- the salt, pour into a buttered dish, and bake in a very moderate
Add Oven (300° F.) for one hour, or until set in the center. Serve
mder, immediately.

 i 12 Kentucky Extension Cirrcular N0. 228  
V Baked Custard  
2 c. hot milk IA. c. sugar L
2 large or 3 small eggs V; tsp. vanilla or other iiavor· .
1/3 tsp. salt ing p
Beat the eggs slightly, add sugar, salt and hot milk. Pour P
into individual molds or into a large enough baking dish so that i
the custard will not be more than two inches thick. Set molds .
or baking dish into a pan of hot water and bake in a moderate
oven until firm. I
Dates, cocoanut, or marshmallow may be added for varia- `
tion, or diiterent Havering such as nutmeg, cinnamon, caramel or
maple may be used. Plain custards may be served with sliced
peaches, berries or jam. .
Brown Betty
2 tbsp. butter EQ tsp. cinnamon
2 c. bread crumbs Grated rind of % lemon ~
3 c. chopped apples 1 tbsp. lemon juice
% c. brown sugar 14 c. water l
Melt butter and add crumbs, stir until thoroly mixed. Put p
into a baking dish a layer of crumbs, and then a layer of apples I
and seasonings. Cover with crumbs and bake in a moderate
oven until apples are tender. May be served with cream or hard t
sauce. i
. ii

Meal Planning 13
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Pour »
that a
ml or
r hard

 14 Kentucky Extension C7t9'CZl](l7’ N0. 228

 Meal Plamzing ,     15

 ° 16 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 228  
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