xt79cn6z0g4x https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt79cn6z0g4x/data/mets.xml President's Highway Safety Conference (1949: Washington, D.C.)  President's Highway Safety Conference (1949: Washington, D.C.) 1949 v, 24 p. 23 cm. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call Number: FW 2.18:Ed 8/1949/prelim. books  English Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. off.  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Works Progress Administration Transportation Publications Safety education Traffic safety -- United States Preliminary Revised Report of Committee on Education: The President's Highway Safety Conference, Held in Washington, D.C., June 1, 2, and 3, 1949 text Preliminary Revised Report of Committee on Education: The President's Highway Safety Conference, Held in Washington, D.C., June 1, 2, and 3, 1949 1949 1949 2021 true xt79cn6z0g4x section xt79cn6z0g4x OFK

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The. President’s H I G H w A Y




JUNE 1, 2, and 3, 1949







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 Conference Organization '

General Chairman:

Administrator, Federal Works Agency
Washington, D. C.

Vice Chairmen:

Governor of Maryland
Chairman, The Governors’ Conference
Ma'ybr, Grand Rapids; Mich.
President, United States Conference of Mayors
Executive Director:

Massachusetts Registrar of Motor Vehicles
Boston, Mass.




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Commissioner, Public Roads Administration
Washington, D. C.
MAJ. GEN. EDWARD H. BROOKS, Director, Personnel and Administration,
General Stafi, U. S. Army. ' l
C. W. BROWN, President, American Association of State Highway Officials. i
J. A. A. BURNQUIST, President National Association of Attorneys General.
J USTUS F. CRAEMER, President National Association of Railroad and Utilities
M. C. CONNORS, President, American Association of Motor Vehicle Admin-
NED H. DEARBORN, President, National Safety Council.
CLYDE A. ERWIN, President, National Council of Chief State School Officers.
WALLACE J. FALVEY, Chairman, Advisory Group, Accident Prevention Depart-
ment, Association of Casualty and Surety Companies.
COL. HOMER GARRISON, J R President, International Association of Chiefs of
JOSEPH F. HAMMOND, President, National Association of County Officials.
DR. R. H. HUTCHESON, President, Association of State and Territorial Health
Officers. /
HAROLD P. JACKSON, Chairman, National Committee for Traffic Safety.
PYKE JOHNSON, President, Automotive Safety Foundation.
DELESSEPS S. MORRISON, President, American Municipal Association (Mayor
of New Orleans).
CHARLES A. PETERS, Chairman, Federal Interdepartmental Safety Council.
ROBERT J. SCHMUNK, President, American AutomObile Association.
EARL O. SHREVE,‘ President, Chamber of Commerce of the United States.


Consists of members of Coordinating Committee, Chairmen of Conference
Committees, Regional Oflicers, and Representatives of each State.



 ., mania;


. .5”. 31/.


The school’s opportunity .
What are the facts? .
Basic needs . .
Safety education can be effective .

Safety education p1 inciples.

Elementary education . .
Seriousness of the problem .
Specific problems involved .
Recommendations for action .

Student activities.

School, home and community ielatioriships .

Seconda1y education . . .
ChaIacteristics of a program .
Diivel education and training .
A function of the secondary school.
Solving administrative problems .
Solving problems of financing .
Recommendations f01 action . . .
Teacher education 1n the colleges and in service .
Adequate p1epa1ation is lacking.
Stimulation is needed .
Recommendations for action .
Preservice education .
In—ser vice education
College and university education . .
Colleges recognize need for safety training.
More courses and reseal ch needed.
Recommendations for action .
Pupil transportation .
Objectives. .
Recommendations for action .
For the States . .
F01 local educational authorities .
Use of this 1ep01 t. .
List of members of Committee on Education .








Report of Committee-on

Education ,



In the more than 30 million young people enrolled in the schools
of the Nation lies our greatest hope for a solution of the mounting
traffic problem. Their minds are receptive to new ideas. They are
at an age when habits and skills can successfully be established. At-
titudes developed during these early years will influence their behavior
through life. ,

These young people represent one large united body. They are
“reachable.” They should be given guidance in accident prevention.
As educators, it is our job to assist in equipping them fully. For
upon their ability to shoulder their responsibilities involving traflic

avill depend the success or failure of traflic-accident prevention for
‘years to come.

The need of these young people presents the school with a challeng-
ing opportunity. In 1947 almost 20,000 persons in the United States
between the ages of 5 and 24 were killed in all kinds of accidents,
and tens of thousands were injured.1 Efficient preventive measures
adopted now can help to reduce these losses. The schools reach, under
controlled conditions, the largest number of persons in this age group.
They can 'do more to reduce these tragic figures than any other agency.
The schools, with their long record of achievement, have here a cause
commensurate with their fullest capacities, the conservation of human
life. The time is now! The schools of America will respond.

What Are the Facts ?

Traffic accidents in the United States cause more deaths than any
other type of accident. In 1947 they resulted in 32,000 persons killed
and over 1,000,000 injured. '

Among school-age groups 5 to 24 years of age, traffic accidents

1Statistica1vinformation in this report is ‘from 1948 Accident Facts, National Safety
Council, unless otherwise noted. '




cause as many fatalities and injuries as all other types of accidents
combined. (See table 1.)

Fifty percent of the accidental deaths among the 5 to 24 age group
result from traffic accidents.

Pedestrians comprise 53 per-Cent of the traffic fatalities in the 5-to-14
age group, and 10 percent in the 15—to-24 age group. Table 2 shows
pedestrian actions resulting in traffic accidents in 1947.

Accidents are the fourth leading cause of death in the United States.
In 1947 there were 100,000 accidental deaths and 10,000,000 injuries.

In the 5-to-9 age group, accidents are the chief cause of death, and
are responsible for one-third of all deaths for this group.2

Among children 5 to 9 years of age, accidents cause five times as
many deaths as pneumonia, second ranking cause of death for this
age group? '

Among children 10 to 14, accidents cause five times as many deaths
as heart'disease, second ranking cause of death for this age group.2

Ambng children 15 to 19, accidents cause three times as many deaths
as tuberculosis, second ranking cause of death for this age group?

TABLE 1.—Accidental deaths by age groups and type, 1946‘












. . Poison , .
Age $353110 Falls All burns Digg‘:' Railroad Fhearms 12:15:51] (eggsept Totals
0-4 _________ 1, 568 440 1, 730 700 96 I 116 550 70 7, 949
5-14 ________ 2, 508 420 910 1, 250 209 621 60 50 6. 545
15—24 ....... 7, 445 930 800 1, 570 695 793 110 220 13, 366


Data from Accident Fuels, 1948, p. 13.

Basic Needs

ACurrent traffic accident statistics point to a critical need for a more

effective safety education program in schools and colleges. Moreover,
there is every indication that the traffic safety problem will become
increasingly critical in the months and years ahead. It is expected
that the next few years will witness a, considerable increase in the
number of cars on the streets and highways.
I Essentials for an effective program are : (1) A serious consideration
of the traffic safety problem leading to action byorganized education
from the elementary through the university level; (2) safety—conscious
administrators who Will exercise leadership in defining and placing
responsibility for the safety program of their school systems and insti-
tutions; (3) trained teachers; (4) well—organized and planned instruc—
tional programs; (5) an adequate accident reporting system; (6) a
plan for evaluating program results; and (7) broadly based com-
munity support of the entire traffic safety education efl'ort.

‘ “United States Summary of Vital Statistics, 1946, National Office of Vital Statistics,
Federal Security Agency.

' 2


 TAB’LE 2.—Pcdestrian actions, motor vehicle M'afi‘ic accidentsi'1947


Killed Injured Details for killed and injured (20 States)


/ Age Sex Light conditions


Total Urban Rural Total Rural
2 (296 2 ,(12


( 9 (1 (28
States) Cities) States) States) States)

Day Dusk Night


'Per- ' Per-

cent cent
Total pedestrians _____________________ 100 100


Crossing at intersection _____________________
With signal ________________________
Against signal
No signal. .
Crossing between intersections _______
Coming from behind parked cars. __.
Walking in roadway _____________
With traffic—walks available
With traffic—no sidewalks _____
Against traffic—walks available“
Against trafllc—no sidewalks....
Standing in safety zone ____________
Getting on or off street car .........
Getting on or 011’ other vehicles. _ _ _
Working in roadway” _____________
Playing in roadway ________________
Hitching on vehicle ................
Lying in roadway __________________
Not in roadway _____________________________


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’ Less than half of 1 percent. Source: Reports of State and city traffic authorities. In some instances the number of
" Certain State reports which show more detail indicate that about half of all persons accidents indicated by the urban percentage and by the rural percentage do not add to a

injured while working in the roadway were pushing or working on vehicles. total equivalent to the “total” percentage shown. Where this occurs it is because either
Data from Accident Facts, 1948, p. 63. the urban or rural data are not exactly representative.



Safety Education Can be E fiective

The lives of 280,000 children were saved during the first 25 years of
the organized safety movement, according to National Safety Council

In the period from 1930 to 1940, when traffic accidents to adults
steadily increased, such accidents among elementary school children
markedly declined. This resulted in an estimated saving of 26,000
child lives and the prevention of several hundred thousand nonfatal
injuries to children. , ‘

While the 5-t0—14 year age group was showing a 27 percent decrease
in the motor-vehicle death rate from 1922, the beginning of the organ—
ized safety movement, to 1947, the rate in the 1540-24 age group,
which includes the majority of secondary school students. increased
181 percent. This indicates that a major portion of the traffic accident
problem 011 the secondary and college level can be solved by a well-
organized program of driver instruction. In a recent Nation—Wide
. survey reaching thousands of people throughout the entire country,
the Opinion Research Corporation learned that “60 percent of the
people (polled) say they think ‘students in high schools should be
given lessons 111 actually driving 21 cal’. ” ‘


Safety is an essential element 111 man’s adjustment to his environ-
ment. It is necessary for survival. It involves foresight and inter—
play of skills, cautions, attitudes, and efficiencies which enable the
individual to meet life’s demands for safe living. ~

Education for safety is an essential part of the modern school’s
program for producing good citizens. Accidents are preventable,
and experience shows that a program of education is one of the more
effective methods of achieving safety.

The committee Wishes to present the following guiding principles 3
for the organization and administration of safety education:

1. The school has an essential function to perform in regard to
safety education:

Systematic instruction in all aspects of safety is the direct re-

‘ sponsibility of the school.
Teaching youth to be safe and intelligent operators of motor cars
is a joint responsibility of the school and the community. _
Leadership in adult education, Which is primarily a responsi4
bility of the community and the State, should be furnished by

the school.

3These principles are adapted f1om Safety Education, 18th yearbook of the American
Association of School Administrators and from Safety Education for Teacheis, prepar d

by the American Association of Teachers Colleges and the National Commission on Safety
Education of the National Education Association.



..:'_«‘ _,_.1

 Determination of the character and extent of the school safety
p1og1a1n, and the selection of teaching methods to be used, are
professional responsibilities of educators.

Safety education prog1 a111s should be based on school and com-
munity needs.

Safety education prog'ams should be a cooperative enterprise,
with the school and the community working together to prevent

2. Responsibility for the school safety program should be centered
in one executive head, implemented by :

Definite arrangement for adequate financing.

Delegation of specific responsibilities to school personnel.

Safety coordination in an individual school p10g1am or school

Safety councils o1 committees as liaison betu een school and

3. The safety education program requires careful planning 011 such
matters as:

"Definition of educational objectives.
Determination of program to meet envirOnmental conditions and
students’ needs.
Development of instructional program.
Iii-service education of teachers.
Coordination of safety activities with other agencies of the
Maintenance of safe buildings, grounds, and equipment.
Development of an accident record system.
Evaluation of the program through research and experience.

These principles should be applied to each of the following sections
of this report.


The elementary school child is exposed to many traflic hazards. He
travels to and from School and to recreational activities, runs errands,
andattends church and community gatherings. He is beginning to
roller skate, ride a bicycle [and coast a wagon, and to experience the
thrills, adventure, and independence of determining his own course
of action. To carry out these activities safely, he should. acquire a
knowledge of rules of the road and traffic signs and signals which will
enable him to evaluate and app] eciate reasons for safe conduct at all
times. He should (l9‘ elop habits and skills of safe action, many of
which will operate instinctively for his safety. As a walker on the
streets and highways and as a rider in the family car and in public




vehicles, he should learn to respect the rights and privileges of others
and to conduct himself in a manner which will prevent accidents.

Seriousness of the Problem

The need for traffic safety education is emphasized by the fact that
accidents are the first ranking cause of death among young people.
Each year almost 4,000 boys and girls between the ages of 1 and 14
die from traffic accidents. In the 1—t0-4 year age group, trafi‘ic acci—
dents account for 28 percent of all accidental deaths; in the 5-to-14
year age group, 38 percent 4

These deaths represent a tragic loss to families, to communities,

[and to the Nation. Equally critical is the large number of children

and yOuths seriously injured in traffic who 11111.91? go through life with
such physiCal, emotional, and psychological limitations as loss of limb
or sight, disfiguring scars, or some type of paralysis.

Specific Problems Involved

Progress is being made in the education of children for safe living. ‘

This is shown by. the year—to—year reduction in accidents to children
of elementary—school age. Evidence of effective traffic safety in-
struction is observed in many schools and through the examination of

'State and local curriculum guides. However, the accident problem

still exists, and there are many schools which need to give more care-
ful consideration to developing programs to meet this problem.
'The school should initiate practical instruction to help the child
meet competently the various traffic situations he encounters. For
example, at the beginning [of his school life, he should learn the safest
route between his home and school, his name and address, where to
play, and to share with others the use of sidewalks and highways.
In not providing such instruction, the schools are failing to give atten-

, tion to a need which is as important as the teaching of reading, writing,

and arithmetic.

In planning a traffic safety p1001 am, considei ation must be given
to the physiological, psychological, and emotional make— —up of pupils
of elementary school age. It is characte1 1st1c of this group that they
lack experience in crossing the street alone, in judging speeds and
distances of cars, and in understanding traffic signs andtsignals which
would enable them to evaluate each situation correctly. The average
child constantly meets new situations, is sometimes confused, desires
to reach his goal too quickly, and is tremendously interested in the
activity of the moment.- He may suffer from faulty hearing or visiOn,
or improper neuromuscular coordination.

‘ These figures obtained from United States Summary of Vital Statistics, 191,6, National
Ofiice of Vital Statistics, Federal Security Agency






He may be one of the severely handicapped for whom special aid,
including special consideration in safety, is recommended. In addi-
tion, such factors as fatigue, worry, extreme anger, grief, or joy;
rebelliousness, adventurousness; or lack of intelligence may contribute
to traffic accidents and should be considered in the safety program.
The child may be one who has been retarded or who has been brought
back—over—aged—by an attendance law, one who may not attend
high school and whose imminent vocational activities may include
driving a vehicle. ' > ,

In some situations also, authorities do not consider environment
in relation to the pupils’ safety. These are examples of oversights
which may lead to traffic accidents: failure to provide bicycle racks
or adequate space for parking, to designate an area for School busses, to
plan for fire drills, to provide fenced space for playgrounds, to con-
trol traffic on the streets and highways children must cross, to consider
location of new schools in relation to traffic, to provide special facilities
such as handrails or bus seat straps for crippled children, or to provide
supervision of school or bus patrols.

Recommendations for Action


1. State departments of education and local school systems should
prepare or revise courses of study or guides in ‘safety for elementary
schools with sufficient sfi'ess on traffic problems.

These helps should be adaptable to the needs of each com-
munity by including outlines and objectives for different age
groups and different subjects, illustrative units of work, and
sources of subject matter.

A co’urse or guide should provide techniques for study of acci-‘
dent reports, outline means of surveying transportation facili-
ties, highways, and sidewalks, state principles for selection of
content, and indicate methods of evaluating the program.

Appropriate stress should be placed on traffic safety education
as it may be integrated into practically all subjects in the ele-
mentary curriculum. ‘

The material should be positive and preventive in its approach
and based on age level and learning skills of the pupils. It should
serve as a guide toward making the individual conscious of traffic

Information should be included on State laws governing traffic
and how to obtain information on highway regulations of the
community. Emphasis should be placed on the protective fea-
tures, what they involve, and their relationship to each other.





2. Day-by-day instruction should be based on immediate needs and
local situations.

The school through planning and coordination of activities
provides practical experiences in safe living. For example, such
experiences as riding the school bus, traffic in the corridor, and
use of bicycles afford opportunities for teaching traffic safety.

Instruction given in the field of traffic safety should encourage
the learner to probe for cause and effect. If a child is struck
by a bicycle, the cause of the accident should be determined in
order to prevent similar accidents.

Topics should be presented repeatedly with emphasis on the
needs of particular groups. Monotony should be avoided by
varying the method of presentation and by adapting the content
to the activities and interests of pupils at each level.

The type of traffic safety instruction should be determined by
,(a) the needs of the community and (b) the age, sex, mental
readiness, and needs of the children, such as the present need for
training in habits or skills, information, or attitudes.

3. Situations should be set up whichafford individual practice in
meeting those problems most likely to be encountered.

Adequate time should be provided for the establishment of
skillful habits in meeting various situations involving traffic.
Emphasis should be placed on oral instruction, group discussion,
graphic presentation, and practice under actual conditions. Pro—

grams should be provided that will influence children to become

interested in protecting others against accidents.
4. The instructional program should include use of .vicarious
experiences. .
Opportunities should be provided for boys and girls in the
early elementary level to watch people as they cross the street,

drive a car, and participate in highway safety activities. The

pupils should also be given the opportunity to dramatize and
pantomime traffic situations.
Traffic safety education may be presented through pictorial

and graphic means, such as films, maps, diagrams, and blueprints. ,

Each child may chart his routes to and from school,’ to com—
munity gatherings, and the like. Reading and dramatizations
l are other suggested activities.


5. The school administration should assume the responsibility for
establishing a safe environment. '

. :—.~——-~v2

 A 1.7._.. . ,4.

Provision should be made for safe loading and unloading zones,
bicycle paths and racks, properly fenced or guarded playing fields
if near a main thoroughfare, no—parking zones adjacent to school
grounds, adequate space for children during fire drills, and special
precautions and facilities for the handicapped.

Consideration should be given to the selection of new school
sites away from heavy traffic areas.

Student Activities
6. Group activities emphasizing traffic safety should be encouraged.

Safety lends itself to group activity. Pupil clubs and group
activities have a recognized function in our schools today—con-
serving life through prevention of accidents and elimination of
dangerous practices, making attractive the idea of thoughtfulness
for others, and influencing proper behavior.

Such groups as nature study clubs, day camps, hiking clubs,
bicycle clubs, excursion groups, and others, even though they are
not organized primarily for traffic safety, can contribute to the

7. School safety patrols should be established Where traffic surveys
indicate a need.

Although assistance in establishing, maintaining, and training
patrols is often given by organizations outside the educational
field, the patrol is primarily an educational function and as such
is a responsibility of school officials. '

In communities which do not have patrols and Where traffic
conditions warrant, steps should be taken to organize them in
accordance with “Standard Rules for the Operation of School
Safety Patrols.”

,8. Where feasible and needed, Junior Safety Councils or similar
organizations should be established.

The purpose of the Junior Safety Council is to create interest
in school safety, to provide an opportunity for group activities,
and to give pupils experience through contact With adult safety
groups, whereby, through democratic procedures and life situa—
tions in the school, pupils learn to make decisions for themselves.

9. Consideration should be given to publicity outlets such as school

‘ newspapers, posters, and essays, to develop an awareness of the need

for traffic safety among pupils.

’ School, Home and Community Relationships

10. A definite program should be established for coordinating the
work of school, home, and community. \



Support of parent—teacher and home—school groups should be
enlisted to recognize the need for protection, guidance, and con—
trol of pupils who are learning how to use streets and highways.

A concept of safety for young children should be jointly cle—
veloped, understood, and practiced in the school and home.

The public should support a program which will enable schools
to teach children to live safely in a rapid—transportation era.

The community should provide police control or traflic lights at
busy intersections which the children use.

11. Wherever and whenever possible, the work of the school, home,
’and community should be coordinated by having properly qualified
supervisory personnel.

Communities have found that the appointment of supervisors
of safety education 01' the designation of committees of teachers
and administrators have helped to make safety activities con-
tinuously vital.


Youth’s record of traffic deaths and injuries and traffic—law violations
offers the secondary school a real challenge in training individuals to
accept in fullest measure the responsibilities of living in a motorized
era. On the basis of miles driven, teen—age drivers have the highest
accident rate. From 1922 to 1947, according to available information,
the 15- to 24—year—olds showed an increase in traffic deaths of 181 per-
cent, the highest of any age group. Yet this group is receptive to
instruction and has quick reflexes and great capacity for developing
skills. It has potentially the best drivers. Proper training can make
them so. ,

During this period when traffic deaths were on the increase among
secondary school youth, traffic deaths among children aged 5 to 14
showed a marked decrease. Since most of these children are in the
elementary schools, it can be assumed that the reduction in traffic
accidents for this group reflects the more fully developed safety pro-
gram of the elementary schools.

The secondary school, the parents, and the community, therefore,
have a definite responsibility for developing a program to reduce the
toll of traffic deaths among its youth.

The problem requires serious thought and planning. These young
people are not quite grown up, but they no longer think of themselves
as children. The simple warnings which influence small children to
act safely are laughed off by these adventurous youngsters. Motiva-
tion must be in terms of their age and interests.


, ...

 , ...

Analysis of traffic accidents involving all drivers, and especially the
secondary-school age group, shows as underlying causes unsafe be-
havior, insufficient or improperly developed skills, and incorrect

A sound compiehensive t1 affic safety program can prepaie the
individual to take his place 111 traffic as an intelligent and skillful
d1ive1, bicyclist, o1 pedestrian. It should develop an appreciation
of the need for judicious legislation, effective administration of traffic
codes, and sound engineering practices. The emphasis of such edu-
cation should be directed toward the pupil as an individual and as a
member of a group. V

The need for a well—planned program of traffic safety instruction for
secondary school students is urgent. This program should be based on
the natural venturesomeness of youth and their desire to adapt them-
selves adequately to the demands of a rapid—transportation era, and
in a manner which they consider to be adult. This over—all program
should include normal activities such as riding a bicycle and operating
a motor-bike, and should lead to safe driving of an automobile.

Characteristics of a Program

The program should be a participative undertaking of adminis—
trators, supervisors, teachers, and students. To maintain interest
and to attain continuing action, all of these groups must cooperate
in the instructional program and in joint community-school activ—
ities. It is also realized that the best results are obtained in safety
education when prog‘ams result from voluntary action by school
authorities rather than by legislation.

The scope, content, and organization of the program should be
based 011 the interest, activities, and future needs of the learner.
Social studies may contribute specifically to desirable attitudes, in-

terests, and understandings of the need for improving traffic conditions

through the personal and community approach. This may be ac—
complished through analysis of local traffic problems, evaluation of
driver and pedestrian practices, and through appraisal of traffic acci—l
dent records. Science classes may contribute through study of the
effects of gravity, friction, and inertia. First-aid training may con—
tribute to accident prevention by developing an interest in correct
t1 affic behavior through a know ledge of the results of unsafe acts.
Experimems involving measurement of the speeds at which bicycles
or other vehicles are operated, and the distances required for coming
to a complete stop at various speeds, are effective means for learning.
Health and physical education classes may contribute to the relation-
ship of driving and general health, fatigue, coordination, and the
effect of alcoholism. Shop classes may contribute through study of




the design and mechanics of the automobile. Such information guides
students in a review of their conduct in relation to personal, school,
and community responsibilities.

Driver Education and Training

Studies of successful programs in driver education and training
show that this single' area of traffic safety education in the secondary
school is unquestionably the most fertile territory for the motivation

of desirable habits, skills, and attitudes related to traffic. Therefore

it deserves special consideration.

A Function of the Secondary School

The principle is reaffirmed that beginning drivers in every com-
munity should receive planned instruction designed to make them
safe, skillful, and intelligent operators of motor vehicles.

The secondary school years, when students ordinarily reach
legal driving age, are most suitable for training drivers. The
secondary school, therefore, oflers the best known opportunity
for reaching the largest number of youths about to begin driving.

The content of driving courses is practical and is closely
related to the content of other subjects designed to teach students
how to live successfully.

Competent and trained secondary school teachers, conducting
well-organized courses, can provide‘learning experiences that
are superior to those customarily received outside the school.

Drivers who receive organized training for driving attain
Superior skills, develop more desirable attitudes, and make a valu—
able personal and social contribution to traffic accident prevention.
An analysis of accident records of over 3,200 secondary school
students revealed that those who received driver education and
training in the high school had only one—half as many accidents
as those who did not receive this training.

Driving courses are concerned primarily with the development of
character, through stimulating the student to adopt and display