xt79kd1qjs5h https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt79kd1qjs5h/data/mets.xml The Kentucky Kernel Kentucky -- Lexington The Kentucky Kernel 1993-04-14 Earlier Titles: Idea of University of Kentucky, The State College Cadet newspapers  English   Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. The Kentucky Kernel  The Kentucky Kernel, April 14, 1993 text The Kentucky Kernel, April 14, 1993 1993 1993-04-14 2020 true xt79kd1qjs5h section xt79kd1qjs5h mm-..~—- M. St


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ientation. and


Whereas, students have expressed concern over discrimination based on sexual or-

Whereas, the University of Kentucky is an institution of higher education that is
dedicated to “providing education owortunitics to all qualified students" (University
of Kentucky Bulletin 1992-93. page 6), and

Whereas, rriany other universities and college in the United States that are compar-
able to the University of Kentucky including Indiana University, University of Kan—
sas. University of Virginia, New York University, Ohio State University and Univer-
sity of Massachusetts have already addressed this situation. and

Whereas, at this time the University of Kentucky has no documentation that would
prdiibit discrimination based on sexual orientation.

THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED by the University of Kentucky Student Govern-
ment Association that sexual orientation be included in the characteristics stated in
the non-discrimination policy of the University of Kentucky.




Fayette Co.

charged with
fraud, theft

Associated Press



COVINGTON, Ky. — The Fay-
ette County attorney was accused in
an indictment yesterday with ob-
taining raises for employees to
“kick back" to his campaign fund.

Norrie Wake said in a statement
the indictment was part of a “politi-
cal witch hunt“ and predicted “com-
plete exoneration, of me personally
and of this office."

A federal grand jury in Coving-
ton charged Wake with mail fraud,
theft and conspiracy. The maximum
penalty upon conviction would be
15 years in prison and a $500,000
fine, US. Attorney Karen Caldwell
said in a news conference.

The indictment described an al—
leged scheme in which employees
of Wake‘s office in Lexington were
given raises they agreed to hand
over to a committee to pay off
Wake‘s 1985 campaign debt.

The indictment said six employ-

ees received raises totaling 535.000,
all from public funds. The indict-
ment came six weeks before the
May primary election, in which
Wake seeks nomination to a third
In his statement, Wake described
the indictment as “political persecu-
tion“ and said he was innocent. He
also alluded to “tactics“ of Marga-
ret Kannensohn, his opponent in the

His secretary said that Wake was
not available for personal comment.
Kannensohn declined comment

Wake defeated four-term incum-
bent E. Lawson King by a 3-1 mar-
gin in the I985 Democratic primary
before winning office in November
over Republican Tim Philpot.

Wake, a Pittsburgh native who
grew up in Lexington, had practiced
law 17 years beforehand, including
stints as legal counsel to the speaker
of the Kentucky House of Repre-

See WAKE, Page 5


,We¢n.s..sdav- Apr". 14499?

SGA proposal would protect gays


By Nicole Heumphreus
Staff Writer


Two Student Government Asso-
ciation senators are expected to pro-
pose a resolution at tonight‘s meet-
ing that would call for adding
sexual orientation to UK's non-

discriminatory clause.

Senators at large Heather Hennel
and Misty Weaver said that they
want sexual orientation added to the
admissions clause at UK because
gay and lesbian students have com—

plained to them about discrimina-
tion against homosexuals at UK.
The clause, which appears in the
UK Bulletin and on other Universi-
ty documents, currently reads: "The
University of Kentucky is commit-
ted to a policy of providing educa-
tional opportunities to all qualified
students regardless of economic or
social status, and will not discrimi-
nate on the basis of race, color, re-
ligion, sex, marital status, beliefs.
age, national origin or handicap."

Hennel asserted that without sex-







Interior design seniors Julie Robbins and Holly Wood consult a plan for a handicapped-

accessible community.

Interior design project gives
picture of real-world problems


By Tammy Gay
Senior Staff Writer


Senior interior design students
are getting a picture of the real
world and an image of the prob-
lems they will have to deal with
when they graduate.

Their class project, presented
yesterday. was to design a 10-acre
community that is accessible to
the handicapped and the elderly
—— a design that would apply to
everyone in the community.

Margie Conkling, who teaches
the class and is a freelance interi-
or designer, believes that society
is apprehensive about addressing
the special needs of the public.

“Anybody with special needs,
the public can‘t deal with it be-
cause they arc afraid. There is no
reason for that," Conkling said.
“They are an essential pan, and

they need to be out there with
everybody else. They have as
much to teachasany of the rest of
us do."

Conkling. whose daughter, El-
lie, is confined to a wheelchair.
said that she has been looking for
accessible housing for a long time
and that her choices are limited.
Ultimately, she may have to build
a house to fit her needs.

“There are a lot of people with
disabilities who are mentally very
bright but can't function in the so-
ciety because it is set up for eve-
rybody to be the same," Conkling

She believes that because socie-
ty is set up for a certain type of
person, the world is missing out
on big portion of the population.

“People‘s differences are the
richness of our community.
People are isolating themselves.“

Conkling said. “They are missing
out on many segments of the pop-
ulation that have so much to

I-‘or the class project, students
had to do extensive research.
They toured group homes and pri-
vate family homes and did two
hours of private observation with
a child or an adult with special
needs. Conkling also brought in
speakers from the community.

“A lot of it was educating ( the
students), so it got them through
the fear of having to deal with
people with special needs," (‘onk-
ling said.

In the project, the students had
to focus on a four-parent panel. all
with children who have different
physical and mental needs.

One of the parents, Cherry
Moore. works at UK‘s Interdisci-
plinary Human Development In-

See INTERIOR, Page 5









LEFT: Undeclared freshman Daniel Ricci surveys the lawn of
the Otis A. Singlotary Center for the Arts for an anthropology
class mapping project. ABOVE: Anthropology Junior Kalelgh
Scherzlnger takes her dog. Lucia. with her as she works on

the project.



ual orientation mentioned specifi-
cally in the non-discriminatory
clause. UK can discriminate based
on sexual orientation.

“There is no written documenta-
tion that requires UK not to dis-
criminate based on sexual orienta-
tion," Hennel said. “The goal of this
resolution is to give everyone an
equal chance at an education."

Dean of Students David Stock-
harn disagreed with Hennel and
Weaver. He said the University is
already capable of handling any

type of discrimination against en-
rolled students.

However, Stockham did not ad-
dress the idea of discrimination
against students during the admit-
tance process.

“I want to remain neutral and not
take sides on issues in SGA,"
Stockham said. “However, I would
like everyone to know that we have
the resources to address a situation
if a student has been discriminated


UK holding forums
on parking concerns


By Kyle Foster
Senior Staff Writer


“You have probably noticed that
available parking on and adjacent to
campus is at a premium." — Don
Thornton, director for Parking and
Transportation. in a letter introduc-
ing visitors to UK and its parking

In an effort to tackle the same
parking concems that have been
voiced for many years. UK will
hold two forums asking for input
from the campus community.

The forums. which will be con-
ducted April 20. will allow stu.
dents, faculty and staff an opportu-
nity to discuss problems and make
suggestions to the people who ulti-
mately make the changes, said park-
ing consultant Barbara Chance.

Last fall, UK commissioned
Chance Management Advisors in
Philadelphia, to study current park~
ing procedures, assess any prob-
lems and recommend improve-
ments that enhance and expound
upon the ideas outlined in the the
University‘s Physical Development


The 25-year land use and devel-
opment plan, which was approved
August 1901, outlines proposals for
a pedestrian-oriented campus and
more greenspace.

“The study is an attempt to come
up with some recommendations,
sort of adjunct to the physical de-
velopment plan. For both to
work. so there can be better parking
for everyone.“ 'Ihornton said.

Joe Burch, vice president for l ini-
versity Relations, said this is the
first time UK has looked outside the
University for advice on this age—
old situation.

“I've been here for 30 years and
there have been the szune com-
plaints." he said, “Over the years.
we have been our own experts."

When UK decided to call in the
reserves, Chance had the experi—
ence with large universities that the
campus needs. Burch said.

Chance said the management ad-
visers completed projects at the
University of Virginia Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State Uni-
versity, University of Nebraska at

See PARKING, Page 5

Students looking elsewhere
for assistance with taxes


By Heather Reister
Contributing Writer


While some people await big tax
returns, many students on this last
day before the income tax filing
deadline are just trying make sense
of their tax forms.

This time around. they may have
to face this challenge alone.

“There will be no free tax help
offered this year," said Stephen
Keller, an SGA executive director.

Last year the Student (iovem-
ment Association referred students
who needed help with their tax
forms to Beta Alpha Psi. the ac-
counting honor society. And as a

Blue ribbons

victims of
child abuse

By Heather Holster
Contributing Writer



The blue ribbons seen around
campus today will not be in memo-
ry of the Wildcat basketball team‘s
appearance at the Final Four, but as
a part of Blue Ribbon Day spon-
sored by the Kentucky Council on
Child Abuse Prevention.

Gov. Brereton Jones proclaimed
April as Child Abuse Prevention
Month in Kentucky and today as
Blue Ribbon Day.

The UK Student Health Advisory
Council will participate in public
awareness activities today at the
Student Center. SHAC volunteers
willbeonthesocondfloorfrom ll
am. to I pm. to hand out informa
tion pamphlets.

“they contain parenting tips, the
Kentucky Council on Child Abuse
Prevention‘s goals and hopes for

See ABUSE, Page 5

, mm..-s................... 7


service project, the society offered
UK students free tax advice.

Keller called the honor society in
February after several students in-
quired about the service. Due to the
low response to last year‘s program.
Beta Alpha Psi said it would not be
offering help this year.

“We wanted students who had
maybe had a couple of jobs and
needed help filling out their tax
fonns." said Ralph Viator, the fa-
culty adviser for Beta Alpha Psi.

Instead. they had many foreign
students who had complex tax prob-
lems which the student volunteers
were not capable of handling.

See TAX . Page 5

Ex-Replacernents drummer
Chris Mars improves on sec-
ond album. Review, Page 2.


Linebacker leaves UK football
squad after being placed on
indefinite suspension by
Coach Bill Curry. Story, Page


UK athletics‘ pledge of $1 mil-
lion tor new library is a good
step, but with its big net reve-
nue. it can afford to give more.
Editorial, Page 6.

Even the best of media of mu-
sic, Rolling Stone and MTV,
have become too commercial-
ized to stomach. Column.
Page 6.


Mostly cloudy today with a 50
percent chance of mum“... ..
storms; high near 70. Thun-
derstorms likety tonidd: tow
near 55. Showers “M-
derstorms likely tom

high near 65.


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we... ,


Mars’ new album 75% Less Fat anything but lean









By John Abbott of tunes. be thoughtful, but his lyrics aren't fooled around in a studio for a those other guys by putting on this 5: ‘
ft Crit' Now Mars is at it arain He's 211- all that impressive. 4nd?!“ gravelly. while and accidentally wrote some solo show. s
Sta '6 read cranked out 'iibum No 2 SW) singing Isn‘t Inviting enough stuffjust for the heck ofit. _ ‘ ,
Chris Mars 75%yLess Far, and if isn't bad. It‘s to carry a tune all by Itself. SO the It‘s impressive to think how Well,_ fin;- C'hnsv you V6 made “:15;
75% Less Fat notas likable ashis firstalbum. and slow songs tend to meander, 39" much of this album is just Mars. your pomtl 0“ V6 9%?“me “V0 ii"-
Smash Records it probably won't be a recurring my {WWW 39°“ "1'“? ‘0 "me fly Not only did he write all the songs :“gpfmfns y strianfia was when 1
resident of my CD player. but It's meeting “”1““ like organic and play all the drums, guitars. and “5 ° “3 :10" h :8 :mtcnlyoy

got more than a couple reallv good fun performing. Nothing wrong chem 'S‘TV' Fortunately, he doesn t keyboards (bass player “3- F05!“ 2&3 "0' .menttac (I: (licou d" l :2?‘

The debut solo album by ex- songs on it. A few songs really bite. with that. 31y will???" am“ more than two or is the onlyother contributor). bl" he leader: Pan‘wzgtemurgpwfigwegi :2
Re lacements drummer (‘hris Mars but he hits more often than he miss- When he sticks to his easy-going rte . . produced It hImself and even did the son 8 for . B t la .8 ‘ -h
p It sounds llke he was havrng a the excellent drawmgs on the front 8 W“ U P yume S ‘

was one of the more pleasant sur-
prises of last year. No one could
have predicted that Mars, whose
contributions to the “Mats" were
hardly the mark of a raging musical
genius (Translation: He didn‘t write
a single song and. in fact. was
forced to share time with three ses-
sion drummers on the band‘s final
album). would have released such a
decent. genuinely enjoyable bunch

He‘s obviously picked up some
writing skills since his tenure in the
Replacements. Songs like “Stuck in
Rewind." “No Bands," and “Public
Opinion" aren‘t classic tunes that
will live through the ages, but
they‘re engaging and fun to listen
to, and I guess that‘s sufficient.
Mars isn‘t trying to reform the
world, just make a living and have

pop-rock formula, Mars is usually
all right. He's got a pretty good ear
for catchy guitar hooks —- “No
Bands" has a jumpy riff that most
Top 40 musicians would kill for —-
and his wonderfuuy flimsy drum—
ming style is perfectly suited for
lightweight pop songs.

The only time he gets into real
trouble is when he tries to slow
things down. He tries very hard to

whole lot more fun on his first al-

Horseshoes and Hand Grenades.
This album is pretty good, but the
songs on this album are songs —
serious pieces of music performed
by a professional musician and de-
signed to be packaged on an album
and sold.

His debut sounded like he just

NBC’s spring cleaning, arrival of Lack bring renewal


By Scott Williams
Associated Press


NEW YORK — Like the spring.
Andrew Lack arrived this week as
president of NBC News after a
long. long winter of discontent. And
to hear his bosses talk, Lack‘s arri-
val heralds even more than the cro-

“This officially ends the period of


Find your
in the




m0urning that we have been in for
the last eight weeks." said NBC
President and CEO Robert Wright.
“This is the period where laughter
is in vogue, and smiles on people‘s
faces. And enjoy yourself."

The mourning began with the
ouster of Michael Ganner as news
president following the “Dateline
NBC" fiasco in which a General
Motors uuck‘s fuel tank was fitted
with “igniters” to ensure a fiery ex-
plosion on impact.

Jack Welch, chairman of General
Electric, parent company of NBC,
professed his own delight with

“This is somebody with passion,
guts. excitement," said Welch. “He
wants to win! He wants to win as
much as I want to win. and I didn‘t
think anybody wants to win as
much as 1."

Lack said, “The embattled and
beleaguered days of NBC News are

Could it be? Could better days be

coming to battered, third-ranked
NBC News? Is Lack the greatest
thing to hit GE since Reddy Kilo-
watt hit the power companies?

Of course not. And it's unfair to
put that kind of burden on him. “At
least he has some experience in tel-
evision news,“ more than one NBC
executive has ventured since Lack's
appointment April 7.

Gartner. Lack‘s predecessor, was
a print newsman with an eye for the
bottom line and the guts to look
people in the eye and fire them.
These qualities GE valued.

Lack is fresh from a job as execu-
tive producer at CBS‘ “Street Ste-
ries.” Before that. he was creator
and executive producer of “Face to
Face with Connie Chung" and its
predecessor, the flashy news maga-
zine “West 57th."

“Dateline NBC" is the network‘s
18th try at a prime-time news maga-
zine and its first ratings success. It
also brought NBC News the great-
est debacle in its history.








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If Lack comes to his new job
with any symbolic baggage, it's that
he‘s made his bones as a CBS
News producer of magazine shows
and one-shot news specials. NBC
News producers are going to expect
him to hit the ground running.

“The first pan of this job is not to
come in with some grand master
plan, but to listen and talk," Lack
said Monday. “I haven’t had that
conversation yet.“

La‘ck‘s experience in flashy.
trendy news magazine shows also is
a strike against him in some quar-
ters. He is trying to ease fears that
he‘s more concerned with the sizzle
than the steak.

Although a news program’s set.
music and graphics “are fun to play
with." Lack said be devised the
slick “West 57th" fomiat “in an
hour and a half. I spent four years
on the content.“

Viewers are more interested in
the substance of news program-
ming, Lack said.

“I don‘t think the audience re-
sponds to the look and the packag-
ing." he said. “If that were really
true, then ‘60 Minutes' would have
failed years ago."

and back covers.

Still. though I respect his talent.
and I respect his ability to do so
much on his own, this album reeks
of a massive inferiority complex.

He didn't get much recognition
when he was pounding away in the
Replacements, so it seems to me
that he is trying to show everyone
that he’s as good a musician as

over, Chris.

Your talents would be much bet-
ter served if you mined that rich
Minneapolis music scene for some
more strong musicians and assem-
bled a band instead of making more
of these rather self-indulgent solo

Stop fooling around.



By Mary Campbell
Associated Press

NEW YORK —- Lena Home.
75, will make her debut with the
IVC Jazz Festival this summer.
singing songs of Billy Strayhom.

Impresario George Wein, an-
nouncing the June 18-26 festival
here Monday, said, “What a
thrill to have Lena Horne after
all these years.

“I’ve tried so hard to get her
on a festival. She never was
available. This means a lot, par-
ticularly with the tribute to Billy
Strayhom who was such a close
friend of Lena‘s. She hasn't been
singing in recent years. Now
she‘s got the urge to sing again."

Another highlight, Wein said,
“will be (uumpeters) Wynton
Marsalis and Jon Faddis playing
together. They‘re going to do old
Louis Armstrong big band
things. The arrangements were



Horne, Marsalis, Faddis
to strut stuff at festival

transcribed from the records of
the ’305. That will be the nucleus.
They‘re going to update them."

Wein said. “One of the needs
we have in jazz at the moment is
stars. We don't have young stars.
So we‘re trying to pick people
who might be the stars of the fu-
ture. (Tenor saxophonist) Joshua
Redman. we‘re putting on the
program with Wynton and Jon.
He’s about 21. He graduated
from Harvard with honors. a his-
tory major. He's the kind of
young man you want to get; be-
sides his musical brilliance he has
a head about him."

The only tribute concert this
year will be to band leader Art

Wein said, about pianist Keith
Jarrett, also making his festival
debut. “We wanted him. He was
doing his own thing most of the
time. He's one of the few who
has a name that can come close to
filling a hall."


Sherman‘s Alley by Gibbs» & Voigt

Moot Pinko Pete




Now it's time for my favorite
part of the show It's that
wacky radicai who represents
all liberals Pinko Pete!
HI, everybody!
Hey. you mind if I smoke?
A F lAG, THAT 16! Ha ha ha.




Gosh, Pinko Pete

We Americans are
supposed to respect
the flag

You can go cram your
flag. you America—loving
capitalist. Hcy— anybody
here got any crack?




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And to think. ALL LIBERAL‘J
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l sure hope they
legalize beastiality
Arid abolish police.
And give BMWo to
welfare mothers Andr


And that's another wort from
Pirko Pete. who speaks for

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Pere Ubu
Story of my Life
Imago Recording Co.


By John Abbott
Staff Critic

Pore Ubu, e Cleveland-based band, has just released Story of my Life, an 11-song collec-
tion that showcases the good-timed weirdness of this northern rock quartet.

Cleveland band reminiscent
‘ of show ‘B attlestar Galactica’



' ‘ Three of the four current Ubus —
Thomas, Mairnone (who also
. plays bass), and drummer Scott
Krauss — have been together in
the band since the late 1970s.
- Guitarist Jim Jones is, by compar-




Remember “Battlestar Galacti-

It was that hokey science-
fiction TV show a few years ago
featuring that hulking spaceship
leading a “ragtag fleet“ of rickety
cargo transports on a seemingly
endless journey through space.
searching for the planet Earth and
fighting those pesky Cylons at
every tum. It starred Lome Green
as the tough-but-sensitive Corn-
mander Atlanta. and that guy who
later played on “The A-Team" as
Starbuck. the tough-but-sensitive
fighter pilot who seemed to es-
cape death no matter what kind
of dumb situations he got into.

Pere Ubu is a lot like “Battle-
star Galactica." Since 1975 (pre-
“Battlestar,” actually), the heli-
um-voiced David Thomas has led
an ever-changing case of musical
conspirators on a seemingly end-
less joumey through art-rock,
searching for a hit or two and
making some pleasantly weird
music along the way. Story Of My
Life is the ninth offering from
Ubu. the pride of Cleveland (oh.
yeah, like Cleveland's got a lot

ison. the baby of the group, but if
you didn‘t know he wasn‘t a
longtime member, you could nev-
er tell.

The Ubus supplement their gui-
tar-bass-drums axis with a wide
variety of keyboards. In addition
to Maimone‘s spacy EML synthe-
sizer. Thomas adds a very sniffy
melodeon and Jones plays one of
my favorite instruments, the
Hammond 83 organ. Sadly, Pere
Ubu’s sound isn‘t built for the
grandiose, Doors-sounding solos
I wish Jones would kick out, but
that‘s OK. Not allowing one
player to jump to the forefront
and indulge himself makes the
overall band sound stronger.

The best part of this album is
that it‘s just a whole bunch of
good-natured weirdness. A lot of
less-talented bands try hard to be
weird so people will notice them.
but all they end up doing is
sounding phony and contrived.
The Ubus don‘t have to force
their uniqueness; it shows
through naturally. Story Of My
Life is a fun album that is noticea-
bly free of any tension, and that’s
why it works so well.

else to be proud of), and, having
listened to it, I wouldn't mind if
Ubu‘s endless journey lasted a
few albums longer.

It‘s really hard to classify the
11 songs on this album. “Come
Home." one of the best songs on
the album, comes on like a
steady, straightahead rock song,
but right in the middle of every-
thing, it chucks the insistent gui-
tars and bombastic drums and
launches into a dream-like inter-
lude laced with Tony Maimone‘s
ethereal synthesizer work. An-
other highlight, “Postcard.” is a
goofy cross-country excursion
with odd destinations such as “a
catfish in a top hat from New Or-
leans," and “flaming watermelons
from Dallas, Texas." Imagine the
coolest slide show ever, and
you‘ve got the gist of the song.
“Kathleen," on the other hand, is
a lovely, lilting story of lost love
that injects fresh life into a topic
that has been sadly abused in the
history of music.

Though at least eight men have
called themselves Ubus, the cur-
rent lineup is a remarkably stable.




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April 17, 1993

Kentucky Kernel, Wednesday, April 14, 1993 - c

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Music springs from repression

Power is not given, it must be
conquered. We want power. But we
also want our nation, which still
lives in a myth of racial democracy,
to change into a nation of caring.
justice and equality.

— Benedita da Silva

Federal deputy, Rio de laneiro,

In Brazil, unlike the United
States, African-descended citizens
are the majority. not a minority.
Still, they face a “glass ceiling“
which prevents rrrost of them from
achieving any kind of success or
better life.

Racism in Brazil takes the form
of repression against the lower
classes, who may be of any color,
and is not strictly based on color as
it is in the United States. Famous or
successful African Brazilians expe-
rience very little, if any, prejudice
— but someone of the lower classes
finds nothing but prejudice. espe-
cially when trying to move upward.

Benedita da Silva, Brazilian fed-
eral deputy, is a case in point of this
problem — and she told us of her
struggle in the opening address at
the annual conference of the Center
for Latin American Studies at the
University of Florida March 31.

Silva is roughly the equivalent of
a state representative, who is elect-
ed to represent a federal district at
the nation‘s capital in Brasilia. Sil-
va is federal deputy for a very de-
pressed section of Rio de laneiro —
Brazil’s second-largest city and one
in which the poor, mostly African
Brazilians, live in shantytowns out-
side the glitzy tourist attractions
and do all the grunt work.

Of the 503 federal deputies in
Brazil‘s house of representatives,
Silva is the only black woman. The
first and the only one.

Though African slave labor sup-
ported and financed the elite Euro-
pean bourgeois in Brazil, she said.
these same Africans were deprived
of power — and, through a process
of acculturalization. they lost much
of their heritage. culture. traditions
and standards of beauty in the arts.

Much of what Silva described is
true in our own history in the Unit-
ed States as well. However, three
days later, an African scholar pre-
sented a somewhat different view
of the African experience in the
New World.

Kazadi wa Mukuna. a faculty
member at Kent State University,
traced the origins and development




of one traditional Brazilian folk sto-
ry and dance spectacle as indicative
of the fact that, through the arts and
music, the Africans in Brazil were
not powerless — in fact, their influ-
ence changed the course of artistic
and musical development through-
out Brazil and the New World.

“The image we have seen pre-
sented of black Brazilians is one of
an embattled and resistant people."
he said. “This is partly true; howev-
er. the reality of history is that the
blacks were not completely help-
less. but a very resistant group who
imposed elements of their native
culture upon all of Brazil."

Mukuna looked at the history of
the traditional folk story and dance
called “Bumba Meu Boi," 3 Brazil-
ian spectacle now seen during festi-
vals and at tourist attractions.

This folk drama has its roots in
the days of slavery on large beef
cattle ranches in northeastem Bra-
zil, he said, and always included a
number of elements that were meth-
ods of criticism — what he called a
defense mechanism that the Afri-
can-Brazilian slaves used to main-
tain their own identity and dignity.

For example, the slave owner and
other white Brazilians in this drama
are always portrayed as somewhat
stupid people — and these elements
could be varied, depending on how
liberal or strict the white Brazilians
in a given area were at the time,
Mukuna said.

Later in the drama, the white doc—
tor is called to save the life of the
dead prize bull owned by the white
master —— and his white medicine
fails. A black magic African is
called to the scene, and his rites ac-
tually do save the animal.

This, Mukuna said, was one way
African-Brazilians perpetuated the
belief that their native culture was
not at all subservient or inferior to
that of their white captors.

An African trait seen in many
tribes, he said. is the use of music to
smooth insults. He said that the
most insulting things could be said
to the most powerful chief of any
tribe, just so long as those insults
were sung to good music.

This aspect of culture helped Af—
rican-Brazilians find a voice with




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