xt79p843rd8f https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt79p843rd8f/data/mets.xml Ford, Sallie Rochester, 1828-1910 1855  books b92-212-30910190 English Printed by J.F. Brennan, : Louisville, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Freedom of religion.Ford, S. H. (Samuel Howard), 1819-1905. Battle of freedom  : including seven letters on religious liberty, addressed to Bishop Spalding / by S.H. Ford. text Battle of freedom  : including seven letters on religious liberty, addressed to Bishop Spalding / by S.H. Ford. 1855 2002 true xt79p843rd8f section xt79p843rd8f 

'1' 1 E








    By S. H.



" 'Tis liberty alone that gives the fBower
Of fleeting life its Lotre and perfume;
And we are weeds without it."-0qer.
" But I was born free"-Aponse Paul.

     Tmmli, VA:


 This page in the original text is blank.



  ArYEi frequent solicitations from friends and
strangers, in this city and State, and also in other
States, communicated privately and publicly, I have,
with unaffected hesitancy, given these pages to the
  My intention was to make about half the book
consist of sketches of the advocates of religious lib-
erty in other times; but having to leave the city, on
mny return I found the letters printed off, leaving me
but forty eight pages tor the proposed sketches.
This will account for the extreme condensation in
the sixth chapter. The seventh letter was also writ-
ten after it was concluded to publish them in the
present form. The six others, first appeared in the
Louisville Morning Courier.
  Had I been in the city when the fourth letter
was printed off, I should have omitted as many of
the quotations as were from weekly Catholic news-
papers. Their editors are (at the present time at
least) considered entirely irresponsible; and it is an
old trick of Jesuitism, to try to call away attention
from the highest and authoritative sources of evi-
lence, to the irresponsibility of an unendorsed edi-
tor, or his reckless denial of what is quoted, if a sin-
gle letter or comma be misplaced. The quotation
from the Bo"ton Pilot was first seen by me in the


Boston " Watchman and iReflector," which ex-
changes with the Pilot; then in the "Ilartford Chris-
tian Secretary," furnished that paper by a correspon-
dent.  It was afterwards published by itself in the
Western Christian Advocate, the editor remarking
that it was taken from    the Pilot, which came to
that office in exchange.
  It, or any of those quotations, from unendorsed
editors, are not relied upon as proofs. The most
that can be made of them is. as mere illustra-
tions of what has been incontestably proven.
  I shall there.ore beg of the reader, instead of what
is quoted from Catholic new8paper8, tor which some,
nameless editor is alone responsible, to insert the
following letter from the head of the Order of Jesus,
and twenty-three of the reverend father Jesuits.
They had been charged there, as Bishop Spalding
has charged them here, (but with a different object,)
with being favorable to liberty. Hereistheir denial:
To his Royal Majesty, Ferdinand II, of the Kingdom of the Two
 SACRED ROYAL MAJzsy-Sire: Wdith much surprise we have
heard our sentiments doubted with regard to absolute monarchy;
we therefore think it necessary humbly to submit our views in the
present page.
Majesty, we not only in olden time, but also recently on our
establishment in 1821, until the present day, have also inculcated
respect, love, and devotion for the King our Lord, for his govern.
ment, and for the form of the same-that is, absolute monarchy.
This we have done, not only from conviction, but also because
the Doctors of the company, who are FRANCESCO SUAEXZ, the
Cardinal BALLAhIJNo, and many other theologians and publicists
of the same, have publicly taught absolute monarchy to be the
best form of government.
  This we have done, because the internal economy of th company




is monarchical, and therefore we are by maxim and by education
devoted to absolute monarchy, in which Catholicism,by the wisdom
and zeal of a pious King, can alone have secured defence and
  Majesty, that we both think, and believe, and sustain that
absolute monarchy is the best of governments, is demonstrated by
the damage that we suffered in the year 1818. We were the
victims of Liberalism, because all Liberals were, and are, well
persuaded also that the Jesuits are the supporters of absolute
  These things, oh Majesty, are well known, and Liberals would
more easily believe that the sun would not rise to-morrow, than
admit that the Jesuits would favor them, and therefore every time
they attempt a revolution, their first object is to despoil the Jekuits.
  For this reason the Liberals, by an inviolable canon of their
law, will not admit a Jesuit, or one who is affiliated to the order,
among them.
  In fact, the Jesuits in the kingdom of Naples have always
taught it to be unpardonable to make revolutions for the purpose
of changing the absolute monarchy, which the reigning dynasty
has always maintained.
  If this should not be sufficient not to be thought Liberals, we
humbly pray your Majesty to point out what further we ought to
do to be believed decided absolutists.
  Certainly the Jesuits have never been, at any time or in any
place, accused of Liberalism; and what motive should they have
for not loving and defending the absolute government of the august
monarch FKRD1NAND II, who has covered them with benefits
  Finally, Majesty, of this sovereign beneficence we have made
no other use than for the good of Christian morality and Catho-
licity and the reigning dynasty, to profess immutable fidelity to
the absolute monarchy, to which we declare ourselves always
devoted, and we hope that your Majesty will graciously permit
us to confirm this sentiment at your Majesty's feet by word of
  The present page is signed by me, by my '- Father's councillors,"
(Padri Consultori,) and by all others present, in the short time
there has been for collecting their signatures: and if your Majesty
desires the signatures of all the Jesuits of this province of Naples
they can speedily be obtained. Insomuch, we who sign this are

P, sEF iAt, E.



full guarantee for their devotion by all proof to the absolute
monarch.            (ITUSEPPE MARIA PALADINI,
                                      (and 23 others.)
                        della Compagni di Gegu Provinciale.
  COLLIGIO DEL GEsu NuEvo, NAPOLI, Nov. 21, 1854.
  This translation can be found in the New York
Times, of January 12th, 1855, and also, with edito-
rial remarks, in the New York Tribune.
  And when Pope Gregory condemned, by his
bull of August 15th, 1832, " religious liberty of
conscience," the Gazette de France, which had
advocated it, was stopped, and the following letter
appeared from its managers:-
  "Frhe undersigned, editors of the Avenir, and members of
the council of the yeneral agency lor the deflace of religious
liberty, present in Paris
Hi Being convinced by the Encyclical Letter of our sovereign
Pontiff, Gregory XVI, dated August 15th, 1832, that they could
not go on in their labors without placing themselves in opposition
to the solemn will of him whorn God has charged with the govern-
ment of his Church, they believe it to be their duty, as Catholics,
to declare that, in respectful submission to the supreme authority
of the vicar of Jesus Christ, they leave the arena in which they
have loyally fought for thle space of ten years. They entreat
earnestfy all their Iriends to give a like example of christian sub-
mission. Consequently, first, the Avenir shall appear no more.
Second. The General Agency for the defence of reLigious liberty
is dissolved.
                 [Signed,]        F. DE LA MENNAIS,
                                 (and several other names.)
  PARIs, Sept. 10th, 1832."
  Would it not be dissolved here, in obedience to
the same " supreme power," were there good
Catholics enough to dissolve it 
  With these explanations, I may be permitted to
aver, that nought but my own deep convictions,
and the purest motives, have prompted what I
have written.                             S. H. F.
  Louiaville, Kentucky, April, 1855.




                 CONTEN TS.

CoaAzren I.-Patriotism-Introductory ................  9
CHAIrEm II.-Christianity and Liberty-Struggles in Judea. 14
CHAPTER III.-Struggles in Greece........................ 22
CHAPTEIL IV.-Struggles in the Roman Empire .27
CHAPTER V.-Struggles in Rome .35
CHAPTrz VI.-Struggles in Europe .39
CHAPTEr VIL-The Effects of Freedom .44


INTRODUCTIoN-Bishop Spalding's Lecture-Letter from Bishop
               Spaldiig. .49
LETTER I.-Protestants .55
LETTER 11.-Toleration-Maryland ........................ 61
LxrTER III.-Toleration-Roger Williams .73
LLrrRz IV.-Catholic Allegiance .86
LETTER V.-Aims of the Priesthood .99
LETTER VI-Politics of Rornanism .112
LEzrr, V1I.-Powers of the Pope .124


  Owing to the authors absence from the city while the Let-
ters were going through the press, some typographical errors
have crept in. The reader will please correct the following:
  On page 98, for " sectional " read sectarian; and for "po-
litical " read religious.
  Page 109, for " extinguished " read distinyuished.
  Page 117, for "Selician " read Sicilian.
  Page 118, for "Verona, 1578," read Vervins, 1598.
  Page 121, for "refutation" read repetitian.
  Page 128, for " action " read doctrine.



               CHAPTER I.


  I PROPOSE, in the following pages, to sketch a
few of the struggles which the friends of religious
liberty, in every age, have maintained against
spiritual despotism.
  The endurances and triumphs of patriotism have
glowed on the historic page, have been renowned
in immortal song, and their memories perpetuated
in columin and statue. In vivid and grateful recol-
lection we reverence the name of the patriot; are
moved to sorrow at his sufferings, or dwell with
rapture on the record of his triumphs.
  Amung all the splendors that circle the memory
of ancient Rome, the revolution, under the elder
lBrutus, shines down upon us with transcendent
glory.  Amid all the brilliant achievements of
patriotism, that noble effort has not been surpassed.
A people crushed and fettered by an overwhelming
despotism, in a dark age, nnaided by the light of
historic example, suddenly awaking from their
apathy, and rising in all the majesty of principle,
shattered at a blow the battlements in which tyranny



was entrenched, and hurling the Tarquins from the
throne, erected on its ruins a republic which lasted
for ages. A moral sublimity is associated with the
name of Brutus; and while memory endures will it
awaken admiration.
  Annually, on the nation's festive morn, as the
light crimsons the snows that crown the surrounding
Alps, a thousand little boats, to the sound of music,
sweep over one of Switzerland's loveliest lakes and
landing at a romantic and consecrated spot, where
stands the chapel of William Tell, the day is spent
in joyously commemorating the memory of him who
is esteemed the father of his country.
  And well may Switzerland be proud of Tell and
his compatriots. Untrained, untaught, and unsup-
ported, they beat back the forces of Austria, humbled
the power of the Emperor, and, in the very centre
of surrounding despotisms, established a democratic
  Nor are these the only names and achievements
which merit admiration, and have received the high
commendations of history. Cincinnatus left the
plow, at his country's call, to hold the reins ot
government; after quelling domestic strife, and
defeating an invading foe, he retired to his humble
cot on his little farm, thus showing that no lust of
power filled his heart; no ambition but for his coun-
try's good. Side by side with our own loved Wash-
ington, be stands on the summit of human fame.
  The remote influences of such examples are equal
to their immediate advantages. Their contempla-
tion elevates the human mind, kindles its noblest




instincts, and incites to deeds of virtue. Enduring
monuments of true greatness, when the mighty
pyramids shall have crumbled to dust, in voiceless
eloquence they will speak terror to tyrants, and bid
patriots hope.
  But there is a freedom higher and holier than
even this-
                  "A liberty unsung
     By poets, and by senators unpraised,
     But liberty of soul, derived from Him,
     Bought with His blood, who gave it to mankind,
     And sealed with the same tokens."

  And yet, though " unpraised," " unsung," it is
that emancipation of the noblest powers of the
human soul, without which the most ample politi-
cal freedom is stamped with slavery. As far as the
heavens are above the earth, as eternity transcends
time, or the immortal mind is superior to its clay
tenement, does freedom to worship-to look up to
God in the full exercise of the powers he has given-
excel mere political emancipation.
  H[igh, therefore, as is our admiration of the
spirit, and courage, and magnanimity, awakened
by a strong impression of the demands of patriotism;
and which, to protect a country's rights, and secure
a country's triumphs against the encroachments of'
foreign or domestic despotism, will brave alike the
carnage of the battle field, the solitude of the bastile,
or the ignominy of the scaffold; the heroism displayed
in behalf of this more exalted object, is of a more
elevated order still. Its achievements and endu-
rances derive a surpassing glory from the superior




nature of the cause with which it is associated.
And the champion of the unfettered freedom of the
soul in its approaches to Deity, stands on the utmost
confines of human virtue; merits the love and vene-
ration of his race, and will be crowned with the
honQrs of eternity.
  Many have been the martyr-heroes of this sublime
principle; checkered have been their achievements,
and mournful their sufferings. Often overwhelmed,
but never defeated; crushed, but never destroyed;
when they have retired from the field, it has been
to gather up their energies for a fresh and more
vigorous onset.
  Against them and their cause, have ignorance
and bigotry, false religion and tyranny, ever been
allied. But boldly have they battled, aggressive
and unflinching, accepting no compromise between
liberty or death. Now scattered and single-handed,
and now ranged in solid column, they have waged
unceasing war. Nor has the struggle been in vain.
One land, at least, is a trophy of their triumph-has
emblazoned on her escutcheon the emblems of reli-
gious liberty. This liberty is ours-our richest boon;
( ur cherished privilege; our happiness and our glory.
Every encroachment on its sacred precincts, every
approach of hidden foes, we should I)romptly repel,
and sleeplessly guard, ever remembering that
" eternal vigilance is the price of freedom." " The
removal of the yoke of soul-oppression," said the
first apostle of freedom on this continent,+ 'i as it

 Roger Williams. Hireling Ministry.



            PATRIOTIsM-INTRODUCrORY.            13

will prove an act of mercy to the enslaved nations,
so it is of I)inding force to engage the whole and
every interest and conscience, to preserve the
common liberty and peace." The prosperity and
peace which the teeming millions of our population
to-day enjoy, prove the truth of his principles and
the fulfillment of his hopes. Nor should it ever be
forgotten, that the security, the intelligence, the
progress-the everywhere-visible marks of pros-
perity unrivalled, which are ours, spring pre-emi-
nently from the religious liberty which we enjoy.
We have but to open eyes to see its presence, and
appreciate its blessings.
                 " Who with heart and eyes
     Could walk where liberty had been, nor see
     The shining footprints of her deity
     Nor feel those God-like breathings in the air,
     Which mutely told her spirit had been there"



               CHAPTER II.


  A PURE Christianity is the glorious embodiment
of soul-freedom.
  Adapted to the spiritual wants and immortal as-
pirations of the individual man; meeting him in
his darkness with the clearness of its discoveries;
meeting him in weakness with its transforming
power; meeting him in wretchedness with conso-
lation and refuge; coming in direct contact with
the heart, and flashing in upon it a full sense of
its sinfulness and responsibility, and breathing into
the deep recesses of his beings the breath of life and
hope-it raises him to communion with the Eternal,
as responsible and as free to worship God, so far as
human agencies or interferences are concerned, as
though no other being but himself dwelt upon the
earth. Christianity, uncorrupted, presses upon'man
his personal, his individual relations to eternity,
telling him to - work out his own salvation," and
thus makes it a matter entirely existing between
himself and his God.
  Hence its announcement was not to kings or
magistrates; to a convocation of rulers or a hier-
archy of priests. It chose no organized power as
its oracle. It sanctioned no assumptions of human
authority in spiritual concerns.  Replete with




blessing,,s boundless and eternal-with all that could
elevate and adorn a fallen humanity; shedding the
light of truth on man's ruin and redemption; un-
folding the future and perfection of his being; and
flinging an ever-brightening radiance over the
grandeur of his destiny-Christianity was, and is
her owon revealer; her omen oracle; attending her-
self the heaven-lit fires that burn upon her altar.
  Passing by, without a word, or a look of recogni-
tioI, the exalted ranks ot principalities and powers,
thrones and dominions, she unveiled her beauty
and whispered her message of mercy to the obscure,
the despised, the pious poor. She visited the haunts
of the people, and not the conclaves of priests or
the palaces of kings. From the hill-tops by the
shepherds her songs were first heard. Amid pov-
erty, in the manger she took up her abode. She
uttered her voice in the streets, and in the fields, in
the fisherman's hut on the seashore, and in the
chief places of concourse in the city. Leveling or
ignoring all artificial distinctions, Christianity
places each man on an equal platform before his
Maker-equally dependent, equaly responsible, and
therefore equally free. This is the great conserva-
tive principle of human society-the freedom of the
soul-a principle whose elements Christianity con-
centrates and proclaims.
  She therefore sought not to sustain the tottering
governruents of the world, nor mingle as a rival or
auxiliary in the contest for temporal domination.
Hers was a higher mission, a sublimer struggle, a
more .lastin- victorv. " Mv kingdom," said the




Messiah, " is not of this world." Ule never irr-
tended that it should be linked to the state or sus-
tained by human enactments. Radiant with light,
and panoplied with the armor of Ileaven, Christ-
ianity wins with her smiles and conquers with her
charms; but never does she aak or seek for human
aid or alliance. Her " weapons are not carnal, but
spiritual and mighty." In her mysterious and ma-
jestic march, in fulfilling her sublime mission, in
achieving immortal conquests, and gathering up
the enduring trophies of her splendid victories-she
is sustained alone by the breath of Heaven; a vital,
matchless, spiritual energy.
  Thus essentially and ex nece,itate opposed to polit-
ical or worldly alliances in every form, and claim-
ing sole and absolute dominion over the spiritual
man, to instruct, to condemn, to reward or punish;
she lifts her warning voice, and meets with her stern
frown every encroachment on this her appropriate
  This being the character, the undeviating course
of true Christianity-its founder and its apostles-
it was met at the threshold, and at every step of its
progress, by the malice ot' superstition and the veix-
geance of tyrants. With its )romnlgation by the
Redeemer commenced the contest which eventuatett
in his death, and has continued under varied as-
pects through every age down to the present hour.
As he proclaimed, " The Spirit of the LordI is nplls
me because he hath annointed me to preach the
Gospel to the poor; he bath sent me to heal the
broken hearted; to preach deliverance to the cap-



tive, and recovery of sight to the blind; to set at
liberty themn that are bound.""  The ' people heard
hint gladly."  " All bear him witness and wondered
at his gracious words which proceeded out of his
mouth."  But " the chief priests, and the scribes,
and the rulers of the people assembled in the pal-
ace of the high priest, who was called Caiphas, and
consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty
and kill hlIi."t
  Here was planned in secret the dark and bloody
tragedy from whose enactment the sun withdrew its
light, and which has so often been reacted by their
successors since. It was the prototype of the con-
spiracies in which "rulers and priests" have
joined, against the march etf truth and the rights of
humanity. " But they said, not on the feast day,
lest there be an uproar among the people." Fear-
ing the generous impulses of the masses, and the
open light of day, the "h oly inquisition " chose se-
crecy, subtilty, and night, as the means and the
time to effect its purposes and crush its- victim.
They had claimed the right to interfere with man's
relations to his God. " For they bind heavy bur-
dens," said the Redeemer, " and grievous to be
borne, and lay them on nmen's shoulders." It was
the iniquitous and arrogant attempt of sinful men,
to leg islate for God, and enforce an abject recep-
tion of their own interpretations of his will.
  It was a contest between authority and truth, op-
pression and freedom. " Tell us," said the priests

t Math., xxvi. 3. 4.


 Luke iv. 18.



and rulers, "by what anthority thou doest these
things, or who is he "-what human power " gave
thee this authority  " Claimitig to set on " Moses'
seat " as his authoritative interpreters, they said,
"We are Moses' deciples," but "as for this fellow,
we know not whence he is."  But against all such
authority, Jesus appealed at once to the truthful-
ness of his doctrine, anrd the purity of his life.
" Which of you convinceth me of sin "  " To this
end was I born, and for this cause came I into the
world, that I should bear witness unto the truth.
Every one that is of "-or desirous to know-" the
truth, heareth my worde."t " If I do not the works
of my Father, believe me not. But if I do, though
ye believe not me "-because not of your priestly
order-" believe the works "-receive the truth on
its evidence and intrinsic divinity-" that ye may
know and believe that the Father is in me, and I inl
Dim.":r Here was a challenge to test the truth of
every work, of every doctrine, without any appeal
whatever to authority. If it is the opposite or
antagonistic of God's revealed will; if it is corrupt,
self-destroying, or self-evidently false, reject it, with
whatever authority it may be clothed. But if its
truthfulness be apparent, if it shrinks from no
scrutiny, and answers to every test of reason and
investigation, having stamped upon it the signet of
heaven that it is from God, receive it, foster it,
trust it, advocate it, if need be, die for it, though
priests may brand it as heresy, and rulers punish it

I 8

 Lukle, xx. 2.

t John xviii, 35.

' J,3hn x, 37, 38.



as crime. " If I do not the works of my Father,
believe me not. But if I do, though ye believe not
me, believe the warkN." Truth was every thing,
authority nothing. The weight of the latter could
not invalidate the former, nor elevate imposition or
absurdity; and to suppress the utterance, or inter-
rupt the progress of truth, by whatever authority, is
high-handed rebellion against the throne of the
Eternal, and the harmony of the universe. This
spirit, so alien to the genius of Christianity, was
exemplified in its awful features in the inquisition,
and the condemnation of the Saviour. "The high
priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his
doctrine." The inquisitor was answered with a
withering rebuke, in which was avowed the common
and inalienable right of every man to express his
convictions: " I spake openly to the world; I ever
taught in the synagogue and in the temple, whither
the Jews always resort, and in secret I have said
nothing. Why askest thou me ask them which
beard me what I have said unto them. Behold,
they know what I have said." This was the utter-
ance of Christian freedom. How striking the
contrast, when the hermit of Picardy, roused by
imagined visions of wrong, and backed by Pope
Urban, preached through Europe a holy war against
the Saracens. In the Council of Placenza, and
of Clermont, where the deliverance of Jerusalem
was eloquently recommended, " IT IS THE WILL OF
GOD," was the tumultuous cry which burst from the

               Rtobinson. Charles V.




assembled clergy. These words embodied not only
the leading, prompting principle of the crusades,
but the spirit of soul-despotism and of anti-Christ-
ianity. Here, in the words of Christ, is its opposite.
" If my kingdom were of thi8 world, then would
my 8ervant8fight, that I should not be delivered to
the Jews; but now is my kingdom    not of this
world." " Put up thy sword into its sheath, tar
they that take the sword'"-in the propagation of
religion-" shall perish by the sword." Between
Christianity and the crusades is the contrast of night
and day.
  Of this soul-liberty his whole life was the sublime
impersonation. He developed it in his teaching;
he embalmed it in his blood. Though a minor ray
of his superior glory, it flings a peculiar beauty over
his character; adds a splendor to his victories,
supplies an imperishable monument to record his
greatness, and emblazons, with undying lustre, the
"many crowns" of the circlet which flashes from
his brow. We reverence-we are almost inclined
to worship the man who has suffered to bless man-
kind; who has sacrificed his life to a great truth,
to a moral principle. " All religions," says Carlyle,
" stand upon this; not only paganism, but far
higher and nobler religions-all religions hitherto
known. Hero-worship, heart-felt, burning, bound -
less, for a noblest form of Man, is it not the germ
of Christianity itself  The greatest of all heroes
is one whom I do not name here."t And if suffer-

John xviii, 3, 6.

t Hero-Worship, p. 13.




ings the most intense, and triumphs the most
splendid, merit that appellation, then does the
Gallilean, aside from his divinity, rank unrivalled
in the lists of fame. The kings of the earth had
stood up against him. The rulers had taken council
together. The pride of Ca-sar, and the malignity
of the Jewish priests ; Herod and Pilot, Annanias
and Caiaphas, hostile in all their feelings, had united
to crush him, and the principle he proclaimed.
But his death was its triumph. He conquered
when he fell, and in the person of his followers, he
has continued to display the same indestructible
power, which was ever greatest when seemingly
overthrown. WLhen "the beauty of Israel was slain
on his high mountains." David took up the lamen-
tation for departed Saul. " Ye mountains of Gilboa,
let there be no dew, neither let there be rain upon
you, nor fields of offerings ; for there the, shield of
the mighty is vilely cast away, the shield of Saul,
as though he hadl not been anointed with oil. How
are the mnighty fallen, and the weapons of war
Perished."' But far different the fate of Calvary to
that ot Gilboa. Theshield of a mightier than Saul
was there cast to the earth; not to scathe it with
barrenness, or smite it with a curse, but to diffuse
an influence as benignant as wonderful-to invite
not the thunder, but the dews of heaven. There
vital air is breathed, a holier light is shed, and
spirits of mercy linger to record the sufferings and
triumphs of the prince, the champion, the achiever
of spiritual freedom. The blessings of that victory
shall be the theme of endless rapture, and the
source of inexhaustible delight



              CHAPTER III.

              STRTorGLRS IN GREECE.

  "WHxRa TBoYWA8s," sleptwith his few companions
an obscure and homeless man, who, in obedience
to the command of his master, went everywhere
preaching the truth. During the night, a voice
from across the Agean sounded beseechingly in his
ear, " Come over to Macedonia and help us." In
obedience to the heavenly indication, he crossed
that classic sea, not as did the proud Persian, with
the " pomp of glorious war," but in humble garb, with
barbarian accent, and unaided by human power, to
announce a truth which should startle from their
repose the hoary mythology, and the boasted wisdom
of Greece.
  He stood for the first time amid its enchanting
beauties. Its consecrated groves, where poetry had
tuned her harp, or philosophy held converse with
her children, its breathing statuary and monumental
columns, whose silent eloquence awoke thrilling
echoes in the soul-splendors which even now call
up in many minds a strange yet pleasing idolatry-
were then all clad in the autumnal charms of their
vicious loveliness. But Paul, the accomplished
apostle to the Gentiles, heeded them not. However
pleasing in themselves, their object and associations
threw a gloom over their beauty. A theme far
more glorious than poetry or human philosophy



filled his soul. He was there to preach the gospel-
to announce the glad tidings of deliverance from
superstition and moral death. This was the intro-
duction of Christianity into Europe; and how was
it met  AR it has ever been treated since by its
malicious foes, with interference, imprisonment,
and torture.
  Paul and his companions were dragged before
the civil magistrate, and accused of teaching " cus-
toms which were not lawful "-a religion which the
laws condemned. " And the magistrates rent off
their clothes, and commanded to beat them. And
when they had laid many stripes on them, they
cast them into prison, charging the jailor to keep
them safely."  Thrust into a dungeon among
felons, with every added insult and injury that their
persecutors could inflict, they offered no apology,
uttered no beseeching entreaties, but sublimely
trusting in the strength of him whom they served,
and the eternal right of their principles, and the
freedom they clainlel: in darkness, in chains, and
in pain-still asserting and demonstrating that
freedom which tyrants could not fetter-their souls
rose on the wing of faith amid the fervors of
devotion, and not
         In silence nor in fear-
           They shook the depths of the prison gloonm,
         With their hXmns of lofty cheer-
           Amid the storm they sung.
 Paul-claimingo as the apostles ever did, the right
 "to obey God rather than men," and protesting

 Acts xvi, 22-24.




against every law which imposed its veto on thought,
or sought to fetter its free expression-Paul was
the first champion of religious liberty, and the first
martyr to it, in Greece or in Europe. Socrates,
much as we justly revere his purity and moral
heroism, never rose above the laws which punished
impiety with death, nor claimed it as his right to
follow his own religious convictions. In his defence
before his judges he said: "My duty is to persuade
you if I can, but you have sworn to follow your
own convictions, in judging according to the laws,
not to make the laws bend to your partiality; and it
is your duty so to do. Far be it from me to habituate
you to perjury; far be it from me to contract any such
habit. Do not, therefore, rz!quire of me proceed-
ings dishonorable in reference to myself and impious
in regard to you, especially at a time when I am
myself rebutting an accusation of i