xt79p843sf6b https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt79p843sf6b/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1954 journals kaes_circulars_004_512 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 512 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 512 1954 2014 true xt79p843sf6b section xt79p843sf6b    
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Circu I a r SI2
Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture ond Home Economics I
. College of Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Kentucky A
  gi and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, cooperating
FRANK J. WELCH, Director
Issued in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914. A
1sMf9·5I 1 ‘ A

1 How to Decide what to do in Balancing Feed Requirements AH
_ With Livestock 3  S dr
Make Emergency Seedings 4    
t si
1 Fertilize Permanent Pastures that are still Alive 5 SEP
1 _ ’ wri
1 Sow Permanent Pasture Mixtures Next Spring 5 Q
Sow Emergency Crops Next Summer 5   Ch.
1 _ wil
1 Use Temporary Silos 5 be
Trench Silo 5   ne)
= sex
1 Silo made of snow fencing, corn cribbing, or picketfencing 6 fac
1 Fa
1 Box Silo 6 4 the
` Brick Silo 6 aS_
straw sua 6 dm
Feeding the Dairy Herd 7 L
Grain Mixtures 8 L the
; Suggested Grain Mixtures 8 tak
Table I - Grain Feeding Schedule for Cows Not on Pasture 9 » ii
Feeding Beef Cattle 10  
Feeding Hogs 13 ·
~ Feeding Sheep 13 U
V kir
Pasture for Pullets 14 to
Water Supplies for Livestock 15 if]
. mf
. or
j liv

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V i ,
. i v
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§ Recommendotions to Kentucky Formers i
 I in Drouth Areqs  
. (wamer, 1952..54) g
, ‘ This circular is a revision of the booklet issued in August, i
i ` 1952, entitled "Recomnnendations to Kentucky Farmers in Drouth I
 1 Areas." It is revised and reissued at this time because the present
i drouth, extending far into the fall and giving at present writing
 E (October 2.1) no indication of 1et—up, has changed the picture con-
' siderably. Many courses of action practical in August or early
 L September are not practical in November. The circular is re-
  written so as to point up what can be done at the later date.
  Even more than was true of the booklet issued in 1952, this
 . circular is concerned with the problem of what the feed situation
ji will be next spring and summer when, we hope, weather will again
i_ be favorable for farm production. Even if rainfall this winter and
  next spring should be "normal" in amount and distribution, the
 E severity of the present drouth will mean that farmers will still be
~ faced with a serious situation in damaged pastures and meadows.
 _ Farmers are now concerned first of all with the problem of getting
Y their herds and flocks thrdugh the w inter as economically and safely
as possible, but forward -looking farmers are also taking stock now
  of what they will need to do, and when they can do it, to get their
  damaged or destroyed pastures and meadows back to normal pro-
¥   A time of disaster is also a time of planning ahead, planning
;  V the means of avoiding the effects of such disasters in the future.
 V. This circular therefore also points briefly to certain steps to be
5 '  taken after the present drouth is over, such as providing a backlog
9 g of feed for drouth emergencies, and doing whatever is possible
  to improve the water supply for the farm for such emergencies.
3 *  How To Decide Whcit To Do In Boioncing
3 . Feed Requirements With Livestock
3 i`  If you have not already done so, decide upon the number and
4  , kind of livestock which your farm is best suited to produce from year
 · to year under normal weather conditions. Plan to keep this winter,
5  . if POSSible, the necessary breeding stock to produce the livestock
— and livestock products which you have decided upon. Calculate how -
I much forage these livestock will need this winter, and then estimate
 · the amount of hay and concentrates you will need to buy before April
V olr May of next year. Then consider the requirements for other
il  livestock on the farm in a similar manner. (Ask your county agent
f 3.

l for Leaflet 121, "How Much Feed Does Your Livestock Need'?"). _
~ i cy s
· . Moke Emergency Seedings nn
Practically all farmers are faced with difficult decisions as i 2;;
they consider problems of seeding arising from the prolonged drouth, . the
I Most seedings made last spring and in late summer have perished. *
Reseedings and new seedings that would have been made during the  
` fall if rains had come have been postponed in expectation of more . Sho,
favorable weather. Thus there is much land in the state from which ham
_ no grazing can be obtained this fall and little during the winter even __nl
though fall and winter rains and temperatures are favorable. Such
lands might, however, furnish considerable early spring grazing if
seeded to winter grain, especially to rye or wheat, yet this fall or
I winter. These grains if sown in November will germinate when soil .
i moisture is favorable, but they may be winterkilled if winter should ’· 
be severe. Grains sown during the winter will germinate if there det,
is a period of mild weather, and their survival and growth will depend p . gel,
l upon the nature of the weather thereafter. However, seeding these V if T,
1 winter grains and early seeding of spring oats, offer about the only  V 300
‘ chance of early spring grazing. Each farmer must therefore decide V app;
whether to sow these winter grains for emergency spring pasture. . ‘
{ In view of the serious need for feed it seems wise to take the chance. ,2 
i The seeding rate should be heavy -- 3 bushels of either wheat or rye
1 -- preferably Balbo. Winter or hairy vetch may be seeded with the  Q
Q grain, mixed in such proportions as to sow 15 to 25 pounds of vetch V
per acre. This seed should be inoculated. The vetch will add to the  i pro]
value of the spring pasture. However, it should not be used where gr¤·
grasses and clovers are to be sown in the spring.  V The
,  the
Wheat seeding is, of course, now subject to quota restrictions, iv atta
but there is no restriction whatever on planting for grazing though the _
proper declaration of such intent must be made at county PMA office  _
Y before seeding.  
Much land is in good condition for seeding or can easily be  _
prepared. Some of this was in corn or other crops that left the  · P&s1
land more or less loose. Other land in condition to seed was actu- · plap
ally prepared for seeding but left unseeded in anticipation of rains.  _ Era:
, Other land was seeded in late summer to grasses and legumes. F0?  n Ci1‘<
j One reason or another these seedings have not produced established  
stands. These various kinds of bare and more or less loose land i
ought to be used first for emergency seeding of winter grains. They ‘
are most easily seeded, of course, and they need all possible pro-
possible. This is especially dgsirable where previously sown gI‘355€5 · Choi
and legume seeds remain ungerminated in the soil.  . Te
 » Btn
.i Com

 l i
5. l
Other land that may be used with some success for emergen-  
cy seeding is in lespedeza, and largely dead meadows and pastures.  
This land can perhaps be loosened enough to prepare a fair seedbed t
f but in order to avoid the danger of winter erosion it will be preferable,  
5 _ where possible to obtain a suitable implement, to drill the seed into {
ith- the stubble or sod. l
· l
2 » In general 300 to 500 pounds of a high analysis fertilizer l
' should be applied per acre with these emergency seedings. Where l
ch ` hand seeding is done the fertilizer should be applied above the seed l
in : --not in contact with it. l
isi Q Fertilize Permanent Pastures
in  · That Are Still Alive l
ild   Pastures that appear dead should be examined carefully to
e determine the condition. lf half of the sod appears to be alive these
epend `   fields can be made to produce some winter and early spring grazing
se  1 if rain comes and the winter is mild. They should be fertilized with
ly  ‘ 300 to 500 pounds per acre of a high analysis complete fertilizer,
ide  . applied in fall or winter.
Ace. » _ Sow Permanent Pasture
tive ‘ Mixtures Next Spring
tch  4. It is too late to sow permanent pastures this fall with much
. the V Probability of success. Fortunately spring seedings of rapid-
re s growing grasses and legumes are usually successful in Kentucky.
, These should be sown next spring in the usual manner to replace
  the pastures destroyed by the drouth and, in many areas by insect
xtions,   attacks. (See Kentucky Extension Circular, #402.)
gh the l
MICE Sow Emergency CI"OpS Next Summer
be   Even if the drouth should be broken by next spring, hay and
 ` pasture crops next year are likely to be short. Plans for next years‘ A
;tu- Planting should, therefore include soybeans and, especially, sudan
ns. 3 grass, or a mixture of sudan grass and soybeans. (See Extension V
For  _ Circular 510.)
id g Use Temporary Silos
Th€Y L
ro-  i Tiimporary silos may be used for storing corn, beans, sudan
if   grass, and other crops for feed. Grass silage may be made of V
;;·asS€5   §l;°pP€d 0I' lmchopped material. Listed and briefly described below
` fa;;·€V€1‘al types of trempgrary silos that have been used by Kentucky
g COunt"$· For more information on how to build these silos, ask your A
‘ Y agént for Mimeograph No. A-130, "Temporary Silas. "

? Trench silos are
` cul;
l l The trench silo is made by digging a trench into a hillside, oft
so that the silo will have drainage toward the open lower end of the laic
I trench. The width, depth, and length of the trench may vary, de- p
i pending upon the number of tons of silage to be stored and the types _
l of equipment used in building the silo. The trench is made wider itu
{ at the top than at the bottom to prevent the side -walls caving in.
, It is filled with silage slightly above the top of the trench, then 1 ·
I covered with straw or chaff, and then with 8 or 10 inches of earth _
V The crowned top will provide drainage away from `the silo and re- i
duce spoilage. Spoilage of 5 to Z5 percent can be expected, depending an ‘
upon the condition of the silage when put in the silo and how tightly buy
l it is packed. Packing may be done with a team or tractor. As much —
i air space as possible must be eliminated to reduce spoilage to a  .
1 SllOS mGd8 of SHOW f€l`\ClI`lg‘ COI'!} Cflbblhg, picket l:€l`lClllQ  r
l_ Local lumber or hardware dealers may have fencing in stock j
that can be used in making a circular upright silo. These silos are  _
built in sections of such height as the materials available. A re- .
l inforced waterproof paper is used inside the fencing next to the silage  V
i to keep air from entering. These silos may be 16 ft. in diameter and  
{ 16 ft. high. Such a silo would hold 38 to 44 tons of silage. ‘
1 `
Box silo o
The box silo is a long, narrow above-ground box built of ·
lumber or stone with earth bottom and open top. The end of the .i
box may be about 7 feet square and the length varies with the amount  
of silage to be stored. Posts can be set in the ground to support the  5
. sidewalls. A waterproof paper is used on the inside walls of the i
` box to keep out air, and the silage is covered with a layer of straw
or chaff and dirt. For feeding, the silage is taken from one end of
the box.
Brick silo ;
A small silo about l0' in diameter and 30' high may be built  T
of brick. The cost of materials for such a silo is about $350. and
it holds 40 to 60 tons of silage. Plans for the silo are available _
from your county agent. r
Strow silo  _
Silos made of baled straw have been used in Kentucky. '1`h€Y V

 i .
are made by stacking bales of straw or hay on edge to form a cir- \
cular wall, then putting two strands of No. 9 wire around each row g
of bales to hold the pressure of the silage. The rows of bales are  
3 p laid as the silo is filled.  
is With this silo a large amount of spoilage might be expected; \
it would be the least dependable type of silo to use. `
. Feeding the Duiry Herd  
l . Every farmer who has a dairy herd should immediately make l
ming an inventory of feed supplies on hand. This practice may help avoid
Y buying several hundred dollars worth of roughage this winter.
iuch W
_ Some general recommendations are as follows; `
i l. Feed the best-quality hay to calves one year of age
1 and under.
fencing  2. The milk—feed price relationship will usually favor the
feeding of some high—quality hay and moderate amounts
rock p of concentrates to high-producing milk cows.
ue  ‘ 3. When no silage is fed do not go below 10 pounds of hay
_ per cow daily.
mage · 4. When corn silage or grass silage is available in large
T and quantities and very little hay is on hand, all the rough-
age could be supplied in the form of silage.
l 5. It is doubtful if Vitamin A deficiencies will become ap-
. parent this winter even under roughage feeding programs
_ that include the use of feeds fairly low in carotene. Most
animals have a storage of the vitamin in their livers at the
p beginning of the winter feeding program. Corn silage cut
mum  p with the leaves green and fed at the rate of 17 to 18 pounds
t the per day will provide twice the vitamin A required by cows
Q for reproduction.
jaw , 6. Molasses can replace corn if 6 l/2 gallons of molasses
1 Oi i can be bought at a cost less than for a bushel of shelled
V corn. With corn at $1. 60 per bushel, it would be worth .
. about Z45': per gallon. If corn is available at $1. 00 per
bushel, molasses would be too expensive in most cases,
although small quantities might be used profitably to
mm increase the palatability of available l0w—quali1;y roughage.
and  . If molasses is a good buy it can be fed at a rate up to Z
_ or 3 pounds per day. Plenty of good roughage relatively
r I high in protein should be fed at the same time.
· 7. lf one does not have silage, and about two—thirds enough
hay, he can furnish the remainder of the roughage by '
_ feeding 7 or 8 pounds of shredded corn stover per day
They _ The grain mixture would need Z or 3 percent more pro- ‘

 ) 8.
i tein than otherwise, or 16 to 18 percent in this situation.
8. When reduced quantities of legume hay are fed, sufficient
quantities of mineral such as odorless steamed bone-
~ meal should be in the grain mixture or fed free—choice to __
the animals. » ’"
I 9. Grain can replace roughages to a certain extent, but it  i __
I is best not to go below 10 pounds of hay without silage.
l In drouth emergency counties, cereal feeds can be ‘
{ purchased for less than roughages, considering the V
pounds of total digestible nutrients obtained. Eight- fg;
V tenths of a pound of grain will replace a pound or more _ g
of roughage. mu
Grain Mixtures _
1 The grain mixtures fed should vary according to availability
1 and prices in various areas. In drouth emergency counties, wheat V ____
can be used to replace corn. It is best never to use more than one- j
third wheat in grain mixture. Barley can also be used to replace 4
) corn-and-cob meal. Many areas of the state will use large quanti-
i ~ ties of low -grade roughage, and because of this most grain mixtures
' will need to be high in protein (18 to Z0 percent total protein).
i Suggested Grain Mixtures L
i Ration l-19. 4% Protein Ration 11-15. 5% Protein
] iTo balance low protein roughage) iTo balance medium protein  —
800 lb. corn-and-cob meal l, 000 lb. corn-and-cob meal
600 lb. ground oats 600 lb. oats I —
560 lb. Cottonseed meal 360 lb. cottonseed meal   cov
p (or equivalent) g pei
20 lb. Salt 20 lb. Salt ` Fat
Z0 lb. Steamed bonemeal Z0 lb. Steamed bonemeal i tg;
Note —- Refer to Extension Circular 474, "Feeding Dairy Cows,"   I
for other suggested ration. . {Od
 V qui
Table 1 can be used as a guide as to the amount of grain to f€€d· ’ dig
It should be pointed out that most dairymen should use the third hay- j
consumption column when the amount of roughage is limited and it is
of a poor quality. (See Table I on following page). `

 l 2
9. '
\· Table 1  
nt l
_ Grain Feeding Schedule for Cows NotOn Pasture* \
LO (Adapted from Circular 474[  
` “T@hagc consumed per 100 15 1
liveweight daily **
l l lb \
Scanty ;
2 1/2 lb. amount of  
Very liberal 2 lb, good Total lb of grain \
‘ feeding of Usual rate of roughage mixture or concen- `
 V good feeding good or feeding trate to feed daily l
. roughage hay or good poor
V hay and silage roughage
Holstein jersey
yy A Milk Produced Daily Ayrshire & & ,
t ~> rown Swiss Guernsey
1 oun s Poun s oun s Pounds Poun s
17 10 —— -- 3
— ? 21 14 -- Z 5
res K 25 18 11 4- 8
C 29 22 15 5 10
‘  33 26 19 7 12
37 30 23 8 14
41 34 27 10 16
_ · 45 38 31 12 18
m 49 42 35 13 20
zin . 53 46 39 15 Z2
57 50 43 16 —-
neal v 61 54 47 18 —-
1 65 58 51 20 --
  69 62 55 22 --
` *To illustrate the use of the table let us assume that ajersey
,1 cow yielding 23 pounds of milk is fed 1 1/2 lb of poor hay equivalent
_' per 100 lb of liveweight. We go down the column, which is for the
·` rate of roughage feeding, until we come to figure 23. We then go
  horizontally to the right across the Table until we reach the column
1 1 for jersey and Guernsey, where we find the figure 14-. Therefore,
lea   this cow should be fed 14 lb of a good grain mixture to meet her re- .
 : Quifements.
I · **Th1‘ee pounds of silage will replace 1 pound of hay. Dried
. fodder may replace a portion of the hay pound for pound.
i Caution: Regardless of the amount of grain theoretically re-
 ‘ quired by a cow, she should not be fed more than she can safely
t0 feed" 1 digest.
it is  ‘

 * 1
  10. 0
E Feeding Beef C¤h‘|e fed
T Tyr
Where the corn crop has been ruined, cattle that normally
would have gotten 90 to 180 days of full grain feeding may be sold
with only grass finish or, if their weight and quality justify, they
I may be roughed through the winter and finished on grass next .
[ summer with little or no grain. Their older age at that time will
` result in a nicer grass finish than is possible on younger cattle, and  .
while the selling price might be lower, the cost of grains will also be ~ _
` much lower. Then, too, such cattle will be carried past the usually ful
‘ poor fall market for grass cattle. 0 as
Calves produced on the Kentucky Cow -and -Calf plan will be POL
, lighter and thinner than usual, because of drouthy pastures. This qui
1 has been a year when creep feeding has paid well. Calves should be ,
weaned by early November and then fed cracked corn, or other
grain, and protein concentrate (preferably pea-sized) in the ratio » am
\ of about 10 to l until they reach at least 600 pounds in weight and a 2;:
I reasonably good market finish. If they get no pasture forage, they
lx should also get at least 4 pounds of good leafy legume hay per day. A pa:
With such calves it will pay to feed this quality of hay even if it has _
‘ to be bought, since young calves cannot use entirely coarse, un-  .
5 palatable roughages to advantage. Calves carrying one-half dairy Q
i blood should not be kept niuch past a year of age because the older
{ they get the plainer they become.
Weanling feeder calves of principally beef breeding and
weighing 400 pounds this fall should be wintered so as to gain at p
least l pound per head per day. Rations that will accomplish this
without pasture are as follows:  
Ration I; Grass hay, l0 pounds; cottonseed or soybean oil-  
meal, lpound.  ~
V Ration II; Corn silage, 2.0 pounds; alfalfa hay, 6 pounds. ·
` Ration lll: Corn cobs, 7. 5 pounds; and Purdue Supplement A,
3. 5 pounds. V
Slaughter cattle of rather plain quality and carrying only a 1
medium finish usually sell to best advantage in late spring and early Sm
summer. Those farmers who have such cattle that did not reach `
market finish by the end of the grazing season should consider the W
possibility of wintering theni on roughage, plus a total of about 10 j'
bushels of corn per animal, for sale around next May . I-Iarvested
roughage for their winter feeding can be of rather plain quality,
such as straw, stover, stover silage, cottonseed hulls, and such i
provided they are also fed at least 1 pound of protein concentrate V
and l pound alfalfa meal per head per day. Such corn as is to be {

. 11.  
fed could well be saved for the last 90 days before they are marketed. l
Typical winter daily rations for an BOO pound stocker steer would be: Q
Ration I: Straw, l0 pounds; shelled corn, 5 pounds; alfalfa  
meal, l pound; and cottonseed meal, l pound.
Ration ll: Grass hay, 10 pounds; straw, 6 pounds; cottonseed
meal, l pound; and alfalfa meal, 1 pound I
ns Slaughter cattle of better than average quality may justify a
1 e full feed in drylot, and marketing as soon after the first of the year
Y as the market looks good. Such cattle need at least 6 pounds of {
roughage, a full feed of corn ¤( or other grain), and 1/2. to l 1/Z
pounds of protein supplement per steer per day depending on the
5 quality of the hay fed.
be ’ Breeding cattle should be wintered as cheaply as possible
and yet they should be kept in reasonable condition and free from
deficiencies of protein, vitamins, or minerals. Some typical daily
a ° rations for wintering 900-pound beef cows adequately when no
Y pasture is available are as follows:
`S ` Ration I ; Legume hay, 5 pounds; and straw or stover, 15
I Ration ll; Grass hay, 20 pounds; and high protein supplement
I- 0. 5 pounds.
Ration lll: Straw or stover, Z0 pounds; high protein
' supplement 1.5 pounds; and alfalfa meal, lpound.
` Ration IV: Corn or cauasilage, 35 pounds and legume hay,
6 pounds.
l Ration V: Corn or camsilage, Z5 pounds; straw, 10 pounds;
  and high protein supplement, l. 5 pounds.
I- Ration VI: Straw, 10 pounds; shelled corn, 7.5 pounds;
I` alfalfa meal, l pound; and cottonseed meal,
It A,  4 l pound.
Note: Salt, and fine—ground limestone should be available
a to all cattle at all times. ’
Tw V Some general considerations: I
I; , I- Now is a good time to sell shy breeders, diseased
Ed animals, very old animals, off—type cattle, and those
· that will sell to advantage as feeders or light slaughter
1 cattle, and put the rest through the winter on as little
n purchased feed as may be required. ·
Q  . Z. After most drouths replacement cattle are scarce.
‘ Farmers should keep their breeding herds together if -
»· they possibly can, and winter as many thin steers as
 _ they can for their 1954 needs.
3. Drouth insurance in the form of a cheap trench silo .
filled with surplus grass, legumes, or corn and left

 ): 12.
  1 until needed, should be provided as soon as normal
* rainfall produces a surplus of forage and in anticipa-
, tion of the next drouth. Such drouth insurance may be
located back on the farm in an out-of-the-way spot. lt
needs no firm bottom and no hard road to it, since it
will be used only in a drouth. A drouth can "make or
) break" a beef cattle man, depending on whether or not .
he has prepared for it. _ p
` 4. To grow and reproduce normally, cattle must have access bd?
. to some green forage or at least 4 pounds daily of green, am
, leafy legume hay if their vitamin A needs are to be abc
supplied. lf they have neither of the above for as long h°E
as two months they should be fed at least 2, 000 units of aff)
vitamin A per hundredweight daily. Double the amount am
1 for pregnant or milking animals. Dry vitamin A supple- Bel
1 ments are now available at reasonable prices and are i ies
especially valuable under drouth conditions. Isl
5. As the quality of the roughage decreases the need for
) calcium increases. Fine -ground limestone (Crusher
~ dust from agricultural limestone is excellent) makes A
1 a cheap source of calcium. Feed it and salt in separate
. compartments of a mineral feeder. See blueprint Ky. ` Qldd
, 11. 772-14, available from your county agent for plans  1 or
1 of such a feeder.  
) 6. An acre of corn made into silage will produce twice as ‘ mi
j much beef as the sane acre fed as stover and shelled · pas
corn. 1
7. A ton of corn silage has a feeding value equal to about qua
600 pounds of legume hay and 4. 5 bushels of corn, ° am
when properly supplemented. (See the foregoing rations). p
8. Ground corncobs, straw, or stover have a feeding value `
close to that of grass hay when supplemented with ade·  p 33
quate protein, vitamins, and minerals. (See the fore- _ cor
` going rations.) ` no
9. Urea can be used in place of part of the protein supple- at]
ment in beef rations but must be mixed thoroughly with , add
the supplement in the ratio of 7 parts of meal to 1 part _ ing
of urea because it is poisonous if too much is used. A pay
Because it contains the equivalent of 262 percent crude n We
protein, an ounce of it will supply as much protein 1 am
equivalent as 6 or 7 ounces of soybean or cottonseed . TE
meal. Ease cattle onto the urea mixture gradually and 1 ed}:
never feed a steer or cow more than 3 ounces of urea ,
?ET§_—_'-—F____—___—”-— fu
10. Urea has no value for non—ruminants such as hogs and Q
chickens. _
ll. Molasses is a good appetizer when sprinkled on coarse _ Sm

 I Y
13. y
roughage such as ground corncobs or cottonseed hulls. i
It is worth one -half to three -fourths as much as corn, l
pound for pound, and is now selling at a favorable price
after many years of high prices.
Feeding Hogs
Farmers who are short of corn should consider the possi-
bility of planting a liberal acreage of barley, both for winter grazing  
:655 and for fattening next spring's crop of pigs. Ground barley is worth `
m’ ° about 90 percent as much as corn, pound for pound, for fattening V
hogs. Barley should always be ground for hogs, but if it is badly
affected with scab, it is not suited for feeding to hogs. The heavier
E and plumper the barley is, the more value it has for hog feeding.
le- Because of the higher protein content of barley, about one-fourth
- less protein supplement is needed when barley is fed than when corn
is used.
 i Feeding Sheep
Cull all nonbreeding ewes and those with bad mouths or
me ~ udders, but keep good ewes even if you have to buy feed. Prospects
; for the sheep flock to make money are.good.
Use pasture, where available, as much as possible. If
S ' rains come this fall, small grain pasture`and some permanent
pastures should furnish some grazing this winter. Save your better
t quality roughage for feeding to ewes during late pregnancy and
aruund lambing time.
?nS)` 1 _ Keep ewes in good thrifty field condition and have them act-
ue ually gaining in flesh during the last month of pregnancy. Feel
a' their backs at frequent intervals to see if they are improving in
' · condition. If not, increase their ration. Ewes getting little or
_ no pasture may need as much as 4 pounds of hay or its equivalent
ik; at least half of which is legume. During the last month of pregnancy
· add 0.5 pound of shelled corn or corn and small grain. After lamb- ’
It ing increase to about 1.0 pound per ewe. In many flocks it may
de ° PW to make a separate group of ewes with twin lambs and feed them
· even more grain than this. If on good winter pasture the roughage
I allowance may be cut in half or more. Good quality grass hay may
nd F€Pl&Z€€ mixed or legurne hay if enough protein supplement is mix-
Q _ ed Wlfh the grain to balance the ration. Seldom will more than O. Z5
- ` pound Per day of a supplement such as linseed meal, soybean oil-
1d , meal or cottonseed meal be needed. -
FSE ‘ Grass or corn silage may be used effectively in wintering
A sheep. About 2. 5 pounds of good quality grass silage will replace

 A l
Q 14.
E each pound of hay in the ration for ewes but it is better to feed {Or
‘ ‘ some dry roughage along with the silage. Corn silage has abcut Ma:
` the same replacement value exceptthatfrom O. Z5 to O. 5 pound of mg;
protein supplement should be used in the ration. plat
i If feed has to be purchased, grain probably will be a better
buy than hay. Com may be used to replace half of the roughage in
` the above recommendations if done very gradually and on an equal the
I energy basis at the rate of 1 pound of corn to l. 6 pounds of hay or
I hay equivalent. Since ewes have a tendency to go off feed as the
A grain allowance is increased and thus reduce their total energy
intake, changes should be made at intervals of at least three days
and preferably longer late in the wintering period when the grain poin
I level becomes high. mw
i Creep feeding of lambs may be especially profitable this
year with little winter pasture available and possibility of late imr
I pastures next spring. Cracked corn fed until spring pasture is in G
I available is as good a creep ration as more expensive complex
Q_ mixtures. It should be fed in a grain trough suitable for lambs and
should be kept free of any filth. . to I
` and
I Be sure to furnish loose phenothiazine-salt mixture and In E,
I water. On rations containing no leg_ume roughage but adequate whg,
g grain, ground limestone as a source of calcium may be used as the ties
l only other mineral supplement. lf on a low grain allowance bone- · {Or
meal is preferable as it also furnishes phosphorus which tents to be {mr
deficient in roughnges. suc]
Vitamin A may be deficient in some instances where very 1
low quality hay is used or where poor quality corn silage is used as
the only roughage. This is particularly true in instances where ewes the
~ have been on very poor pasture during the late summer and fall and ' Emi
have been unable to build up liver storage of vitamin A. Vitamin A 470
supplements suitable for mixing with grain are available and may be
used according to directions.
· larg
For further aid in formulating rations contact your county ’ Slru
agent or write the Animal Husbandry Section, University of Kentucky, ` SECT
Posture for Pullets .
lt is generally understood that a good range will save Z0 per-
cent of the feed cost in raising pullets for flock replacement. Since
' very little poultry range was available during the past summer and ‘
fall, poultry farmers have had to spend approximately Z0¢ extra for I
feed per pullet housed. Numerous temporary pastures were planted

 I ,
15. V
for poultry range this fall and the majority of these also were failures {
Many farmers will have to plant temporary pastures for the spring \
months of 1954. All of this adds to the cost of raising the flock re- ,
placement pullets, but temporary pastures will still be cheaper than i
buying feed by the bag. \
Rape is one of the best temporary pastures for poultry. Sow i
the rape early in the spring at the rate of 15 to Z0 pounds per acre.  
Woter Supplies for Livestock  
Farmers are well aware that, for many of them, the critical
point in getting their livestock through the winter may not be feed so
much as obtaining water, unless rains come soon.  
On most farms little or nothing can now be done to help the
immediate water supply situation, except perhaps drilling new wells
in areas where such drilling would seem to offer chances of success.
xd Now may be a good time, however, to clean the old pond and
_ to make plans for new farm ponds, well located and adequate in size
and structure to supply plenty of water even during extended drouth.
ln areas where little difficulty is experienced in constructing ponds
which will hold water, farmers will want to consider the possibili-
he ' ties of constructing ponds adequate not only for live stock water but
- for irrigation of certain critical acreages. No farmer now suffering
be from drouth needs to be told what it would mean to him in another
such emergency to have a pond adequate for irrigation of l0, Z0, or
more acres of emergency pasture or other crop land.
35 Both for longer life of the pond and cooler, cleaner water,
ewes me pond should be fenced off from livestock and the water piped by
ind ' gravity to troughs below the dam. See Kentucky Extension Circular
LA i 470 and Leaflet 129 on the ccnstruction of farm reservoirs and dams.
y be ·
For livestock water another possibility is the construction of A
largé half—submerged cisterns at the tobacco barn. Costs of such
Y structures are not excessive. Plans may be obtained from the
lucky, Sffciion of Agricultural Engineering, University of Kentucky.
per- -
ince h
and .
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inted A

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