xt79zw18mx13 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt79zw18mx13/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1895 journals kaes_bulletins_054 English Lexington, Ky. : The Station, 1885- Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin n.54. text Bulletin n.54. 1895 2014 true xt79zw18mx13 section xt79zw18mx13 i K E N T U C K Y W  
  Agricultural Experiment   i , i
 .  . S TH T T u N
 i STATE COLLE<;lET@F i
L `j..,_ A. T. JORDAN, Assistant to Horticulturist.  
  · V. E. MUNCY, Weather Observer.  1
l T. S. HAWKINS, Foreman of the Farm.  A.
Mrss ALICE M. SHELBY, Stenographer. Y 
Address of the Station, LEXINGTON, KY. .
J; ....-»—— Y
  NOTICE.  I
The bulletins ol the Station will be mailed free to any citizen of . 
3 Kentucky who sends his name and address to the Station for that   ‘
» purpose.  
Correspondents will please notify the Director oi changes in thélf l
post otlice address, or oi any failure to receive the bulletins.
Address:
KENTUL'KY AURICL'L'I`I`RAL EXPERIJIENT Srarrox,
`S Laxrscerow, KY.
2

 ai,  ,
  BULLETIN No.'54s. O
, NOTES 0NVE<;ETABL12:s. . _
  TOMATOES. PEAS. BEANS. POTATOES.
.  L s
L The vegetable tests for 1894 were conducted upon land " l _
‘ at the experiment farm, instead of upon the college
A grounds as heretofore, and it has therefore been possible
.`  to secure greater accuracy in the report upon any experi-
ments where the productiveness was concerned.
; The climatic conditions of the season in Kentucky, as
‘ well as in adjoining States, were rather extraordinary.
` Spring opened earlier than usual, and the weather was
mild and pleasant up to March 23,, when there followed
L ten days of very cold weather for the time of year, which
y destroyed to a great extent the young growth upon trees t
 A and shrubs, and either destroyed or greatly injured in `,
 · many cases young plants in plant beds. Growing crops .
" of the more tender kinds were again considerably injured L
  by an untimely snowfall of several inches upon May 20. ‘
 . The drought during the midst of the growing season
 _ further added to the unfavorable conditions. After a _
 li rainfall of about 2 inches on june 25 to 27, the total rain-
_` fall up to August ro, a period of six and a half weeks, ,
. was only o.8y inches.
 i As a consequence of these conditions of the weather, ·
,  the experiments with vegetables have in many cases not »
E Q  been as decisive as they would otherwise have been, and l
c ,· the results of some have been so uncertain as to be
V almost valueless.
i The vegetable tests have, for the most part, been under
the charge of Mr. A. T. jordan, assistant in horticulture,
and the taking of notes, as well as this report, have been
largely his work.
The names and addresses of the seedsmen whose names
3

 ii ) ‘  
ifi!.  .5
  4 Kemlucky Agrzkullural Experzbzzwzt Smlz`01z.  
  appear in the following tables are as follows: W. Atlee
  Burpee & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; Henry A. Dreer, Phila-
ii delphia, Pa.; j. A. Everett, Indianapolis, Ind.; D. M.
i Ferry & Co., Detroit, Mich.; Frank Ford & Sons, Ra- f
3 * venna, Ohio; ]. ]. H. Gregory & Co., Marblehead, Mass.; g 
; A A Harris Seed Co., Moreton Farm, Monroe Co., N.Y.; Peter  A
  * Henderson & Co., New York; johnson & Stokes, Phila-  .
  ,_ delphia, Pa.; D. Landreth & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa.; »
  yl`; _ A. W. Livingston’s Sons, Columbus, Ohio; W. H. Maule, »
  t Philadelphia, Pa; A. M. Nichols, Granville, Ohio; Nor-  V
S thrup, Braslan & Goodwin Co., Minneapolis, Minn.; ]. M. A
V Thorburn & Co., New York; F. B. Van Ornam, Lewis, j 
A Iowa; ]. C. Vaughan & Co., Chicago, Ill; james Vick’s ,
, Sons, Rochester, N. Y.
ph s “ Tomatoes. i
` X il ‘ VARIETIES. The seeds of fifty-six varieties of toma·  L
I · toes for our test were sown in shallow seed boxes in the Q
greenhouse on March 3,. Most of the newer introduc- .
$7 tions obtainable are included in this collection, as well as  sti
  a considerable number of the old standard varieties  i
    which are retained for comparison. ,_,
  · In accordance with our practice heretofore, in order to  A
l obtain uniform conditions for the varieties, the plants, _` 
after removal from the seed boxes, were grown in pots.  Q
_ On March 23 the seedlings were transferred to 2% inch  .
  pots, and on April I2 were again shifted to 3 inch pots  —.
{ (the rose pots, so-called, which are 4 inches deep), in  Q
P which they remained until set in the field, May 5. Upon A 
, this date the plants were vigorous and stocky, and since  i
» in pot culture the roots are not mutilated in setting, they .
continued to grow without much check.
The plot upon which they were grown received a fair g
coat of stable manure before plowing, and a few days
4 after the plants were set a good supply of a complete
fertilizer was sown broadcast, and hoed and cultivated

 f-H
az
  No/es on Vegeméles. 5 A
» into the soil, and again on june 6 a light application of · i
O fertilizer was made and cultivated in. T
, Ten plants of each variety were used in the test, and
A were placed in rows 5 ft, apart and 4 ft. apart in the rows. I
, The soil was frequently stirred with a horse cultivator _ · '
  and hand hoes until the vines had completely occupied
 _ the ground.
, The tender growth of the tips of the vines was some-
p what injured in the snow of May zoth, but in a short
j time the plants were again growing vigorously. Owing
, to the excessively hot and dry weather of july and _
 A August, the tomatoes ripened very slowly during that
V time, and were also rather small for the same reason.
As the fruits ripened they were picked, counted, and
; weighed. Owing to the fact that during previous seasons _1
V the tomato rot had been quite prevalent, and in order to —
_ determine if certain varieties had greater immunity from °
 t rot than others, accurate records were also made of the i
  number and weight of rotten fruits, and the ratio be- ,
:‘  tween the weight of rotten fruits and the weight of per-
, fect fruits will be found in the table which gives a
 A detailed record of the variety test. '
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 A N0/es mz Vcgelaé/es. 9 _
As has been noted before in discussing varieties of .
G vegetables, the list of nfty-one named kinds in the above T V
table does not by any means indicate that there were l
fifty-one distinct varieties in our experiment plot. Many
` of these kinds are so much alike that the closest inspec- {
Y tion fails to reveal any distinguishing characters, so that · `
in many cases the different names indicate at the most
 Y only different strains of the same variety. i
lt will be observed from the table that the varieties
  which were first to ripen fruit were the Essex Hybrid,
  Gold Ball, and Michigan, which showed ripe fruit on june
J 25, nearly two weeks earlier than the first ripe fruits
 j upon any variety of the preceding year, although the
  seed was sown only four days earlier than in 1893. This
  greater earliness must have been due chiefiy to differences
 { in the two seasons, as all other conditions of growth were ·,
  as nearly alike as they could be made. `,
  The fact that one or two fruits ripened upon each of _
  three varieties three days earlier than upon a consider- V
 if able number of other varieties which commenced to ripen l
  June 28, should not be considered proof that these ‘
  three are as a whole earlier varieties, since these ripe _
 ,`_ fruits were found only upon one or two of the lot of ten
  plants. Of the three varieties mentioned, the Gold Ball I
  is H Small yellow kind which is only suited to special
  11565. and cannot be considered a general purpose variety- ·
 ' I In considering the quality of earliness in a tomato, it ,
· is evidently important to select varieties, whether for i
  h0m€ use or for market, that will produce a c0¤Sid€Y3bl€
 _, number of fruits early in the season while prices are ·
if hlgll, father than one which will produce merely the
l` €aYli€Sf ripe fruit. From this standpoint several Oth€1‘
varieties are more valuable as producers of early fruit
than the three varieties mentioned above.
Among those producing the most fruit before Aug. r
are the ten plants of Table Queen, 26 lbs. 8 ozs. (although

  W" , .
Kill  
i
ii  IO Kenlucky Agricultural Experzuzent Stalian. ·3
  not ripening its first fruits until july 2); Early Ruby, 26
  lbs.; Atlantic Prize, 25 lbs. 1 oz.; Acme, IQ lbs. 6 ozs.;
“ Conqueror, 17 lbs. I4 ozs.; Fordhook First, 17 lbs. 4 ozs.,
i- l and Early Cluster, 17 lbs. 3 ozs. ` ‘ 
i ` I The most productive varieties np to the time of killing ,1
ig., ` frosts are,—-Table Queen, 108 lbs. IO ozs.; Early Ruby, 107  i
,   , lbs. II ozs.; Conqueror, 102 lbs. 5 ozs.; Crimson Cushion,  i
.   101 lbs. 5 ozs.; Cardinal, Q7 lbs. 13 ozs.; Trophy, 96 lbs.  »
W i. 8 ozs., and Ten Ton, 90 lbs. 8 ozs -
° The largest varieties in the list are,-Ringleader, ave-  .1
` rage weight, 6.75 ozs.; Crimson Cushion, 5.4 ozs.; Pon-  if
" derosa, 5.2 ozs.; Table Queen, 4.5 ozs. A
. The varieties showing the smallest proportion of rotten  _
l_ ( to perfect fruits are,-—-Gold Ball, 1 to 102 ; Dwarf Aristo-  
l7*·_ . _1 crat, 1 to 17.3; Early Ruby, 1 to 14.7; Northern Light, 1  5
lk l to 13.1; Ringleader, 1 to 10.8. if
L ‘ In examining the table it will be seen that in several  ,
~,y instances the earlier varieties are among the list of largest  it
  _ producers, and this is in some cases doubtless because they  ,
  are earlier, so that they can ripen all, or nearly all, their  i
C   fruit before the first killing frost in the fall.  j
if L The following additional notes upon certain varieties,  
which from one cause or another have received special  A
notice, may be of interest.  .
  ATLANTIC PRIZE, ]. & S. Plants are of medium size,  e
" rather slender and open in growth. Fruit red, of medium  
  size and generally smooth, although a few were angular  1
and ribbed, quite firm and one of the largest producers  _;
i in the first six weeks.  5 3
' BEAUTY, Livingston. One of the purple tinged stand- T 
ard varieties. Fruit round, smooth, firm, of medium ,
size, ripens evenly and fairly productive.  
BUCKEYE STATE, Livingston. Introduced 1893. A
_ vigorous grower, producing a good quantity of larg€
· crimson fruit (av. weight 3.3 oz.) Ripens well at stem.
smooth and firm. An excellent late variety.

   I
`. N0/es an Vegelab/es. rr
CARDINAL, Maule. Plant vigorous. Fruit red, smooth, .
ripening well around the stem, of fair size and produc- I ,
_, tive. A good standard variety. ‘
i A CONQUEROR, Ferry. One of` the earliest and most pro-
 } ductive varieties. Fruit rather small, and somewhat g
  irregular and ribbed. - A
4 CRIMSON CUSHION, Henderson. A vigorous grower, y
 A crimson color, ripening well at stem, firm, but consider-
j ably ribbed. A heavy producer. Much like Ponderosa
  in general characters, and with us more productive.
· DWARF ARISTOCRAT, Livingston. Plant short and
_ stocky, with a tendency to grow erect, although not self-
}  supporting. Fruit has a purple tinge, is very smooth,
 j firm and ripens evenly. Not very productive as compared
ir with individual plants of other sorts, but its habit of
growth allows closer planting. Freer from rot than any i'
  other variety of standard size. Superior for the home 4
 at garden. ·
 ¤ EARLY RUBY, Harris. Plants slender and of open Q
 F growth. Fruit smooth and firm, ripening well at the p i
 g stem. One of the three most productive, both in first six
i  ; Weeks and in the entire season, and also one of those pro- A-
 — ducing the least rotten fruit.
 gi - ESSEX HYBRID, Ferry. One of the earliest in ripening. ·
lv   Fruit smooth and firm.
A  = FORDHOOK FIRST, Burpee. Vigorous grower. Fruit '
I  p` red, smooth, ripening well up to stem, but not very solid. *
is  ° RlP€¤S a good proportion of its fruit the first six weeks. l
1-  » » With us seernsto possess no special merit.
m p IGOLDEN QUEEN, Ferry. A standard yellow variety,
P flpens evenly, smooth and firm.
bi ` IGNOTUM, Ferry, A variety which in many places l13S
ge ll€€¤ pronounced one of the best general purpose varie-
¤ UBS, but with us during the past season has not been
m` PYOflU€tlVe, and was more subject to rot than any other
variety grown.

 ii. lt `
gf  I2 Kmmcky Agrzculmnzl Experzmezzz Sialzoxz.
  LEMON BLUSH,ThOI‘l)11fH. As grown here, this yellow
{ variety is almost identical with the Golden Queen and
jh has shown no marked superiority over that variety ex- _
i i cept that it ripened three weeks earlier.
  · MANSEIELD TREE, Maule. A vigorous grower, but no .
aj; ` more tree like than some other strong grower Fruits - if 
, ‘#__,.. , rather larger and firm, but considerably ribbed, and only A
,   . moderately productive. A
A MICHIGAN, Ferry. Plant vigorous, producing a red, _
Y firm and smooth fruit, which ripens well to the stem, and  
is among the earliest. l 
l` NICHOL)S NO. 5, A. M. Nichol. Plant of the potato leaf V
Q type. Fruit purplish red in color, ripening evenly, round,  
in , smooth and solid. An excellent variety of its class. ,i_
ii` · .   NORTHERN LIGHT, '1`horburn. A dwarf, strong-grow-  
X · ing sort, of recent introduction. Fruit slightly purple  _
tinged, smooth and firm. Very much like the Dwarf  in
, Aristocrat, and like that variety, is comparatively free  A
  _ from the rot.  g
  RINGLEADER, Dreer. Plant large and vigorous. Fruit  if Q
ifi" red, very large and solid, but showing some tendency to A _
i irregularity in shape. "  i
TABLE QUEEN, Henderson. A vigorous grower, with  “
large crimson fruit; solid, but somewhat ribbed and an-   i
·-; gled The most productive variety in our plot, both in  ` C
if first six weeks and through the entire season. if Q
V POT OROWN VERSUS uFLAT” GRO\\’N PLANTS.  . fl
A This experiment was undertaken to determine which  Q ti
° of the two methods of growing plants would give the  
best results, growing them in seed Hats,-—shallow boxes FE
of any convenient size (those used by us are I4X2O i¤- I X8
and about 3 in. deep), or in pots. When grown in pow N
— the plants can be transferred to the open ground without W`
i disturbing the roots, thus avoiding any check to the El
V growth of the plant. W`ill the results of this method of G

 — Naies 072 Vega/ab/es. I3 _
handling pay for the extra labor, and expense for pots ·
which is involved? To test this question, seeds of Liv- ,
_ ingston’s Favorite and Perfection tomatoes were sown for
`  A both lots in a seed fiat, March 3. When the seedlings
had their "second 1eaves," I5 plants of each were set in !
f  seed flats 4 in. apart, and at the same time an equal num- ·
 ‘ ber of plants were set in 2% in. pots, and later on shifted 4
 e to 3 in. rose pots (4 in. deep).
,Both lots of plants were set in the field May 5, and
the results are shown in the table below.
.  Date Of gmt Average Average Average
    ripe fr¤¤¤· / ““l?E§2 °f “€$‘i§‘$5’°’ 0r.I§’.§`l€lLl...l
  / per plant fruits. It
 i KXT. PUT. FLAT. POT. FLAT.} POT. FLAT. POT. 1
. lbs. uz. lbs. oz. lbs. oz. lbs. oz.  
 ; Favorite ....     51 53 7 6 8 .5 2 5 2 8 5
Z  V Perfection- July 30) July 26 38.5 52.3 7 3 /8 10 /3 ;210
>  g "  V-
  It will be seen by the above table that the gain in
l   y1eld per plant by pot growing is quite decided; in the '
· . case of the variety Favorite, being I5 ozs. per plant, and
F1 H  with Perfection 23 ozs., or almost 1% lbs. per plant. The A
i effect upon the earliness of ripening and the size of the `,
 V fruit seems to be very slight, if any, as the results in the i
I   two varieties do not agree.
lg   Experiments of this kind need several repetitions to
as establish trustworthy conclusions, but the evidence so
il { far obtainable seems very favorable to pot grown plants.
tg 1 While the expense and extra labor of this method
ut would probably preclude its adoption in tomato growing
he HP0? 3 lélfge scale, it is probable that in the home gal'-
Of den it would be found a very desirable plan. .

   V .
@ 4 ··l
32 . V V
  Q I4 K eulucky Agrzm/tural Experzmeut Slatzmz. ·
ra
Ll
2 EARLY VERSUS LATE SEED-SOWING.
i In order to determine the most favorable time for start-
V ‘ ing tomatoes to secure. the best results, seeds of Living-
E ` L ston’s Favorite. tomato .were sown in seed boxes at
ir; ` intervals of ten days, beginning Feb. 7, until eight con- .
, ky secutive sowings had been made. _
.   The plants were grown in pots, and the first four lots  -
I ‘ required transplanting three times, and the remaining
’ lots twice, before finally setting in the field. The first Q
` five lots were set in the field at the same time as the .
` plants of the variety test, May 5, lot 6 on May 17, while  
Q lots 7 and 8 were not placed in the field until ]une 13,.
‘ ( Fourteen plants were used in each lot, and the following  .;
lk , _   table gives the detailed results of the experiment:  
h B l l E E2  ‘
1 °· · 2 E'}; - 3 if
* as >3 e egg Q,  
` "‘ El ra :-4 m '
._ - ¤ ·- an 0 of 2 Q  
Q} ~= f is *5% Mr 2:;  `
L     "* ·= `S 3 Yi E. if E En  Y
» 4:** r *7 ° il. 5 — Si: ‘°*¤
  1 r .. $.1 ‘ E     EEE at  `
; H. E, gz ¤·E :3. F., Q--5  »
  .¤ S wh ¤v·-— cu 5 3 »3  ,
l ei E ¤ $*1,; &f°,-id ”§f’,¤g“§   ·
‘ °° cn is ¤ B`?. $1 P6 wd; Ec
*5 Q gp r>j§ >___ 53 ;>_____·§_ L-; _
—7, J5 2 2 :5+5 ¢ > < O m 'i+-= E3; 3,3
E ga? Ss Q gv $s'E—.‘
LY , <.E