xt79zw18pf93 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt79zw18pf93/data/mets.xml Echols County, Georgia Georgia Historical Records Survey 1940 Prepared by The Georgia Historical Records Survey, Division of Professional and Service Projects, Work Projects Administration; Other contributors include: United States Works Progress Administration, Division of Professional and Service Projects; vii, 46 leaves: maps and plans, 28 cm; Mimeographed; UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries; Call number FW 4.14:G 296/no.50 books English Atlanta: The Survey This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Georiga Works Progress Administration Publications Inventory of the County Archives of Georgia, Number 50 Echols County (Statenville) text Inventory of the County Archives of Georgia, Number 50 Echols County (Statenville) 1940 1940 2015 true xt79zw18pf93 section xt79zw18pf93     Fw LM:
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 ] INVENTORY OF THE COUNTY ARCHIVES
F OF GEORGIA
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Atlanta, Gcorjio
_ The Georgia Historical Records Survey
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 The Mistoricel Records Survey Program ? _ _
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l Sargent E. Child, National Director ( mlP1S
H. Cecil Hill, Assistant State Supervisor in Charge T Chlve
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i Florence Kerr, Assistant Conmdssioner J thG_p
g Blanche H.`Relston, Chief Regional Supervisor A desle
‘ Jene Vcn De Vrede State Director Q SOUTC
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Yi R. L. HecDougnll, Stete Administrator Q
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W The Inventory of the County Archives of Georgia is one of a number of
W bibliographies of_histbYical nmtefials prepared throughout the United States
1 by workers on the Historical Records Survey Program of the`dork Projects Ad-
Q ministration. The publication herewith presented, an inventory of the ar-
T chives of Echols County, is No. 50 of the Georgia series.
· I
lm The Historical Records Survey Program was undertaken in the winter of
Q l955-56 for the purpose of providing useful employment to needy unemployed
{ historians, lawyers, teachers, and research and clerical workers. In carry-
I ing out this objective, the project was organized to compile inventories of
{ historical materials, particularly the unpublished government documents and
Q records which are basic in the administration of local government, and which
p provide invaluable data for students of political, economic, and social his-
Q tory. The archival guide herewith presented is intended to meet the require-
Y ments of day—to—day administration by the officials of the county, and also
Q the needs of lawyers, businessnwn, and other citizens who require facts from
1 the public records for the proper conduct of their affairs. The volunw is so
_ designed that it can be used by the historian in his research in unprinted
{ sources in the same way he uses the library card catalog for printed sources.
A The inventories produced by the Historical Records Survey attempt to do
Q; more than give merely a list of records — they attempt further to sketch in
{ the historical background of the county or other unit of government, and to
l describe precisely and in detail the organization and functions of the gov-
W ernment agencies whose records they list. The county, town, and other local
d inventories for the entire county will, when completed, constitute an ency-
j clopedia of local government as well as a bibliography of local archives.
A The successful conclusion of the work of the Historical Records Survey
hl Program, even in a single county, would not be possible without the support
ji of public officials, historical and legal specialists, and many other groups
tg in the community. Their cooperation is gratefully acknowledged.
lg The Survey Program was organized by Luther H. Evans, who served as
gy Director until March 1940, when he was succeeded by Sargent B. Child, who had
Fl been National Field Supervisor since the inauguration of the Survey. The Sur-
fé vey Program operates as a Nation-wide series of locally sponsored projects in
ci the Division of Professional and Service Projects, of which Mrs. Florence
Qi Kerr, Assistant Commissioner, is in charge.
$€ F. C. HARRIHGTON
¤W Commissioner
A
F  

 M
ji Pasrlcs
j The Historical Records Survey in Georgia was organized in October 1956,
¥§ as an independent State unit of the Nation—wide Federal Project No. l of the
,} Works Progress Administration, under the supervision of Dr. Luther H. Evans,
Q? National Director. The project at the beginning was set up as a part of the
Qi Federal Writers' Project, and is indebted to Mrs. Carolyn P. Dillard, State
fe Director of the Project, for its initiation. Miss Annie Laurie Hill was in
*§ charge of the Historical Records Survey as Assistant State Supervisor under
lj Mrs. Dillard until November 1956, when the survey was separated from the
Yj Writers' Project. Raiford J. Wood was named State Director in November 1956
Qi and served in such capacity until July 1959, at which time Philip Warren was
Qi placed in charge of the project. On September l, 1959, the transfer of the
vi Survey from a Federal project to the status of a State-wide project was ef-
jl fected. Mr. Warren resigned as State Supervisor of the project September _
{Q ll, 1940, and the present writer was named Assistant state Supervisor in
*j Charge.
ix
Q2 The principal objective of the Survey in Georgia is to prepare complete
gd inventories of the public archives of the State and its political subdivisions,
ii and to make readily accessible to research students and historians this large
gi store of source material. Such a survey should greatly aid and encourage a
fl more systematic study of local governmental structure and should point the way
Aj to an improvement in the methods of storage and preservation of both current
gi and non-current records.
v»
vi  -‘` The arrangement of agencies in Part B of the inventory classifies them
gi according to governmental function; Administration; registration of property
Q} titles; administration of justice; law enforcement; finance; elections; educa- .
Nj tion; health; welfare; public works; and miscellaneous. Records are classi-
ti fied, in general, according to the agencies which make them, unless other
Hi disposition of the records is directed by law. Under agencies, records have
T, been classified insofar as possible, according to the subjects with which they
  deal .
ti Records are described in entries whose style is formalized to give the
fj following information; Title of record, dates for which available, quantity,
fd labeling of volumes or containers, information on missing records or discon-
fi tinuance, variant titles, manner of arrangement, indexing, and location.
3H These title—line entries differ from full entries used in other County Inven-
ii tories in that they do not give a description of record contents, nature of
{Q recording, or size of volumes or containers.
Yd The Survey is now engaged in preparing a comprehensive statement of the
if general law regulating county government, to be entitled County Government ip
ri Georgia. It is expected that this book will serve as a handbook on the organ-
if ization, structure, and evolution of county government in Georgia, and will
¥@ make it unnecessary to repeat certain items of general information in the
ji Various inventories. The office essays in this inventory are, therefore, lim-
13 ited to the creation of the office and its present status, the manner in which
if it is filled, the term, and special legislation affecting Echols County.
if Pending issuance of the volume on County Government in Georgia, it is suggest-
ya 6d that the reader consult the Inventory of the County Archives pf Georgia,
 J

   V ·
if Preface
I 
lu
yH No. 8l, Jefferson County, for more detailed essays than those found in the
 x EEhoIs County inventory.
 F3
ig The Inventory of the County Archives of Georgia will, when completed,
Tg consist of a separate,—numbEred—v5Iume—for—eaEh_EouHty in the State. Each
E county unit of the series is numbered according to its respective position
ri in an alphabetical list of Georgia's l59 counties. Thus, the Inventory of
Q Echols County becomes No. 50, in accordance with such list. The inventories
Q of the State archives, of municipal and other local records, will constitute
Q separate publications.
T The Survey was begun in Echols County in September 1958, and the initial _
yd field work was completed in November of that year. The initial inventory was
Q rechecked in May and June of 1940. For the completeness and accuracy of the
in inventory of the records, the field workers are responsible. The essays, en- C
Q tries, and other sections of the Inventory were prepared by the State Office
  starr.
E The Georgia staff has profited in all phases of its work by the construc-
Q tive advice and criticism of the National Office. This inventory in manu-
yj script form was edited by Mabel S. Brodie, assistant archivist in charge of
·% public records inventories, of the Washington, D. C., office.
 % The publication of this volume is made possible through the assistance
ij rendered on behalf of Echols County by the Commissioners of Roads and Revenues.
td The valuable assistance rendered by other officials of Echols County is also
QE gratefully acknowledged.
 i Grateful acknowledgment is also made for the aid given by the various A
ih workers and officials of the State and District offices of the Work Projects
lj Administration.
In
`  1
E} N. Cecil Hill
fi Assistant State Supervisor in Charge
_€ The Georgia Historical Records Survey
Tw
IQ Atlanta, Georgia
“§  _,‘,  September l940.
,  x

  
§
ij TABLE OF CONTENTS
*. 1.
is Introduction
F? Page
gi I. Echcls County Historical Sketch . . ............,.. l
E, Maps of Echols County . . . .................. 6
wv Population of Echols County 1860 to 1940 . .......... 7
Ny 2. Governmental Organization .................... 8
QQ Chart of Echols County Government . .............. lO
ti 5. Housing, Care, and Accessibility of the Records ......... ll
Q? Floor Plans of Echols County Courthouse . . .......... 15
pi 4. Abbreviations, Symbols, and Explanatory Notes . . ........ 15
iii Echols County Offices and Their Records ‘
lg I. Board of Commissioners of Roads and Revenue ......... 18
is Minutes. Receipts and Expenditures. Audits.
xg II. Superior Court Clerk as Ex Officio County Recorder ...... 18
ii Real and Personal Property: Deeds and Mortgages;
JQ Land Title Registers. Trade Names. Professional
  Registration.
wi ·
QQ III. Superior Court and Clerk . . ....... . . ........ 20
{T Civil; Case Papers and Pleadings; Dockets; .
W} Subpoenas; Minutes and Proceedings. Criminal:
li Case Papers; Dockets; Grand Jury; Subpoenas;
il Minutes and Proceedings. Voters, t
Ir l
lj IV. Solicitor General . . . . . . ................ 22
Mw
il
{Q V. Jury Commissioners . ..................... 22
gg VI. Grand Jury . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . 25
CQ VII. Inferior Court ........................ 25
Ji VIII. Court of Ordinary and Clerk ................. 24
ii Minutes. Wills. Estates; Case Papers; Let-
gl ters, Representatives of Estates; Dockets;
ji Bonds, Representatives of Estates; Inventories
QQ and Appraisements; Widows Years Support; Sales;
fi Returns. Lunacy. Marriages. Homesteads and
qi Exemptions. Official Bonds. Pensions and Con-
Qi federate Records. Spirituous Liquors. Licenses.
ig Vital Statistics. Marks and Brands. Newspapers.
fj IX. County Court ...... . ................ . . 27
rf X. County Court Solicitor ....... . .......... . . 28
Ty XI- Criminal Court . . . . . ........ . . . ....... . 28

   vii
H Table of Contents
g XII. Justice of the Peace Courts . . ............... 29
V 904th Militia District. lO58th Militia
Ig District. l2llth Militia District.
Q
"    I   I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I q g • q g g g q g g  
iw XIV. County Attorney . ........... . ......... BO
F; XV. Coroner . . . . ........ . .... . . . . . . . . . BO
IQ
E  XVII   I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  
Qi XVII. Tax Receiver . . ......... T . . . .... . . . . 51
Ei;  {
i_i XVIII. Board of Tax Assessors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
ig XIX. Tax Collector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 52
H
@3 XX. Fiscal Depository . . . ....... . . . . . . . .... 35
    I   I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  
iw
,  g
Qig XXII. Board of Education . . . . ..... . . . . . ...... 54
n g
fil XXIII. Superintendent of Schools . . ........ . . . . . . . 54
 Yj Financial Records. Reports. School Tax. .
  HWI       I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  
I
jj XXV. Department of Public Welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
pai Cases. Applications. Investigations.
Iii Special Assistance. Financial Records.
gi XXVI. Road Commissioners . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
   
    I C     I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  
ijXXVIII. County Agricultural Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
    • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  
ii Chronological Index . . . . . . . . . ....... . . . . 42
IFQ Subject Index ........... . ........ . . . 45
   

 N
gy l. ECHOLS COUNTY HISTORICAL SKETCH
yi IT  Creation and Boundaries
;.§ i
yy Echols County was created on December 15, 1858, by an act of the
tj General Assembly of Georgia,(l) the one hundred and thirtieth county to
;£ be laid out in the State.(2) The new county was formed from territomr
id formerly embraced in Lowndes and Clinch Counties, and was named in honor
LE of Robert M. Echols, of Walton County, who was at one time President of the
yy state Senate and a colonel of the Georgia Regiment during the Mexican Nar.
yy (Z) The original boundary of the county began at a point on the Georgia-
fj Florida line directly south of the confluence of Suwanoochee Creek and the
UQ Suwannee River, up the Suwanoochee to Jack's Ford, then on a direct line
{Qi to Griffin's mills on Cow Creek, along that creek to the Alapaha River,
rj from there on a direct line to Carter’s Ford on Grand Bay Creek, along 4
’;j this creek to its junction with “Mud Swamp" (Mud Creek), from that point
jg due south to the Florida line, and along this line to the commencing point.
ii t°i  (4) Since the creation of Echols County, the line with Lowndes County has
yjj been changed on three occasions, adding three lots of land and parts of
TQQ two others to Lowndes.(5} The present area of Echols is 562 square miles,
yy or 25l,68O acres.(5]
  Flxwgal ¤..h.e.rr~i_<>f¤..¢r.ia’=2.i.·as
ity Echols County is centrally located in the extreme southern part of
iti Georgia on the Florida line. Except for its southern boundary, it is
yfi irregular in outline, the greatest length being from east to west. The
tl? county is bounded generally on the north by Lanier and Clinch Counties,
jfé on the east by Clinch, on the south by the State of Florida, and on the
ly} west by Lowndes County. The land of Echols County is flat and the soil A
{gg is sandy. The county is better adapted to the growing of tobacco and to
ifi the producing of naval stores than to any other agricultural and industrial
gt? operations.(7) None of the rivers of the county is very large. The Su-
llé wannee River flows through the swampy southeastern corner of thc county,
tig and into this famous river flows all of the drainage of the county. The
Ei; Alapaha River flows from north to south through the western section of
;§y the county, eventually emptying into the Suwannee River into Florida.
]Y§ Grand Bay Creek is a tributary of the Alanaha. Toms Creek and Suwanoochee
,,§ Creek, the latter forming the northern and eastern boundary of the county,
—f§ both flow in a southeasterly direction and empty into the Suwannee River.(8)
fg ............ . ._....___.................
yfé l) Ga. Acts 1858, np. 57-40.
IEQ 9) Ga. Code of IQSB, j2Z-lOl. ·
~Y§ 62 Adiel Sherwood, A Gazetteer of Georgia..., Fourth Edition (Nacon,
  cracrrin, and A+;i§n’¤?if`?~£B”r`;&`i`e`j issof, sz.
°§ 4) Ga. acts ISSS, p. S8.
  5)   Ac-as isaac, P. l¢ll; mss, p. .24, icvi-7, p. an;.
QGQ 6) Qand McNally Commercial ntlas..., Seventy-first Edition (Chicago,
  NeF‘Ym~"k, `s§n"ii~?§i€$@E, C. ia/io), ies.
jid 7) Information from the United States Geological Survey, Georgia School
ll§ of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia.
féé 8) United States Geological Survey, (Map of) State of_Georgia, A. F.
{Qi Hassan, cartographer (compiled in l952).
wi
»s

   2 ·
i Historical Sketch (First entry, p_ 18)
s
N County Site and County Buildings
gg The act creating the county attached Echols to the Brunswick Judicial
if Circuit, the First Congressional District, and the second brigade of the
Q Sixth Division of Georgia Militia. Harris Tomlinson, Guilford Register, and
é William B. Cruise were appointed commissioners to purchase a tract of land
E and lay out a county seat at the expense of the new county. The inferior
fg court was empowered to do this work if it had not been completed by the com-
li missioners at the time the members of the court had been elected and qualified.
by Persons entitled to vote were to meet on the first Monday in April 1858 "at
tf Troublesome and the several precincts now established within said new county,"
{fi and to elect county officers.(1) The election was accordingly held and the
Epi first officers of Echols County were commissioned by the Governor of the State
ygg on April 15. Jesse P. Prescott was elected clerk of the superior and in-
yyé ferior courts; James S. Carter, sheriff; James P. Y. Higdon, ordinary; John ·
{Eg E. McMu11in, tax receiver; Samuel E. Prescott, tax collector; James Carter,
yji treasurer; Duncan McLeod, surveyor; John Sellars, coroner; and Noah H.
(s` Griffin, Robert Prine, John P. Allen, James R. Miller, and Joshua T. Carter,
ga? justices of the inferior court.(2) i
Wif i
(PQ A year after the creation of Echols County, Statenville, the county
{yi seat, was incorporated by the General Assemb1y.(5) The town was named
lng for Captain James W. Staten, the first representative in the Georgia legisla-
iii ture from Clinch County.(4) Statenville was a small settlement and post
QYi office on the east bank of the Alapaha River, previously known as Troublesome.
iii (5) The county site extended one-half mile from the courthouse in every
tm direction. Jesse P. Prescott, John T. Allen, R. W. McA1haney, Benjamin
fig Stalsvey, and James S. Carter were appointed the first commissioners of
FC; the new county seat.(6)
);% There is practically no extant information relating to the early court-
Lg, house or courthouses of Echols County. Since the act incorporating the county
gf seat mentions "the Court House,“ it is likely that a county building was
yi? erected within a year after the creation of the county. Whether or not this
TV? first courthouse was the only one erected between 1858, the date of the
tp' creation of the county, and 1897 is not known. However, on the afternoon of
y*g December 51, 1897, the Echols County courthouse was destroyed by firo.(7)
tig Apparently most of the county records prior to 1898 were destroyed.(8)
@@3 ·———-— — -——-—--——-- · ····················
Fil l) Ga. Acts 1858, p. 58.
[Q; 2) Folks Huxford, History pf Clinch County, Georgia... (Macon, Georgia,
  isis), 42. _
tT° 5) The town is incorrectly named btatesville in the printed and engrossed
{ig act of incorporation. This error has not been corrected by a subse-
§§§ quent statute. However, by common consent the town is known officially
lf? as Statenville. An act passed in 1877 relating to the sale of liquors
yy correctly calls the town Statenvi1le.—-Ga. Acts 1859, pp. BOO-202; 1877,
gtg p. 188.
Vi§ 4) Huxford, op. cit., 42.
  5) sne.~wO¤a,”§p_."_&;`;., si.
yii 6) Ga. Acts 1859, p. 201.
I?} 7) Minutes, Commissioners Roads and Revenues, vol. 1, 1898-1925, p. 1,
(ll see entry 1.
ij? 8) For those records antedating 1898, see entries 6, 9, 24, 66.

 4% 3
5 Historical Sketch (First entry, p. 18)
Ll 
Ei In March 1898 the grand jury of the county recommended that the
gf question of a new courthouse be dropped for the vear,(1) but in September
$@ of that year another grand jury recommended that the county commissioners
Ng take steps to rebuild the courthouse as soon as they were able to raise
tj the necessary funds.(2) In the meantime the grand jury used the Masonic
ti Lodge Hall for its meetings and court was held in a church. ln April
tl 1898 the county commissioners ordered that a storehouse owned by T. C.
gf Ham be rented at $1.50 a month for use as a temporary courthouse.(3) Act-
QQ ing in pursuance of the recommendation of the September grand jury, the
t° oounty commissioners ordered that 25 cents on the $100 be levied for build-
M. ing a courthouse.(4)
tig 
tt Finally, after calling for plans and specifications, the commissioners
QQ let the contract for the present courthouse to L. W. Mattox in June 1899.
tt (5) The cornerstone was laid with Masonic honors, and on September 15, 1899, V
ti the county accepted the two-story wood courthouse from the contractor.(6)
tm ln spite of the new building, Echols County still had no safe place to
fg keep its records. In 1908 a grand jury recommended that the board of
ji commissioners "make some arrangements to establish a perfect device, or
tt some safe place for keeping and maintaining the official books of our
J County 0ffices."K7) Since then a vault has been added to the present
é bui1ding.(s)
li Early in 1900 the board of commissioners let a contract to L. W.
[Q Mattox for a jail which was completed in May of that year.(9) Eight
QQ years later the board decided to build a new jail, and on May 9, 1908,
H? awarded the contract to the Southern Steel Company, of San Antonio,
MY Texas.(l0)
u
tf Eppulatipn and Growth
it A year after the creation of Echols County the total population was
tf less than fifteen hundred persons. Of this number about 20 percent were
EQ Negro slaves,(1l) a small number as compared with the cotton belt counties
K1 of Georgia. In 1860 there were 121 farms in the county, nearly all of
  “'‘‘‘’‘”’‘‘‘'‘‘''''''”'''' ' ''''''''' ` ' '
ii 1) Minute Book (Civil and Criminal), vol. A, 1898-1914, p. 15, see
ff entry 22.
Qi 2) ibid., sv.
yy 3) Minutes, Commissioners Roads and Revenues, vol. 1, 1898-1925, p. 5,
li` see entry 1.
je 4) ibid., ii.
gi s) ibid., 21. A
{S s) ibid., 2s, 29.
ld 7) Nights Book (Civil and Criminal), vol. A, 1898-1914, p. 575, see
lf ent 22.
hi' 8) Forrg description of the present courthouse and vault, see Housing,
MR Care, and Accessibility of the Records, infra, p. 11.
Q{— 9) Minutes, Commissioners Roads and Revenues, vol. 1, 1898-1925, pp. 55,
pj 38, see ent 1.
it io) Ibis., 145,r149, iso.
Fi ll) §ee—Popu1ation of Eohols County 1860-1940, infra, p. 7.

 :6 
  4
t§Historica1 Sketch (First entry, p. 18)
glwhich were less than 100 acres in size.(1) These farms produced compara-
fQtively little cotton, but considerable quantities of subsistence crops
Mysuch as corn, sweet potatoes, and sugar cane.(2) The small number and
Q‘the small size of the farms in Echols County prior to the Civil War is
y further indicated by the labor supply of Negro slaves. There were only 49
)% slaveholders in the county, owning a total of 514 slaves. A third of
T these slaveholders owned only one Negro each; thirty owned less than five;
itand only nine owned ten or more.(5)
After the Civil War the true value of real and personal property in
E Echols County was placed at $550,000.(4) The improved and unimproved
lacreage in the county increased somewhat in the decade from 1860 to 1870,
gbut the cash value of farms showed a decrease of more than one—half.(5)
{Soon after the Civil War the county began to produce naval stores. By
gl800 the number of persons in the county was more than twice the number .
lat the time of its creation. The greatest increase was among the Negro
gpopulation.(6) This increase was doubtless due to the development of the
lnaval stores industry.
§
g The economy of Echols County has always been rural and principally agri-
lcultural. In 1955 there were 250 farms in the county, of which 7 were oper-
iated by Negroes. More than 50 percent of the land area of the county was
{ laid out in farms, the average size of which was approximately 281 acres.
l The farms of the county, including buildings, were valued in 1955 at $520,276,
' and the average value of farm land stood at $7.41 an acre. Approximately 18
y percent of the farm land is available for crops, and 82 percent is in
Q pasture or woodland. More than 60 percent of the farms of the county are
& fully owned by the operators.(7)
M Eohols County produces comparatively little cotton, only 110 bales
{ having been grown in 1954. Considerable amounts of corn, sugar cane, Irish
if potatoes, and sweet potatoes are raised. In 1954 the county produced 106,255
§`pounds of tobacco. In recent years the livestock in the county has in-
Y creased, especially cattle.(8)
I The development of the naval stores industry has taken place in Echols
C County almost entirely since the Civil War. The production of naval stores
Q in Georgia reached its height around 1890.(9) The development and decline
f of this industry largely accounts for the increase and subsequent decrease
6 1) Eighth Census of the United States, 1860, Agricultupe pf the United
Yf States, 196.
3 2) Ibid., 22-25. `
.  5) IE6., 226.
E 4) Ulnth Census of the United States, 1870, III, EQ2 Statistics pf the
5 Qealth and Industry of_the United Statei, 22.
Q.  5) IEEE; 1`éU."`°"" ` ‘
j> C) See Population of Echols County 1860-1940, gpfra, p. 7.
it 7) U. S. Department of Commerce, Pureau of the Census, United States
F Census of Agriculture: 1955 (Uashington, 1956), I, 498.
;  8) ibid., Hs`§`T€é€T ` ""“ ‘
L 9) Qamble's International Naval Stores lea; Book fp; 1950-51 (n.p., n.d.),
w 65.

  li 
  5
t `/`Hj.StO1”lC8.l Sketch (First entry, p. 18)
`jof the population of the county. At present between S0 and 90 percent of
ithe owners of trees from which rosin and turpentine are made are cooperat-
~;jng with the Naval Stores Conservation program of the Federal Government,
iwith a total of 1,419,000 "faces" or cups in the county.(l)
yl Between the years 1890 and 1920, the population of Echols County re-
gmained almost static. in the decade from 1920 to 1950 the population
gshowed a decrease of nearly 14 percent. Preliminary reports show an in—
éorease of eight percent between the years 1950 and l940.(2) Today the
~§eounty is the smallest county in Georgia in population, the only county in
lthe State with less than three thousand inhabitants.
{
`I
§
3
 
 
4
3
3 .
 
Mi
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wl
N
 
Q1) Information from the United States Forest Service, Atlanta, July, 1940.
E2) See Fopulation of Echols County l€C0-1940, infra, p. 7.

   6
ig ? --
  ¤ if Q Y
      7 s, Q  
7  r i °’ \ 1
  _       Current map of Georgia
  _ ~ y showing location of
  I ~l_ ' X/\' \ Echols County (shaded)
1 i —- I I \ there in .
  — ~ f
E l , "
    \\
il L   ..1 J Y 1
`   4* __‘l___R ,*2 _,/·’
l   j\ “ \   ( "7 Lb-7
, ~   1 \ < c 7)
g l _ —_- (lc;   ,/E   _\   \ /'\·-,§
A l I ’ ·]   " (Y;
  /—   */`{TT`—,_l \§ /L)\4_f \.\9
  -- J   51 N
§ I, {   The boundaries of Echols
  __ ___   C \·» County have been changed
  %` “ 3 several times by the Gen-
@7 j eral Assembly, but the
g changes were not great
  enough to indicate on a
EQ map of this size (Ga. Acts
    ..s.m.m..,m4.o....u,...m.o,.. , mo,.o . ...,.,.4m..,,...o , ,t4.4 . 4.uot.m....l..Ay......,ts, . ....n.t..,o,.,,,,.4..,,,.4..,...4...,.,o.o.,......4.4...,..m.,.....,tm..o,   1888, pp. 87-40; 1880, p.
  Q 5 l / l l4l; 1888, p. $4; 1877, p.
  { 5 y ,,4 \ 276).
    QI] ! `7 ` `\ cL|N€.H \\\  
C, €_§___ +4-* HAvLo~   F_i*8Uw;»i~ `_  
      -P——` 4.,1 4. FK l;JITL;I:7$_ -——·\\ \   ·
V . 2   _,. `\   % 7
— _ s)   i’*·4A, R, \· 2
1 U \‘~£<>(,, _ \     ~
E I q· [ \x€.€~~ C’·?£ '\ it ° 7
li , 7T l \»_ wx`? X ii .l;L I
lj gi U \:. \ x x. .
1 f  , 5 8 c M11 o \ L 8 K    
t  <= xg \\ ~ if
8  . I STATENVILLE lg   VN"/\\   X ,
  - Q 3 I n~,__\` egg? .0. ll  
1,  '_______;     \ 0,1* N 1, "__,_ `
j  ,   \ ‘   ‘“     ,
_  { [FLORIDA l ""C `“i` .
  F ,.,,..,,       .,., 1.,   i, .     ..     ·· .. 8 , ,.,.   ..   1
  Current map of Echols County

 .5* 
EQ (First entry, p. 18)
  I
lit POPULATION OF ECHOLS COUNTY 1860-1940
l i
)§1 Free Persons
wo Year `Whites of Colon__ Colored Slaves Totals
iQ` 1) 1860 1177 0 514 1491
4f) 2) 1870 1513 465 1978
 49 5) 1880 2055 500 2553
\.~ 
M
up 4) 1890 2059 1020 3079
Q, 5) 1900 2218 991 3209
  6) 1910 2319 990 3309
91 7) 1920 2267 1046 3313
[Z 8) 1930 1899 845 2744
  9) 1940 9 2964
mg 1) Ninth Census of the United States, 1870, I, Statistics of the Population,
  20-22. __`
  2) 1516.
Q; 3) Eleventh Census of the United States, 1890, Report on Population of the
 § United States, Part I, 14, 406. I
1;  4) 15'"‘16'." ""‘“°
)f 5) Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, Population, II, 380. t
1;  6) Ibid.
T1 7) Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, Population, III, Part I, E
g,  482. y
  8) 1516. ,
1; 9) Summary of Preliminary Population Figures for the State of Georgia; 1940 l
 § Release of September 3, 1940 . 1
U  ~ P
11 
 
ti 4
li  ,

   i
gi (First entry, p. 18) 1
`Q 
ig 2. GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION I
[ 1 _
pg U The Georgia county is a civil division of the State for judicial and
pg political purposes; a local organization invested with certain functions I
yi of corporate existence.(l) The county serves as agent of the State in the
wi collection of taxes and cooperates in the promotion of public health, edu-
tq cation, welfare, and the enforcement of law.
tg Counties were created by amendments to the constitution which, until
cj the year 1904, were limited in number to the 145 then existing.(2) Since
yi that date 16 additional counties have been created a re atin 161 but
., _ 7 » 88 S 8 »
pl the merger in l9e2 of Campbell and Milton Counties with Fulton reduced the
pj numbertof iounties Ec 159, the present number.(5) There are no limitations
pl or res ric ions as o size, population, or taxable values in the creation
j,Q of counties.
  »
 é  _·V dred and twent -nine counties h d be n f d ` t D —
yy One hun y a el orme prior o ecem
gg ber 15, 1858, the date Echols County was oreated.(4) The county was at-
fj tached to the Brunswick Judicial Circuit, the First Congressional District,
El and the Second brigade of the Sixth division of Georgia Militia.(5)
M1 The inferior court was vested with complete authority over county V
M) affairs for the first 10 years of Echols' existence as a county.(6) Upon `
w" the abolition of the inferior court in 1868, this jurisdiction was placed —
MF in the ordinary,(7) and in 1875 vested in a board of commissioners of roads
pf and revenue.(8) County affairs were again in 1885 placed under control of ,
as the ordinary,(9) who retained this authority until the_reestablishment of
mj the commissioners in l895.(l0) »
QQ Functioning in Echols County at the present time are the following
ti courts, officers, and agencies; A board of three commissioners of roads and ‘
E; revenue, in charge of the administration of the business and affairs of
tf the county;(ll) the superior court, the highest State court of original 1
yy jurisdiction, with exclusive jurisdiction of land title, divorce and equity
pi causes, and all crimes amounting to fe1onies;(l2) the clerk of this court, 1
pj in addition to his dut