xt7b2r3nw88w https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7b2r3nw88w/data/mets.xml Williams, Roger D. 1905  books b92-147-29449968 English Williams, : Lexington, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Fox hunting. Hunters (Horses) Hunting dogs. Horse and hound  / by Roger D. Williams. text Horse and hound  / by Roger D. Williams. 1905 2002 true xt7b2r3nw88w section xt7b2r3nw88w 

  M. F. H. Iroquois Hunt Club,






           Roger D. Williams.
     Master of Foxhounds, Iroquois Hunt Club.
     Keeper Foxhound Stud Book.
     Director National Foxhunters' Association
     Official Judge Brunswick Hunt Club.
                 AUTHOR OF
           "The Greyhound."
           " Old Times in the Black Hills."
           - Wolf Coursing."
           - The Bloodhound."
           " Horse and Hound."

             LEXINGTON, KY.,



    I Am aware that many ideas and views ad-
vanced by me are at variance with those of other
writers, especially from an English standpoint,
but they are honestly given as seen, and practi-
cally experienced in the field and saddle during
a quarter of a century's riding to hounds. I have
also availed myself of the opportunity to discuss
many of the intricacies of the game through in-
tercourse, correspondence, and association with
some of the best known fox-hunters in the coun-
try, so this book can hardly be called a one man's
ideas. I make no pretense of being an authority
or past grand master of the art, but merely give
my observations, whether they coincide with
those of others, or not.
   The indulgence of the reader is solicited for
the crudeness of style, and plain method of writ-
ing. No attempt having been made to make this
a technical text-book, scientific or classical treat-
ise, but to make it as clear to the novice and be-
ginner as to the expert; I trust my efforts in this
line may not cause the average reader to say that
much more might have been entertainingly and
instructively told in half as many pages.
 This page in the original text is blank.



   I. HUNTING,                                9

   II. THE HUNTER, -   -    -   -    -   21

 III. SCHOOLING OF HUNTERS,  -   -    - 30

 IV. CROSS-COUNTRY RIDING, -   -   -    42

 V. FALLS,     -   -    -   -   -    - 53

 VI. WOMEN IN THE FIELD,   -   -   -    56

 VII. THE HOUND,         -    -       - 71



 X. TRAINING HOUNDS, -    -   -    -   I I I

 XI. THE KENNEL,    -    -   -   -    - 119

 XII. SCENT,  -   -    -   -    -   -   143

XIII. THE Fox,  -    -   -    -   -   - 152


XV. IN THE FIELD,   -   -   -    -   - i66

XVI. HUNT CLUBS, -     -   -   -    -   193

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     P. F. COLLIER.

M. F. H. Meadowbrook Hunt Club,
         New York.
 This page in the original text is blank.


   "Warnub by t4e strreamutt ltgt ansb uerry lark
   INrtli ruslrb tlte lolyg park; witt tuneful tlroats
   9lrI rarar loub, anb in granb rlornu joinrb,
          Oalute tlt new-born bag."

   THE sport of hunting wild animals upon their
native heath, whether with hound or gun, is the
natural recreation of man. Love of hunting in
its different phases is one of the strongest char-
acteristics of the human race, the principles and
methods of which were instilled into our remote
ancestors and rightly inherited by us; and he who
has once tasted the sweets of fox-hunting is its
devotee for life, thus proving the old adage,
"Once a fox-hunter, always a fox-hunter."
   The system once having absorbed the love
of the chase, it can never be eradicated. Every
man, however, who goes hunting is not neces-
sarily a fox-hunting enthusiast, as is proven by
those who return as soon as the fox is afoot and
the social preliminaries are over-thinking doubt-
less fox-hunting is a most fascinating and en-
viable pursuit in the abstract.
   To real sportsmen the mere killing of the fox
is no gratification. The excitement and pleasure
of the chase and the health-giving exercise are

Horse and Hound.

its chief attractions, besides there is no sweeter
music on earth to the ear of the hunter than the
harmony of the tuneful chorus of eager hounds
in full cry, blending with the mellow horn.
   The following tribute to the good qualities of
a fox-hunter, by "Martingale," I feel sure will
not be out of place here:
   "It has frequently been remarked that the
heart of a fox-hunter is invariably in its right
place, that with him there is more ingenuousness,
more candor, more generosity, more vigor in
thought as well as in action, than can be found in
men who are pent up in crowded cities. This
peculiarity is easily explained. Although the fox-
hunter may not be enabled, like the magician of
old, to tell the footfall of Aladdin amid the tumul-
tuous roars, the noisy life currents, or life streams
of a dense community, he can do more on the
score of perception and penetration than the
dweller immured in the smoke of furnaces and
steam engines and the roar of machinery, or those
who are chained to the desk from morning till
evening, or nailed to a counter like a bad penny.
The laws of visible fact may be appreciated by
men whose god is gain and whose worship is the
jaggrandizement of self, according to the nicest
calculation of fractions infinitesimal, but the fol-
lower of hounds possesses that vigor of frame
and vigor of action which have their invariable
accompaniment in vigor of mind and vigor of


                   Hunting.                   II

conception, one yielding to the promptings of the
other and perfectly harmonizing in themselves."
    Fox-hunting is not only a recreation and
amusement, but a science and an art in which but
few ever obtain proficiency. It is one of the few
sports that is not more or less tainted with pro-
fessionalism. It eminently encourages compan-
ionable qualities in man, is conducive to health
and good fellowship, and is frequently the means
of cementing strong, lifelong friendships.
   Courage, skill, and perseverance are all the
outcome of excitement and ardor engendered by
the chase, and are qualities that should be en-
couraged and fostered in every man. As to its
effect on the youth of the country, "Scrutator"
wisely says:
   "Fox-hunting has been compared to warfare,
and what better school could be found to prepare
our youth for the battlefield It makes them
good horsemen, teaches them to look danger
boldly in the face, to disregard falls, hard knocks,
and bruises, inures them to undergo fatigue with
cheerfulness, wet and cold without flinching, and
braces their hearts and nerves for bolder enter-
prises. In a national point of view, therefore,
as tending to the welfare of the State, fox-hunt-
ing is entitled to much greater support than it
meets with."
   As to its antiquity the fox appears to have
been one of the very last victims of the chase,

Horse and Hound.

brought about, doubtless, by the lawless slaughter
of the boar, wolf, and stag.
   Though the Rev. Wm. Chafin, in his "An-
ecdotes Respecting Cranborn Chase," states that
Thomas Hownes, of Steepleton, Dorsetshire, had
a complete and celebrated pack of foxhounds in
1730. The earliest recognized pack of hounds
maintained exclusively for fox-hunting that I
can find any authentic record of, is the Belvoir,
which can be traced back to I750; the Pytchley
Hunt being organized about twenty-five years
   As to the extent of fox-hunting in Great
Britain as a national sport, the following figures,
while certainly startling in their magnitude, are
vouched for by a most reliable English authority,
and if they err at all, it is upon the side of mod-
eration rather than exaggeration.
   There are in Great Britain and Ireland, ac-
cording to the kennel lists, 360 packs of hounds
(exclusive of Beagles). The total is made up
as follows: Staghounds-England, I7; Ireland,
9-24.    Foxhounds-England    and  Scotland,
i66; Ireland, 23-i89. Harriers-England and
Scotland, i i9; Ireland, 28-147. Total, 362.
   Now, assuming that these 360 packs have an
average of moo supporters, owning three horses
each, we have a national hunting stud of io8,ooo.
The value of these horses, of course, varies
hugely; the wealthy man of i8 stone considers

1 2


                          COL. H. C. TRIGG.
                          M. F. H. Trigg Hounas.
12                             Kentucky,
 This page in the original text is blank.

                  hunting.                 t  

the hunter which can carry him well to hounds
cheap at 1,750 or 2,ooo; while the lighter man,
of shorter purse, thankfully mounts his i0 or II
stone on a nag of one-sixth the price. The average
value of these io8,ooo hunters is 400, which
can not be considered extravagant, and thus we
have a total sum invested in horseflesh of 43,-
200,000. These 36,ooo hunting men want some-
thing in the way of clothing and saddlery, and
it is not lavish to ascribe to each the possession
of i50 worth of clothes and boots, and of I25
of saddlery and stable furniture; but even this
modest allowance produces the handsome total of
9,goo,ooo invested in necessaries. Taking the
value of each pack of hounds as 2,500, we get
a total of 9oo,ooo; granting to each hunt i0
horses, at 250, for the servants, we get another
900,000; and putting the value of the hunt serv-
ants' clothing and saddlery at 305 each hunt,
we add to the foregoing items 99,ooo. Omit-
ting the value of stable buildings and kennels,
which is difficult to guess, we cast up the figures
above given, and we find the gross total i,ooo
short of 55,ooo,ooo.
   As to the size of individual packs, as hunted
in England at the present time, the average is
probably io couples, though the Belvoir has 66
couples, and the Duke of Beaufort 75 couples of
hounds. As to the value of hounds in England,
an idea may be formed when I state that Mr.

Horse and Hound.

Osbaldeston sold Lord Middleton IO couples for
i,ooo guineas, and refused iooo guineas for 5
choice hounds, including the famous Furrier.
   In this country, the largest packs are the
Orange County with 35, Meadowbrook 46, Rad-
nor 48, and Eatontown Hunt with 50 couples of
hounds. The average is about Io couples, but
unfortunately there is no way of calculating the
total number of packs in the United States. I
am more familiar with the packs of Kentucky,
and think ioo packs would be a conservative es-
timate of the number in that State alone, being
an average of less than one to the county, and I
know of as many as a dozen in several different
   In this country, since the earliest days of
colonization, the sport of fox-hunting has thrived
with unflagging, in fact, increasing enthusiasm.
Our early ancestors, especially in Maryland, Vir-
ginia, and Kentucky, were devotees of the sport,
and every country gentleman owned his pack of
hounds and stable of horses; but the first organ-
ized hunt club, on the order of an English Hunt,
was in i877, when ten couples of hounds were
imported and drag runs were made on Long
Island. They afforded probably more amuse-
ment to outsiders than to the participants, who
were caricatured and held up to ridicule by the
press and illustrated papers. However, this sport
found favor in the eyes and hearts of the riders



of the East, and soon drag hunts were had near
many of the Eastern cities. Thus a desire for
cross-country riding was created which has de-
veloped into the successful hunt clubs of the East.
It has never been popular in any other section of
the country, and is absolutely unknown in the
South. A Southern hunter would as soon think
of gratifying his sporting ambition by tossing up
a dead bird bought in the market and shooting
at it, as in running a drag, and the devotee of
drag-hunting considers many of the fox-hunting
customs of the South and West equally as absurd
and amusing.
   Hunting in certain portions of New England
is certainly unique. There is none of the form,
ceremony, glamour, and glitter of the uniformed
hunters, and sleek, beautifully caparisoned thor-
oughbreds of the Eastern clubs, nor the reckless,
dare-devil, noisy riding that characterizes the
Kentucky and Southern hunter. Clubs are formed
for the purpose of shooting foxes. They go to
covert in large "barges," each hunter with his
trusty shot-gun across his knees. They take posi-
tions on a runway or stand, until the coverts
resemble the business end of a battleship; the
hounds are thrown in a swamp, and as they bring
out Brer Fox a bombardment opens up resem-
bling a Port Arthur attack and repulse. They
are as proud of trophies obtained in this way as
a schoolboy is of his first pair of red boots. It


Horse and Hound.

being considered a distinction beyond compare
to have one's name enrolled upon the official score
board as having killed two or more foxes during
a meet.
   South of the Mason and Dixon line it would
be unhealthy for a man to indulge in this sport.
They have an unwritten law in the South that
would almost justify a man killing another man
who even resembled such a hunter in personal
   The following hunting terms, used in the
United States, should be thoroughly familiar to
every one participating in a hunt, and as they are
necessary to a proper understanding of the fol-
lowing chapters, are given here at the outset:
   Stern, tail of a hound.
   Speaks, give voice on trail.
   Jumping powder, contents of drinking flask.
   Sinking, weakening before being overtaken.
   Ticklish scent, light uncertain trail.
   Break him, when fox is tossed to hounds to
   Check, hounds stopped.
   Uses, where fox runs or stays.
   Pottering, wasting time on old trail.
   Drawing, working or hunting a covert.
   Cold trailing, working an old or cold trail.
   Feeling the line, trying to work out cold trail.
   Cropper, fall over head of horse.
   Sorry looking, ill-shapen, bad conformation.

I 6


                            E. W. OVERBY.

                       M. F. H. Virginia Carolina-Hunt,

 This page in the original text is blank.


    Gone to ground, entered a hole.
    Hitting it off, recovering the line after a loss
or check.
    Mask, head of fox.
    Brush, tail of fox.
    Pad, foot of fox.
    Mute, running without giving tongue.
    Rioting, running wild and noisily.
    Tongue, voice of hound.
    Throwing tongue, giving voice.
    Lying, giving tongue when not on a trail.
    Lifting, taking hounds from where they are
working and placing them on the line at another
   The line, the fox's trail.
   Blank, no game in covert.
   Breast high, scent strong enough to enable
hounds to carry it with heads on a level with
   Fox chunk, excrement of fox.
   Bristles up, carrying long hairs along spine
   Eligible, three generations of pedigree.
   Breeder, party owning or leasing the dam at
time of service.
   Barred, not allowed in the chase.
   Cunning, leaving the trail and cutting across
to join the leading hounds.
   Burning scent, good, fresh trail.
   Hot trail, close upon fox.

1 7

Horse and Hound.

   Babbler, a noisy hound that gives tongue too
   Cast, swinging to right or left in search of
lost trail.
   Down wind, running with the wind.
   Challenged, gave tongue first.
   Up wind, running against the wind.
   Double, running to rear on same line.
   Throw it up, to quit.
   Skirter, running wide of pack.
   A loss, losing line or trail.
   Full-cry, when whole pack open up.
   Back tracking, running a trail backwards.
   A jump, raising the fox immediately in front
of hounds without previous trailing.
   Thrown out, one or two hounds losing trail
while others are running.
   Take off, finding trail after a loss or check.
   Coming in, returning to hunters.
   Go in, joining the other hounds while run-
   Marked, penalized for faults.
   Chopped, killed the fox.
   Cover or covert, wood or place where foxes
are located.
   Cub, young fox.
   Vixen, female fox.
   Dog fox, male fox.
   While many of the following terms are


strictly English, they are sometimes used in this
   Ware, cry to hound that is running or doing
   Hi-Hi-Hi, when overtaking fox.
   Crash, when all are giving tongue.
   Crop, hunting whip.
   Drag, scent left by fox on that morning.
   Dwelling, feeling a stale scent.
   Drafted, culled out.
   Earths are drawn, when vixen fox has drawn
fresh earth-proof she intends to lay her cub
   Feathering, waving tail.
   Cover hoick, throwing hounds into covert.
   Eloo-in, into covert.
   Yoi over, over fence.
   Edawick-Edawick, to make hounds draw in
   Yoi wind him,  
   Yoi rouse him  encourage hounds to draw.
   Yoi rouse him,)
   Hoick together, to get them together.
   Tally-O-Away, when a fox is viewed.
   Tally-O-Back, when a fox has returned to
   Yo-hote-yo-hote, when "check" to make
hounds hunt.
   Eloo-at-him, or, Tally-ho at him, when
hounds near the fox.


20          Horse and Hound.

   Foil, used when a fox runs the ground over
which he has been hunted before.
   Heel, when hounds run trail backward.
   Holding scent, when hounds can follow but
not fast.
   Mainearths, large breeding burrows.
   Mobbing a fox, taking him at a disadvantage.
   Stained, ground passed over by sheep.
   Streaming, hounds running like flock of
   Thong, lash of hunting crop.



    M. F. H.
    New York.

 This page in the original text is blank.


             THE HUNTER.
      "A gooWb Serif to an antmal mtt4 wany goob, ftm
           nbtfffntnt. ab no bab points.

   WHEN a youngster, my idea of a horse was
very similar to the average Kentuckian's idea of
the different brands of whisky-"all good, but
some better than others."  Unfortunately, not-
withstanding my love for the horse, close, per-
sonal contact with some certain specimens has
caused me to change my views very materially.
This change of sentiment may have been brought
about by the fact that I have probably owned
more than my share of the really bad (vicious)
ones. It got to be quite a saying at the thorough-
bred training tracks in Kentucky, if a horse was
a bolter, confirmed runaway, or too rattle-brained
to stand training, "Sell him to Colonel Williams
for a cross-country horse."  I have probably
bought dozens of such.  Among the lot some
turned out very well indeed, and only one, "Hick-
ory Leaf," I failed to subdue enough to at least
enter to hounds. The day before he was to have
had his first run in company he ran away with a
friend of mine and sent him to the hospital for

Horse and Hound.

weeks, so he was consigned to the harness brig-
ade, magnificent animal that he was.
    I have had more experience with thorough-
bred horses as hunters than any other breed, and
while for several years I considered them par ex-
cellence the best horse for hunting, I have
changed my mind, and now consider the half or
three-quarter bred thoroughbred the best strain.
The nervous system of a thoroughbred is too sen-
sitive. They have too much imagination, and it
responds entirely too freely when they draw upon
it. We all know how unreliable they are when it
comes to temperament and disposition. They may
be the aristocrats of the equine race, but not one
in a score has the disposition to make a hunter.
   I have known them to voluntarily obey every
demand of their rider for weeks as though dis-
cipline were their second nature, then upon the
first opportunity presenting itself, upset all his
calculations and theories in regard to horseflesh
by perpetrating some devilish trick entirely un-
worthy the esteem in which he was held. This
would cause me to exclaim, with the old darkey
whom the horse had thrown into the creek,
"That 's what makes me 'spize a hoss !"
   It is not an easy matter to select a hunter for
another, nor is it easy to even advise one intelli-
gently how to select a suitable mount. A horse
one man would think perfection another would
not have.




Typical Lady's Hunter.

Heavy Weight Hunter.

      g    M
 This page in the original text is blank.

The Hunter.

   Different riders demand horses especially
adapted by nature, disposition, size, and confor-
mation to their own peculiarities, therefore, in
selecting a hunter I would, above all things, give
preference to suitability. Then I would consider
disposition, next breeding, and lastly looks. Un-
fortunately, nine-tenths of the hunters seen in the
field in this country exactly reverse this order of
selection, laying more stress upon looks and
breeding than all the other qualifications com-
bined, forgetting for the time being that the
pleasure and enjoyment of the hunt are largely
dependent upon the horse you ride, and looks and
pedigree may stretch you in the ditch or hang
you upon the fence, while stamina, activity, and
a level head will keep you on the firing line.
   Therefore, my advice is, pay less attention to
the looks and breeding of your horse than you
do to his qualities as a hunter, and never, under
any circumstances, buy a hunter without giving
him a thorough trial in the field; jumping him
over an obstacle in a paddock as a trial is about
on a par with trying the accuracy and penetra-
tion of a rifle with a blank cartridge.
   While no animal is more susceptible to appro-
bation and flattery than a horse, I am one of the
few that believe horses as a rule are possessed
of a low order of intelligence, have absolutely no
courage, and naturally are the greatest fools.
Always nervous and apprehensive, they never call

2 3

Horse and Hound.

reason to their assistance. The noble traits of
character possessed by horses sounds well and
looks well upon paper, but      . However,
there is a great diversity of opinion as to the in-
telligence and courage of the horse. They cer-
tainly have mentality enough to appreciate kind-
ness and any sympathy shown them by mankind.
   A few words as to the treatment of a horse
in the field may not be amiss; though a man may
be accustomed to driving horses all his life, and
may occasionally amble through the park on a
well-mannered one, he wvill find it an altogether
different proposition upon a hunter in the field.
   Elsewhere, I have treated upon seat and
hands (the vitality of hunting). Next to these,
nerve is the most essential requisite to riding to
hounds. Loss of nerve causes nine-tenths of the
accidents in the field, and though the horse may
not possess a very high order of intelligence, he
quickly finds you out and never fails to take ad-
vantage of his knowledge; thus the horse fre-
quently knows the rider better than the rider
knows the horse. If the rider is courageous he
immediately recognizes it and the knowledge but
adds to his own courage.
   Horses are interesting to handle and study,
but difficult to thoroughly understand. How few
men ever understand or really appreciate a horse!
They do not go about it in the right way. The
great secret in handling a horse successfully is




First President National Fjx-hlart Associa-ior.
 This page in the original text is blank.

The Hunter.

to win his confidence, this once gained, retain it
at any sacrifice. Viciousness and stubbornness
can never be thrashed out of a horse; if you can
not gain his confidence by kindness and sym-
pathy, convince him by the Rarey or Gleason
methods that you are his master and will be
obeyed, and you wvill have no further trouble with
him. Nothing develops the equine intellect more
than close contact with men, therefore, make a
companion and friend of your horse.
    Never treat your horse in an indifferent, me-
chanical manner as though he wvere an "auto,"
if you expect him to be responsive and enter into
your sport with life and zest.
   In the selection of a hunter, if a kicker and
plunger or a stumbler, by all means choose the
former. A horse may kick or throw you off, and
as the old darkey said about being blown up on
a train, "Dar you is ;" but if he stumbles and falls
with you, it is as he said about being blown up
on a steamer, "Whar is you"
   While risk and danger incurred are factors
that add to the attractiveness of the sport, take
my advice and do not seek them through the
means of a stumbling horse.
   A horse that kicks at hounds (favorite pas-
time of the thoroughbred) is an abomination in
the eyes of all hunters, and if he can not be cured,
which is quite difficult to do, he should be put to
drawing an, omnibus-the sooner the better.


Horse and Hound.

Stabling him with hounds will not effect a cure,
for while behaving himself with the hounds he
knows, he will let drive at the first "outsider"
that comes within range. I know of no harder
task than explaining to an owner how your horse
happened to kick and cripple or kill his favorite
   A hunter is in his prime between the ages
of six and nine, and must be at least six years
old before one can expect hard service of him,
day in and day out, in the field. Have known
of hunters twenty years old that could hold their
own with a four-year-old in a long bruising run.
The average life of usefulness in the field is six
years, while some do not last the season out, bow-
ing a tendon in a few runs.
   As to size, the extremely large hunters have
never been popular with me. While the saying
that a "good big horse is always better than a
good little horse," carries weight with it, I am
partial to a 15-2 or I5.3 horse, if he has bone,
substance, and nerve force with it. Build and con-
stitution certainly have more to do with weight-
carrying ability than either avoirdupois or height;
tall men look better on tall horses, and small men,
vice versa.
   The average weight of a horse in hunting
condition, capable of carrying a heavy weight,
should be about 1,150 pounds, a middle weight,
I,050, and a light weight, I,ooo pounds. Sev-



LightWeight Hunter.

Medium Weight Hunter.
 This page in the original text is blank.

The Hunter.

eral things that I would impress upon my reader
are, never condemn a hunter on his looks, re-
member that a horse suitable to one kind of coun-
try and hunting may not be adapted to another;
that a horse's endurance is always limited by his
weakest part; and that the power of a horse only
increases with size, provided the relative propor-
tion and general compactness are maintained.
    I lay but little stress upon looks in the field.
However, it is a well-known fact that horses w:
both jumnp and run in all shapes, as is evidenced
by the performances of Decapod and Hats-Off,
two ill-looking hunters I sold in the East at nom-
inal sumis, which afterwards became famous
hunters. The case of Badge is also remarkable.
He was sold at auction and was such a "sorry,"
weedy looking specimen that he was bought for
a song. His purchaser gave as his reason for
buying him, that owning a race horse would en-
title him to a free entrance badge to the races.
lie was accordingly named "Badge," and proved
to be one of the greatest horses of his class, win-
ning a fortune which made his owner independent
for life.
   Few American-bred hunters have ever been
taken to England, but those which have, com-
pared most favorably with the English-bred
hunters, as have also the comparatively few
American riders who have hunted in England,
compared with the home talent.


Horse and Hound.

    In the selection or judging of a hunter the
following points should be considered.
    If a horse has a small, lean, finely chiseled
forehead, and rather wide nostrils, and small,
thin, evenly shaped ears, it is an indication of
high breeding, though a horse may show high
breeding without possessing qualities one would
naturally expect to be present, especially in a high-
class hunter.
   The expression of the eye generally indicates
the character of the horse. Narrow eyes, set far
back in the sockets, and those exposing much
white of eye frequently indicate vicious tempera-
ment. A round, full, mild eye in a prominent
socket indicates a tractable, bold, fearless dispo-
sition, qualities much to be desired in a hunter.
   Neck should be long though strong, placed
and carried more like the thoroughbred than the
harness or saddle horse. This allows one to lean
forward on the rise in jumping, so necessary to
balance of both horse and rider, without risk of
being struck in the face.
   It is absolutely necessary that a hunter have
long and oblique shoulders, they reduce the con-
cussion to both rider and horse, as do long, slant-
ing pasterns, and add to the years of usefulness of
a hunter afield.
   Feet should be straight, neither in nor out,
and elbows placed to insure perfect freedom of



       New York.
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The Hunter.

   Withers should be high, giving a surer and
firmer seat, and retaining saddle in place, yet
not sharp or prominent enough to become saddle-
   Back should be broad across the loins, well
ribbed up,-back is strongest when straight and
short, weakest when long and hollow-should
not be too long, yet a certain amount of length
with extra strong loin is necessary to enable a
horse to get his hind legs sufficiently well under
   Hind quarters as a whole should be deep,
long, full, and round, the hind legs furnishing
the chief power of propulsion. From rear, thighs
should be long and well rounded. From hocks
to fetlock parallel, and not inclined to "cow-
   While sickle hocks are much decried, yet it
is astonishing how many jumpers possess them.



     ALL quadrupeds in a wild state acquire a
knowledge of jumping as a matter of necessity;
the horse in its domestic state requires careful
and intelligent training to enable him to properly
clear obstacles with ease to himself and rider. A
horse which can not by proper handling be
taught to jump is deficient in either brains or
nervous energy, as it is natural for a horse to
answer to the demands of a stronger mind, es-
pecially when exerted through kindly enforced
   It has generally been the practice, especially
in Kentucky, to commence the schooling of a
hunter in his two-year-old form, but my friend,
Frank S. Peer, a most successful schooler of
hunters, goes us one better and advises the com-
mencement of the education of a hunter before he
is foaled, and continued throughout his suckling
   Horses seldom, if ever, bring reason to their
aid. Natural instinct, however, enables him to
learn by association with reasoning beings
(through absorption or close contact) things
which otherwise could not be instilled into him.

Schooling of Hunters.

    With undoubted confidence in his rider, a
horse can be induced to undertake most anything
which otherwise any amount of force or abuse
would not tempt him, under ordinary circum-
stances, to essay.
    If one wishes to commence at the rudimen-
tary principles of jumping, the horse should be
turned loose in a small paddock with bars open-
ing into another paddock. Put up the bottom
bar (not to exceed 12 inches) and drive him in
a walk over the bar. After having driven