xt7b8g8ffm2g https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7b8g8ffm2g/data/mets.xml Mutzenberg, Charles Gustavus, 1863- 1899  books b92hv6452k4m818992009 English Hyden Publishing Co. : Hyden, Ky. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Criminals --Kentucky. Vendetta. Kentucky s famous feuds and tragedies. Authentic history of the world renowed vendettas of the text Kentucky s famous feuds and tragedies. Authentic history of the world renowed vendettas of the 1899 2009 true xt7b8g8ffm2g section xt7b8g8ffm2g 









Thrilling arid Exciting Recital of Hand-to-Hand Conflicts, Street Fights, Battles, Ambuscades, Massacres and Officers' Raids.




hyden, ky.

   Copyright 1897


   CONTENTS. ,   o---

Geography and Early History of Kentucky, 12

Causes and Preventions of Feuds, IT

The Hatfield and McCoy War, 31

The Rowan County War, 89

The French   Eversole War, 148 

Many of the persons named in the succeec'ng chapters as having been connected with the feuds and tragedies described are yet alive ; some of them prominent in the communities in which they reside. I should, therefore, most sincerely regret if anything written in this history should cast an unjust stigma upon them or theirs. I have tried, with honest effort, to sift the truth only from the mass of material before me, yet I am apprehensive, that some misrepresentations might have crept into some of the narratives. But cince the highest courts sometime convict the innocent, or acquit the guilty, it cannot be expected of me, that I should be infallible. Those feeling themselves injured through any misrepresentation will please to accept my earnest and humble apology, and rest assured that explanations will be fully regarded and considered in future editions.

Having no personal feelings against any one connected with these feuds, casual errors should not be attributed to a malicious intent to injure.

Charles G. Mctzexberoh.

Hyden, Ky. 

The thrilling, exciting events recorded in the succeeding chapters were written to preserve, to some extent at least, local history of Kentucky. While the e-. vents recorded prominently display incompetency or wilful, criminal neglect of duty among those entrusted with the strict enforcement of the law, their preservation will be appreciated by future historians Coming generations will road the story of these feuds with tho same curious interest with which we peruse the stories of Kentucky's earliest settlement. Without a history of the deadly feuds, which have become world famous and given a most terrible significance to the name of " the dark and bloody ground, " the future history of Kentucky would be deprived of a faithful portrait of the conditions and state of civilization of this day and time.

It has been suggested, that Kentucky has been suf-ficiontly disgraced by scenes of carnage, bloodshed and anarchy, and that to record them in books only serves to increase and perpetuate the stigma upon our State. To this I answer:-

Newspapers report every crime, every scandal in minute details. For this they are condemned by those who believe that "Ignorance is Bliss;" who seek to deceive the people by prohibiting the publication of facts and and truth. These self-constituted 'Censors' of tho public press seem to forget, that experience has demonstrated beyond contradiction, that in combating evil 
   w a must first expose it and arouse the people to a realization of its existence. But for the Press the most glaring evils in politics, in churches, and in the administration of justice would nevor havo been disturbed. Through books and newspapers the will of the people is voiced; through these the public makes its demands; by these reforms have been inaugurated and accomplished, and given us the civilization of which we boast. To choke the press will never afford a remedy for existing vils, and it is a most significant fact, that no country,where the Press is hampered by restrictions, is enlightened.

History is a statement of facts, in other words- "a prose narrative of past events," and as such is the most instructive and, therefore, the most valuable literature and for the purpose of affording instructive reading this volume was written. If you find in its pages bloodshed, horror and anarchy, it is not the fault of the historian; let the blame rest upon those whoso duty it is to see, that law is respected, and its mandates are o-beyed. The responsibility for the disgraceful and terrible scenes depicted in the succeeding chapters must be assumed by those who are invested with power and have the means at hand to cut short, if not totally prevent, such outbreaks as have furnished the material for this book, and cannot justly be shifted upon the author, who merely relates facts, based on public records and documents.

Many feuds of large magnitude have been omitted for the present for reasons of public policy. In several counties, torn by feuds, actual warfare has ceased, yet the least pretext may renew the horrors of civil war, 
   and that pretext shall not be furnished by anything I may write.

Additional volumes will follow this one, but let us hope, that they will not require additional chapters of reeenl or renewed conflicts, but that in the future peace on earth, good will to jcen be the guiding motto of all true Kentuckians.

If through tho publication of this volume I have succeeded in making crime odious, in calling the attention of public officers and citizens to the havoc that may be wrought by supinely submitting to terrorization of an entire state by a small band of outlaws, when a timely and courageous interference would save blood, money, and honor; if I have succeeded in detering one from pursuing a course, which must inevitably lead to destruction, by illustrating the dangers invited by submitting to the evil spirit of passion and revenge, especially when intensified by the fumes cf the devil's brew; if the publication of this volume should accomplish even one of tho purposes for which it was written, I shall feel myself amply rewarded.

With these explanations and apologies I respectfully submit this work to the American people.

Charles G. Mvtzen3ergh.

Hyden, Ey., September, 18S9. 


   '~&0*s^eBD  Q>Q-     

Kentucky lies centrilly in the broad union of States, bordered on the west by tho Mississippi river, and north by the Ohio. Its Virginia boundary line on the east, and its Tennessee line on tho south, have their intersection at a point in the extreme southeast, where the Cumberland mountains reach an altitude of sixteen hundred feet above the level of the Gulf of Mexico. The two great river mains mentioned receive from this territorial surface the tributary waters of Big Sanday, Licking, Kentucky, Salt, Green, Cumberland and Tennessee rivers. From the lofty apex and slopes of this mountain range, which crosses southeastern Kentucky, begin the sources of theso tributary rivers which go to form the internal drainage system of the State. Diverging from the region of their common origin, but each finding a north-westerly course, all finally empty into the gentle and beautiful Ohio, and are borne southward by the channel of the great and turb.il Mississippi, i

This territorial area lies within latitude 36 to 39, north, and longitude 82 to 89 west. It embraces about forty thousand square miles   is three hundred miles in length from east to west, and one hundred and fifty miles in mean breadth. h    Smiths's History of Kentucky. 
   14.   Kentucky's famous feuds and tragedies.

face  of  the  country, etc. -

The fa.ee of the country presents every variety cf surface as well as quality of ^il. The region around Lexington embraces the largest body of fine lands in Kentucky; the surface being agreeably undulating, and the soil black and friable.

In Pilson's "Discovery, Settlement and pre ent state of Kentucky," written in 1784, the following no less glowing description of the country is given :

" The country is in some parts nearly level ; in others not so much so ; in others again hilly, but moderately   -and in such places there is most water. The levels are not like a carpet, but interspersed with small risings and declivities, which form a beautiful prospect. The soil is of a loose, deep, black mould without sand, in first-rate lands about two or three feet deep, and exceedingly luxuriant in all its productions. The country in general may be considered as well timbered, producing large trees of many kinds and to be exceeded by no country in variety, Those which are peculiar to Kentucky are the sugar tree, which grows in all parts, and furnishes every family with great plenty of excellent sugar. The honey-locust is curiously surrounded 'with- large thorny spikes, bearing broad and long pods in the form cf peas, has a sweet taste and makes, excellent beer. The coffee tree greatly resembles the black-oak, {.rows largo, and also bears a pod, in which is enclosed coffee. The pawpaw tree does not grow to a great size, is a soft wood, bears a fine fruit, much like a cucumber in shape and size and tastes sweet." Of the "fine cane, on which the cattle fjed and grow fat," he says: "This plant in general grows from three to twelve feet high, of a hard substance, with joints at eight or ten inches distance along the stalk, from which proceed leaves resembling those of the willow.    There are many canebrakes so thick and tall, 
   description of country.

1 5

that it is difficult to pass through them. "Where no cane grows, there is an abundance of wild rye, clover and buffalo grass, covering vast tracts of country, and affording excellent food for cattle. The fields are covered with an abundance of wild herbage not common to other countries, Here are seen the finest crown-imperial in the world, the cardinal fower, so much extolled for its scarlet color, and all the year, excojjting the winter months, the plains and valleys are adorned with a variety of f'owers of the most admirable beauty. Here is also found the tulip-bearing laurel tree, or magnolia, which is very fragrant and continues to blossom and seed for several months together, The reader by casting his eye upon the map, and viewing round the heads of Licking from the Ohio, and round the heads of Kentucky, Dick's river, and down Green river to the Ohio, may view in that great compass of above one hundred miles square, the most extraordinarj- country on which the sun has ever shone."

This is a glowing description of Kentucky as she was, robed in primeval beauty. The hand of man has been laid upon the forest, and the wild grandeur of nature succeeded by the arts of a civilized people. Kentucky as she is, presents attractions which are found in but few, if any other regions of the world. Situated in the very center of the American confederated states, beyond the reach of foreign intrusion    she is rich in a genial climate, rich in a prolific soil, rich in her agricultural products, rich in her beaut.ful farms and grazing lands, rich in the magnificent scenery and abundant ores of her mountains ; and, above all and beyond all, rich in a population at once industrious, enterprising, hospitable, intelligent and patriotic.c

c Collins' History of Kentucky. 
   16.   Kentucky's famous feuds and tragedies.

The present state of Kentucky was, prior to December 31, 177C, a portion of tho county of Fin-castle, in tho state of Virginia. By act of the Legislature of Virginia, from and after that day, Fincastle was divided into three counties   of which one was Kentucky, and embraced "all parts thereof which lies to the south and westward of a line beginning on the Ohio river, at the mouth of Great Sandy creek, and running up the same and the main or northeasterly branch thereof to the Great Laurel ridge, or Cumberland mountain ; thence south-westerly alcng the said mountain to the line of North Carolina."

In Ma)r, 1780, Kentucky county was divided in1o three counties   Jefferson, Fayette and Lincoln. Jefferson embraced "that part of the south side of Kentucky river which lies west and north of a line beginning at the mouth of Benson's big creek, and running up the same and its main fork to the head ; thence south to the nearest waters of Hammond's creek, and down the same to its junction with the Town fork of Salt river ; thence south to Green riv< r, and down the same to its junction with tho Ohio." Fayette embraced "that part which lies north of the line beginning at the mouth of the Kentucky river, and up the same to its middle fork to tho head ; and thence south-east to Washington line." L ncoln county embraced the residue of Kentucky county.

Another act, which took effect May 1, 1785, divided Fayette, calling the northern portion Tovrbon. August 1st, of the same year, another act sub-divided Lincoln, and formed out of parts of it the counties of Mercer and Madison. On the 1st of May, 1788, Mason county was formed out of part of Bourbon, and Woodford out of part of Fayette   thereby making four counties out of the original Fayette, two out of Jefferson, and three out of Lincoln. These nine counties comprised the Commonwealth of Kentucky when she formally entered tho sisterhood of states, on June 1, 1792, and from that date the History of Kentucky becomes merged with that of the Union. 


Causes and Prevention.


Many theories have been offered in explanation of the prime causes of the struggles described in the succeeding chapters. Some attribute them to the natu-' rally quick temperament, courageous, but revengeful disposition of all Kentuckians; others to the weak-kneed, inefficient administration of justice. Both theories are correct in part. To one or both may be traced the responsible cause of these feuds, which, from time time, have disgraced the fair name of the proud old Commonwealth of Kentucky.

Kentuckians are born fighters. Every inch of the Blue Grass State was wrested from the savages, who fought a long, terriffic, though useless struggle to check the advance of the hated intruders. When the pale face first invaded Kentucky it was a wilderness in the true sense of the word; the sound of the woodman's ax had never yet echoed through the hills. Immense forests covered the mountains and fringed extensive plains upon which grazed enormous herds of buffaloes. Along tho banks of numerous, beautiful streams, cane-brakes were alive with deer and other game of every description, while the dark recesses of the mountains afforded ample sport for the bear hunter.    Kentucky was indeed the hunter's paradise. 
   18     kentucky's   famous   feuds   and tragedies.

The splendid hunting grounds attracted large bands of hunters from the numerous Indian tribes, whose terriffic conflicts in attempting to drive each other from the coveted territory gave Kentucky the significant name of

"the dark  and  bloody ground."

For this reason settlement was extremely dangerous and hazardous, and the man, who feared danger in the many forms, in which it threatened the pioneer, was no desirable acquisition to the settlements. To maintain the slender foothold, the daring Boone and others had gained, every inch of acquired territory had to be defended, and held at all hazards. It was not possible to act in concert at all times, nor to rush to each other's assistance, the several "stations" being at considerable distances from each other. Thus every individual learned to trust in his or her courage. Hundreds of instances could be related where women and even children behaved with a presence of mind, and cool, calculating courage, as would put to shame many of the stronger sex. The farmer walked behind the plow with his riint-lock on his shoulder, his keen ear over on the alert for strange sounds. Many fell, but there was no time for sentiment and wailing. The dead could not be brought to life, but the murderer often met with swift and terrible punishment.

The peculiarly manifold dangers which accompanied the early settlement of Kentucky were not caleulatid to induce the cowards and effeminates of Virginia, Pennsylvania and other States to attempt settlement of the newly found paradise, but attracted the brave, the hardy element only.    For the brave hunter Ken- 
   pioneer days.


tucky offered the most tempting inducements ; the Indian fighter and adventurer had ample opportunities of satisfying his thirst for dangerous exploits, while the farmer found a country of unequaled fertility. If the whites were anxious to possess themselves of such a country, the Indians were determined to retain it, and every inch of advance by tho former was disputed by the latter. Every station in the State had its bloody conflicts, thousands fell to pave the way for others. For many years the awful conflict raged without intermission, but the skill, superior courage and determination of the pioneers at last conquered over savagery and barbarism, and gave to America one of the most attractive regions of the world, whose people gave to the Union heroic patriots and soldiers in all the wars of the republic, contributed to it the brightest statesmen that ever adorned the council halls of nations; orators and lawyers, the peers of their profession anywhere, men of science and of art, and women, whoso beauty and accomplished graces are a by-word, and give Kentuckians a just right to be proud of their state,

The sons of Kentucky's pioneers inherited their courage. Their sires had learned, by force of circumstances, to depend upon their own strong arm and unerring aim for the protection of home and life, to resent insult or redress injury without waiting for a weak and powerless justice. The sons followed in the footsteps of their fathers and were slow to understand that the law, the courts, should be appealed to in settling difficulties of any sort. Intercourse with the far advanced people of the East had much to do with 
      20      kenttjoky'8  famous  feuds  and tragedies.

molding- opinions more in accordance with modern ideas of right and wrong, while improved facilities enabled officers and courts to execute law. The Blue Grist section of tho state rapidly developed and became densely populated. The wonderful fertility of the soil, combined with the extraordinary industry of the inhabitants, created wealth and comfort, and with increasing prosperity came that high intellectual development so essential to peace and happiness. Schools and churches soon evidenced their existence, and proved their works by the refinement and greater social purity of tho inhabitants, Feuds in the Blue Grass have therefore become conspicuously rare, although some of the most advanced counties have had their share of miniature civil wars and frequent outbursts of bloodshed, but a prompt interference by the authorities quelled disturbances before they grew to dangerous propert ions.

In the mountain section of the state, however, the refinement and polished manners of the Blue Grass region have introduced themselves but slowly. The customs and habits of tho pioneer days and peculiar notions of right and wrong are but little changed, and cannot be easily changed in a country hardly invaded by a stranger. The mountain slopes and narrow valleys afford but a scanty living, and until recently schools and churches were few in number. Thus in tho latter part of tho nineteenth century we have a region in Kentucky where the inhabitants are untouched, or at least but little touched by the modern ideas that distinguish states of high development. Here in the mountains exists the simplicity of a hun- 
   eye  for eye,   tootu  for tooth.


dred years ago.

The person who has traveled frequently through the remote niountian section of Kentucky can find almost the identical customs, described in histories of early Kentucky, prevailing to-day. The mountaineer of to-day holds to tho same notions of redressing injury by his own means as did the pioneer in the days of the Indian. " Eye for eye, tooth for tooth " is considered the only principal that should govern in settling disputes. The complicated machinery of justice is too slow and uncertain for tho hot-headed mountaineer. He also finds from experience that the law, with all its power, fails only too often to bring the guilty to justice. He has seen men stained with blood emerge .from the Court-house, free to repeat their deeds of murder and violence, and he has lost the respect of the law necessary to uphold it. He prefers to put his trust in his rite, and if the destruction of his enemy necessitates such a step, he will adopt the same methods his ancestor employed when combating his sworn foe   the Indian,   he will ambush his enemy. Much has been said about the cowardice of the mountaineer on that account. AYe can hardly consider Boone, Kenton, Iiarrod, Estill or any of the great forerunners of civilizaticn cowards because they fought the foe from ambush. Their method is inherited by the mountaineer of to-day, the pioneer of the wilderness of Southeasicrn Kentucky. Men have resorted to this method cf ridding themselves of an enemy, who at other times exhibited the most heroic courage. I do not mean to uphold crime of any description, but I make mention of this 
   kentucky's  famous  feuds   and tragedies.

to show that tho peculiarities of the character of the mountaineer are inherent, and not the result of a cr liiinal nature altogether. As will be seen, many of the feudists, of which we speak in succeeding chapters, wore men of integrity, honesty and honor ; men who would scorn to commit theft or cheat their neighbor, but who could never be convinced that tho law had a right to tako from them the privilege of avenging the murder of a relative.

The murder of a man is sure to arouse the entire relationship of tho dead, and that means more than the casual reader might at first imagine. Mountain families are unusually large; in many counties everybody is akin to everybody else, and thereby hangs a tale. In this fact lies the chief explanation of the feudal wars that rage so frequently in the mountains. Not only does this extensive relationship draw many into the difficulties often originated by only one man, but it hampers the- interference of officers, inrinences the juries, the other side soeing the useless prosecution that would follow if tho case wac taken into the courts, would prefer to avenge the death of one of their clan by a more certain rule shot, from the bushes, if necessary.

Thus a conflict once begun is sure to involve the entire county in which it originated, spreading often to other counties, and through timidity of the law-abiding citizens, no matter how great their majority may be, these struggles last often for many years, If, however, the authorities intercede, after all the bloodshed and murder, we rarely hear of a feudist being hanged or sent to the penitentiary.    The knowledge 
   the  weak  ar1t  of  t1te law


that law is easily evaded, serves to continue the practices of the early pioneers donling with Indians. The law, by reason of its ineffectiveness to punish criino swiftly and surely, fails to inspire that respect which alone maintains it, and which alone could convert tho ideas and principles prevalent in the days of unorganized government. The law is respected by the mountaineer generally as much so as by the inhabitants of the cities. Theft, robbery, rape and arson are rare crimes among the mountaineers. These infractions of the law are frequently punished with the utmost severity. A jury may convict a hog thief upon the slightest proof, while the slayer of a human bjing is acquitted. This illustrates the theory that the mountaineer refuses to trust his safety and protection to the officers and authorities and seeks to rid himself of danger from an antagonist by killing him.

But why is it that the law is not enforced ' AVho is responsible for this state of affairs r The answer is this :

The responsibility must bo shouldered by the lawmaking bodies of the State, by the Circuit Judges and Commonwealth Attorneys of the various Judicial Districts, by the juries of the country, and the people. In every chapter of this book, where feuds are described and narrated, the utter incompetency or the willful and fagrant neglect of duty of civil officers must become painfully apparent to every reader. Nothing is more common than to find civil officers disregard their plain duties, either failing to issue process or failing to execute it when placed in their hands for service.    Citizens, when summoned to as- 
   '24      kentucky's  famous  feuds   and tragedies.

sist in the arrest of offenders, often fail and frequently refuse to oboy the summons. Yet no attempt is made to bring these infractions of the law before the notice of the Grand Juries.

Assassination follows assassination, yet the criminals are not arrested, travel the country at will, terrorize those who do not sympathize with them, citizens refuse aid to officers, yet their names are never reported ; sheriffs refuse to serve warrants, yet no action is taken against them. Circuit Judges and Commonwealth Attorneys often take sides in the trouble, persecuting one side and assisting the other to evade the penalty of the law. There is but one remedy, and that remedy lies in tho General Assembly, the law-making power of the land. Laws should be enacted indicting the severest penalties for the least violation of prescribed duties of officers, and providing especially for a prompt ejectment from office of those who are proven faithless to the trust to which they have bjen elected by a confiding but deceived people,

Nearly every governor for many years pist has advised and recommended the establishment of a department of justice, where tho conduct of all State officers may be under continuous ob icr ,'ation, yet the Legislature has persistently refused to act upon this sens'ble suggestion. This department of justice should be directly responsible for all infractions of the law by State officers, while Circuit Judges and Commonwealth Attorneys ought to be hold directly responsible for the conduct of the inferior officers in their district, if the Court fails to bring them to speedy justice.    By fixing the rosponsiblity primarily in high 
   punish   faithless officers.


places, by attaching the severest penalties and exclusion from office for the least violation of the prescribed and clearly defined duties, there would soon appear a manifest desire on behalf of the highest officers to hold their fat offices by making their inferiors do their full duty.

It is said that in Prance a railroad accident is a very rare occurrence. This is so because, when one occurs, somebody has to suffer. If the trouble occurs in the conductor's department, that official must suffer, if his subordinate cannot be proven guilty, if in the engineer's department, the engineer must answer. There are no ruch verdicts as "no blame attached to the officers of tho road." Tho responsibility is fixed somewhere, there is a starting point to investigate from. If the conductor is innocent, then his own interest in getting out of the trouble will assist in tracing the responsibility to the guilty party. They go by the principle, that it is batter that one innocent man should suffer, than that thousands be carelessly killed every year. As we have it in Kentucky, it means that it is better for a thousand people to suffer than to bring one guilty officer to justice. An investigation of faithlessness in officials in our State is like playing hide and seek among children, and whon the final report of the investigation is read, it seems as if there was not even a charge upon which to base the investigation.

What we need in Kentucky to prevent feuds is not only the scent of tho bloodhounds on tho trail of murderers, but a determination in dealing with them when they arc caught.    The difficulty lies as much in over-. 
   famous  feuds   and tragedies.

coming tho squeamishness of juries to tho end, that the sentence might be in keeping with the law, as in the capture of tha criminals. Even now jurors are selected from tho most ignorant class ; the man who accidentally reads of a crime in a newspaper is disqualified, so that in many cases only the illiterate class of men can qualfy as jurors. Tho man with no opinion of any kind and on any subject is the man to try the case. Such juries will acquit in the face of overwhelming guilt. It is very common to send a man to the penitentiary for stealing a razorbacked hog, while the same jury would acquit the red-haYided murderer.

Before such juries the artful presentations of lawyers would decide a case, evidence and instructions of the court being regarded as mere side-issues. Scores of the vilest criminals escape through the .skillful manipulation of technicalities by capable lawyers. After a man is indicted, the firs* strategic move in the case is postponement of trial from one year to another. The Constitution guarantees every man a speedy trial, but the criminal does not want a speedy trial. His safety is in tho wearing out of the prosecution, scattering of the witnesses or continuing the case until a number of them die or move out of the jurisdiction of the Court. The enormous cost incurred by constant continuances makes the filing away of the case desirable ; as the years roll by, public sentiment changes in favor cf tjie defendant and he goe3 free. A speedy trial should bj given the accused, whether he desires it or not ; the witnesses should be brought into the court whether the defendant has  money to 
   ineffectual prosecutions.

2 7

pay the sheriffs or not, and the law should make the dodging of a witness from attendance at court a severe offense, punishable by heavy fine and confinement. As it is, the Court is not rospocted, his mandates are constantly ignored. The criminal is shielded by the leniency of our laws. The result is the increased boldness of malefactors, an enormous drain upon our public treasury for the useless prosecution of cases that are never to come to an end until time has effectually weakened the prosecution, and softened the verdict.

Is it a wonder then, that outraged communities, seeing the arm of justice weak, resort to Judge Lynch for redress ? Is it surprising, that a man, hunted down like a dog by a band of relentless criminals, whom the law refuses, or dares not to molest, at last surrounds himself with friends and strikes bick at the enemy? Is is strange then, that we oftimes find representative citizens engage in a necktie party or in feudal war ?

Execute the law and feuds and mob? will cease of themselves. But as long as peaceful citizens are unprotected and exposed to the violence of desperadoes, just so long citizens will take the law into their own hands. We do not believe in feuds, neither do we belie ve in good citizens being mobbed by clans of remorseless murderers and rapist.

We desire also to call attention to the fiats, that not even the conviction of a murderer assures an outraged community of his permanent removal from society. A thief sentenced to the penitentiary stands a good chance of serving full time.    The niur- 
   28    Kentucky's famous feuds and tragedies.

derer, if by accident oonvictod for a number of years, enters the walls of tho Stato prison with recommendations in his coat pocket. Hardly has he donned the stripes when petitions for his pardon pour in upon tho Chief Executive, and suoh prossure is brought to bear upon him that ho is forced to believe in the justice of a pardon, turns the criminal loose upon the community he has outraged and blighted the hopes and happiness of homes.

The blamo cannot be shifted, exclusively upon the Chief Executive, who acts upon tho papers before him, and these are, strangoly enough, almost invariably signed by the jurors who convicted the criminal, by the attorneys who prosecuted him, by the judge who tried the case. A juror who signs the petition for the pardon of a man, whom but a few months before, weeks only, perhaps, he pronounced guilty of crime, admits the insincerity of his verd ct, and when we consider that a juror takes a solemn oath to render a true verdiet, the act of asking the Governor to pardon a man whom ho voted guilty in the jury r