xt7b8g8ffq49 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7b8g8ffq49/data/mets.xml Taylor, Richard, 1826-1879. 1879  books b9297373t21718792009 English W. Blackwood : Edinburgh Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Reconstruction. United States --History --Civil War, 1861-1865 --Campaigns. United States --History --Civil War, 1861-1865 --Personal narratives, Confederate. Destruction and reconstruction: personal experiences of the late war. text Destruction and reconstruction: personal experiences of the late war. 1879 2009 true xt7b8g8ffq49 section xt7b8g8ffq49 










WILLIAM  BLACKWOOD  AND SONS edinburgh and london mdccclxxix

All Rights resewed 

These reminiscences of Secession, War, and Reconstruction it has seemed to me a duty to record. An actor therein, accident of fortune afforded me exceptional advantages for an interior view.

The opinions expressed are sincerely entertained, but of their correctness such readers as I may find must judge. I have in most cases been a witness to the facts alleged, or have obtained them from the best sources. Where statements are made upon less authority, I have carefully endeavoured to indicate it by the language employed.





Causes of the Civil War   The Charleston Convention   Convention of Louisiana   Temper of the people, .     1



Blindness of the Confederate Government   General Bragg occupies Pensacola   Battle of Manassas   Its effects on the North and the South   "Initiative" and "defensive" in war, . . ..... 8



General W. H. T. Walker   The Louisiana Brigade   The "Tigers"   Major Wheat   General Joseph E. Johnston and Jefferson Davis   Alexander H. Stephens,       . . 17 


M'Clcllan as an organiser   The James River route to Richmond   Army of Northern Virginia moved to Orange Court House   Straggling   General Ewell     Bugeaud's "Maxims"   Uselessness of tents   Counsels to young

officers, iS      -. -        ;        . .30



The army moved to Gordonsville   Joseph E. Johnston as a commander   Valley of Virginia   Stonewall Jackson     Belle Boyd   Federals routed at Front Royal   Cuirassiers strapped to their horses   Battle of Winchester   A "walk over" at Strasburg   General Ashby   Battle of Port Republic, .        . . . . . . . 45



Clever strategy   The Valley Army summoned to the defence of Richmond   Battles of Cold Harbour, Frazier's Farm, Malvern Hill   Ignorance of the topography   M'Clellan as a commander   General R. E. Lee   His magnificent strategy   His mistakes,       . . ... .102


General Bragg   Invasion of Kentucky   Western Louisiana-Its topography and river-systems   The Attakapas, home of the Acadians   The Creole population,





Federal post at Bayou Des Allemands surprised   Marauding by the Federals   Salt mines at Petit Anse   General Pem-berton   Major Brent, chief of artillery   Federal operations on the Lafourche   Gunboat Cotton   General Weitze! advances up the Teche   Capture of Federal gunboats    3   General Kirby Smith, . . . . .141



Federal advance against Bisland   Retreat of the Confederates    Banks's despatches   Relief of Vicksburg impracticable    Capture of Federal post at Berwick's Bay   Attack on Fort Butler   Fall of Vicksburg and of Port Hudson,       . 166




The Confederate losses at Vicksburg and Port Hudson    Federals beaten at Bayou Bourbeau   Trans-Mississippi Department, its bureaux and staff   A Federal fleet and army ascend Red River   Battle of Pleasant Hill   Success of the Confederates   Perilous situation of Banks's army and the fleet,   ....... 192



The fleet descends Red River to Grand Ecore   Banks concentrates his army there   Taylor's force weakened by General Kirby Smith   Confederates harass rear of Federal column   The Federals cross the river at Monette's Ferry and reach Alexandria   Retreat of the fleet harassed   It passes over the falls at Alexandria,  .... 232 
   f *   .           '_______-



The Mississippi controlled by the Federals   Taylor assigned to the command of Alabama, Mississippi, &c.   Forrest's operations   General Sherman in Georgia     Desperate situation of Hood   Remnant of his 'army sent to North

Carolina,       ' . * ......




Fall of Mobile   Last engagement of the war   Johnston-Sherman Convention   Taylor surrenders to General Canby    Last hours of the " Trans-Mississippi Department," . 295



Gettysburg   Shiloh   Albert Sidney Johnston   Lack of statesmanship in the Confederacy   "King Cotton"   Carpetbaggers, ....     g&H     . 308


Interceding for prisoners     Debauchery and corruption in Washington   General Grant   Andrew Johnson   Stevens, Winter Davis, Sumner   Setting up and pulling down State Governments   The " Ku-Klux "   Philadelphia Convention, . . , .




Demoralisation at the North   A corrupt Vice-President   A hypocritical banker     A great preacher profiting by his own evil reputation   Knaves made plenipotentiaries   A spurious  Legislature  installed in the  Louisiana State 200 House   General Sheridan in New Orleans   An American

Alberoni   Presidential Election of 1876   Congress overawed by a display of military force, .... 344


The financial crisis   Breaches of trust   Labour troubles-295 Destitution   Negro suffrage fatal to the South,


Page 13, line 19 from top, for "Narces" read " Narses.' "   27,   "    2 "Dean"         "Canon."

" 324.         11     "Electro"       "Alecto." 



The history of the United States, as yet unwritten, will show the causes of the "Civil War" to have been in existence during the Colonial era, and to have cropped out into full view in the debates of the several State Assemblies on the adoption of the Federal Constitution, in which instrument Luther Martin, Patrick Henry, and others, insisted that they were implanted. African slavery at the time was universal, and its extinction in the North, as well as its extension in the South, was due to economic reasons alone.

The first serious difficulty of the Federal Government arose from the attempt to lay an excise on distilled spirits. The second arose from the hostility of New England traders to the policy of the Government in the war of 1812, by which their special interests were menaced ; and there is now evidence to

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prove that, but for the unexpected peace, an attempt to disrupt the Union would then have been made.

The "Missouri Compromise" of 1820 was in reality a truce between antagonistic revenue systems, each seeking to gain the balance of power. For many years subsequently, slaves     as domestic servants   were taken to the territories without exciting remark, and the " Nullification " movement in South Carolina was entirely directed against the tariff.

Anti-slavery was agitated from an early period, but failed to attract public attention for many years. At length, by unwearied industry, by ingeniously attaching itself to exciting questions of the day, with which it had no natural connection, it succeeded in making a lodgment in the public mind, which, like a subject exhausted by long effort, is exposed to the attack of some malignant fever, that in a normal condition of vigour would have been resisted. The common belief that slavery was the cause of civil war is incorrect, and Abolitionists are not justified in claiming the glory and spoils of the conflict, and in pluming themselves as "choosers of the slain."

The vast immigration that poured into the country between the years 1840 and i860 had a very important influence in directing the events of the latter year. The numbers were too great to be absorbed and assimilated by the native population. States in the West were controlled by German and Scandinavian voters; while the Irish took possession of the seaboard towns. Although the balance of party strength was not much affected by these naturalised voters, the modes of political thought were seriously 


disturbed, and a tendency was manifested to transfer exciting topics from the domain of argument to that of violence.

The aged and feeble President, Mr Buchanan, unfitted for troublous times, was driven to and fro by ambitious leaders of his own party, as was the last weak Hapsburg who reigned in Spain by the rival factions of France and Austria.

Under these conditions the National Democratic Convention met at Charleston, South Carolina, in the spring of i860, to declare the principles on which the ensuing presidential campaign was to be conducted, and select candidates for the offices of President and Vice-President. Appointed a delegate by the Democracy of my State, Louisiana, in company with others I reached Charleston two days in advance of the time. We were at once met by an invitation to join in council delegates from the Gulf States, to agree upon some common ground of action in the Convention   but declined, for the reason that we were accredited to the National Convention, and had no authority to participate in other deliberations. This invitation, and the terms in which it was conveyed, argued badly for the harmony of the Convention itself, and for the preservation of the unity of the Democracy, then the only organisation supported in all quarters of the country.

It may be interesting to recall the impression created at the time by the tone and temper of different delegations. New England adhered to the old tenets of the Jefferson school. Two leaders from Massachusetts, Messrs Caleb Cushing and Ben- 
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jarnin F. Butler, of whom the former was chosen President of the Convention, warmly supported the candidacy of Mr Jefferson Davis. New York, under the direction of Mr Dean Richmond, gave its influence to Mr Douglas. Of a combative temperament, Mr Richmond was impressed with a belief that " secession" was but a bugbear to frighten the northern wing of the party. Thus he failed to appreciate the gravity of the situation, and impaired the value of unusual common-sense and unselfish patriotism, qualities he possessed to an eminent degree. The anxieties of Pennsylvania as to candidates were accompanied by a philosophic indifference as to principles. The North-west was ardent for Douglas, who divided with Guthrie Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee.

Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, and Louisiana held moderate opinions, and were ready to adopt any honourable means to preserve the unity of the party and country. The conduct of the South Carolina delegates was admirable. Representing the most advanced constituency in the Convention, they were singularly reticent, and abstained from adding fuel to the flames. They limited their role to that of dignified, courteous hosts, and played it as Carolina gentlemen are wont to do. From Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Texas came the fiery spirits, led by Mr William L. Yancey of Alabama, an able rhetorician. This gentleman had persuaded his State Convention to pass a resolution, directing its delegates to withdraw from Charleston if the Democracy there assembled refused to adopt 


the extreme Southern view as to the rights of citizens in the territories. In this he was opposed by ex-Governor Winston, a man of conservative tendencies, and long the rival of Mr Yancey in State politics. Both gentlemen were sent to Charleston, but the majority of their co-delegates sustained Mr Yancey.

Several days after its organisation the National Convention reached a point which made the withdrawal of Alabama imminent. Filled with anxious forebodings, I sought after nightfall the lodgings of Messrs Slidell, Bayard, and Bright, United States senators, who had come to Charleston, not as delegates, but under the impulse of hostility to the principles and candidacy of Mr Douglas. There, after pointing out the certain consequences of Alabama's impending action, I made an earnest appeal for peace and harmony, and with success. Mr Yancey was sent for, came into our views after some discussion, and undertook to call his people together at that late hour, and secure their consent to disregard instructions. We waited until near dawn for Yancey's return, but his efforts failed of success. Governor Winston, originally opposed to instructions as unwise and dangerous, now insisted that they should be obeyed to the letter, and carried a majority of the Alabama delegates with him. Thus the last hope of preserving the unity of the National Democracy was destroyed, and by one who was its earnest advocate.

The withdrawal of Alabama, followed by other Southern States, the adjournment of a part of the Convention to Baltimore, and of another part to 
   :.   .       \\\*\\n^vS  ;\v-n.\-.v.-;^:. ^v-s^-,' ^W.W-S^Sn.^


Richmond, and die election of Lincoln by votes of Northern States, require no further mention.

In January 1861 the General Assembly of Louisiana met.   A member of the upper branch, and chairman of its committee on Federal relations, I reported, and assisted in passing, an act to call a Convention of the people of the State to consider of matters beyond the competency of the Assembly.   The Convention met in March, and was presided over by ex-Governor and ex-United States Senator, Alexander Mouton, a man of high character.     I represented my own parish, St Charles, and was appointed chairman of the Military and Defence Committee, on behalf of which two ordinances were reported and passed : one, to raise two regiments; the other, to authorise the Governor to expend a million of dollars in the purchase of arms and munitions.   The officers of the two regiments were to be appointed by the Governor, and the men to be enlisted for five years, unless sooner discharged.    More would have been desirable in the way of raising troops, but the temper of men's minds did not then justify the effort.   The Governor declined to use his authority to purchase arms, assured as he was on all sides that there was no danger of war, and that the United States arsenal at Baton Rouge, completely in our power, would furnish more than we could need.    It was vainly urged in reply that the stores of the arsenal were almost valueless, the arms being altered flint-lock muskets, and accoutrements out of date.   The current was too strong to stem. 


The Convention, by an immense majority of votes, adopted an ordinance declaring that Louisiana ceased to be a State within the Union. Indeed, similar action having already been taken by her neighbours, Louisiana of necessity followed. At the time and since, I marvelled at the joyous and careless temper in which men, much my superiors in sagacity and experience, consummated these acts. There appeared the same general gaitd de cozur that M. Ollivier claimed for the Imperial Ministry when war was declared against Prussia. The attachment of north-ern and western people to the Union; their superiority in numbers, in wealth, and especially in mechanical resources; the command of the sea; the lust of rule and territory always felt by democracies, and nowhere to a greater degree than in the South,   all these facts were laughed to scorn, or their mention was ascribed to timidity and treachery.

As soon as the Convention adjourned, finding myself out of harmony with prevailing opinion as to the certainty of war and necessity for preparation, I retired to my estate, determined to accept such responsibility only as came to me unsought.

The inauguration of President Lincoln ; the confederation of South Carolina, Georgia, and the five Gulf States ; the attitude of the border slave States, hoping to mediate ; the assembling of Confederate forces at Pensacola, Charleston, and other points ; the seizure of United States forts and arsenals; the attack on " Sumter ; " war,   these followed with bewildering-rapidity, and the human agencies concerned seemed as unconscious as scene-shifters in some awful tragedy. 

first scenes of the war.

I was drawn from my retreat by an invitation from General Bragg, a particular friend, to visit Pensacola, where he commanded the Southern forces, composed of volunteers from the adjacent States. Full of enthusiasm for their cause, and of the best material, officers and men were, with few exceptions, without instruction, and the number of educated officers was, as in all the Southern armies, too limited to satisfy the imperious demands of the staff, much less those of the drill-master. Besides, the vicious system of election of officers struck at the very root of that stern discipline without which raw men cannot be converted into soldiers.

The Confederate Government, then seated at Montgomery, weakly receded from its determination to accept no volunteers for short terms of service, and took regiments for twelve months. The same blindness smote the question of finance. Instead of laying taxes, which the general enthusiasm would have cheerfully endured, the Confederate authorities pledged their credit, and that too for 
   first scenes of the war.


an amount which might have implied a pact with Mr Seward that, should war unhappily break out, its duration was to be strictly limited to sixty days. The effect of these errors was felt throughout the strusfole.

General Bragg occupied Pensacola, the United States navy yard, and Fort Barrancas on the mainland ; while Fort Pickens, on Santa Rosa island, was held by Federal troops, with several war - vessels anchored outside the harbour. There was an understanding that no hostile movement would be made by either side without notice. Consequently Bragg worked at his batteries bearing on Pickens; while Major Brown, the Federal commander, strengthened with sand-bags and earth the weak landward curtain of his fort; and time was pleasantly passed by both parties in watching each other's occupation.

Some months before this period, when Florida enforced her assumed right to control all points within her limits, a small company of United States artillery, under Lieutenant Slemmer, was stationed at Barrancas, where it was helpless. After much manoeuvring, the State forces of Florida induced Slemmer to retire from Barrancas to Pickens, then garrisoned by one ordnance sergeant, and at the mercy of a corporal's guard in a row-boat. Fort Sumter, in Charleston harbour, was in a similar condition before Anderson retired to it with his company. The early seizure of these two fortresses would have spared the Confederates many serious embarrassments; but such small details were neglected at that time. 
   10        destruction and reconstruction.

My visit to Pensacola was brought to a close by information from the Governor of Louisiana of my appointment to the colonelcy of the 9th Louisiana infantry, a regiment just formed at camp on the railway some miles north of New Orleans, and under orders for Richmond. Accepting the appointment, I hastened to the camp, inspected the command, ordered the Lieutenant-Colonel     Randolph, a well-instructed officer for the time   to move by rail to Richmond as rapidly as transportation was furnished, and went on to New Orleans, as well to procure equipment, in which the regiment was deficient, as to give some hours to private affairs. It was known that there was a scarcity of small-arm ammunition in Virginia, owing to the rapid concentration of troops; and I was fortunate in obtaining; from the Louisiana authorities a hundred thousand rounds, with which, together with some field equipment, I proceeded by express to Richmond, where I found my command, about a thousand strong, just arrived and preparing to go into camp. The town was filled with rumour of battle away north at Manassas, where Beauregard commanded the Confederate forces. A multitude of wild reports, all equally inflamed, reached my ears while looking after the transportation of my ammunition, of which I did not wish to lose sight. Reach-ing camp, I paraded the regiment, and stated the necessity for prompt action, and my purpose to make application to be sent to the front immediately. Officers and men were delighted with the prospect of active service, and largely supplied want of experience by zeal.    Ammunition was served out, 

three clays' rations were ordered for haversacks, and all camp equipage not absolutely essential was stored.

These details attended to, at 5 P.M. I visited the War Office, presided over by General Pope Walker of Alabama. When the object of my visit was stated, the Secretary expressed much pleasure, as he was anxious to send troops forward, but had few in readiness to move, owing to the lack of ammunition, &c. As I had been in Richmond but a few hours, my desire to move and adequate state of preparation gained me some "red-letter" marks at the War Office. The Secretary thought that a train would be in readiness at 9 o'clock that night. Accordingly, the regiment was marched to the station, where we remained several weary hours. At length, long after midnight, our train made its appearance. As the usual time to Manassas was some six hours, we confidently expected to arrive in the early forenoon ; but this expectation our engine brought to grief. It proved a machine of the most wheezy and helpless character, creeping snail-like on levels, and requiring the men to leave the carriages to help it up grades. As the morning wore on, the sound of guns, re-echoed from the Blue Ridge Mountains on our left, became loud and constant. At every halt of the wretched engine the noise of battle grew more and more intense, as did our impatience. I hope the attention of the recording angel was engrossed that day in other directions. Later we met men, single or in squads, some with arms and some without, moving south, in which 
   I 2

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quarter they all appeared to have pressing engagements.

At dusk we gained Manassas Junction, near the field where, on that day, the battle of first " Manassas " had been fought and won. Bivouacking the men by the roadside, I sought through the darkness the headquarters of General Beauregard, to whom 1 was instructed to report. With much difficulty and delay the place was found, and a staff officer told me that orders would be sent the following morning. By these I was directed to select a suitable camp, thus indicating that no immediate movement was contemplated.

The confusion that reigned about our camps for the next few days was extreme. Regiments seemed to have lost their colonels, colonels their regiments. Men of all arms and all commands were mixed in the wildest way. A constant fusilade of small-arms and singing of bullets were kept up, indicative of a superfluity of disorder, if not of ammunition. One of my men was severely wounded in camp by a "stray," and derived no consolation from my suggestion that it was a delicate attention of our comrades to mitigate the disappointment of missing the battle. The elation of our people at their success was natural. They had achieved all, and more than all, that could have been expected of raw troops; and some commands had emulated veterans by their steadiness under fire. Settled to the routine of camp duty, I found many opportunities to go over the adjacent battle-field with those who had shared the action, then fresh in their memories.   Once I had 
   first scenes of the war.


the privilege of so doing in company with Generals Johnston and Beauregard; and I will now give my opinion of this, as I purpose doing of such subsequent actions, and commanders therein, as came within the range of my personal experience during the war.

Although since the days of Nimrod war has been the constant occupation of men, the fingers of one hand suffice to number the great commanders. The " unlearned " hardly think of usurping Tyndall's place in the lecture-room, or of taking his cuneiform bricks from Rawlinson ; yet the world has been much more prolific of learned scientists and philologers than of able generals. Notwithstanding, the average American (and, judging from the dictatorship of Maitre Gambetta, the Frenchman) would not have hesitated to supersede Napoleon at Austerlitz or Nelson at Trafalgar. True, Cleon captured the Spartan garrison, and Narces gained victories, and Bunyan wrote the ' Pilgrim's Progress ;' but pestilent demagogues and mutilated guardians of Eastern zenanas have not always been successful in war, nor the great and useful profession of tinkers written allegory. As men without knowledge have at all time usurped the right to criticise campaigns and commanders, they will doubtless continue to do so despite the protests of professional soldiers, who discharge this duty in a reverent spirit, knowing that the greatest is he who commits the fewest blunders.

General M'Dowell, the Federal commander at Manassas, and a trained soldier of unusual acquirement, was so hounded and worried by ignorant, im- 
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patient politicians and newspapers, as to be scarcely responsible for his acts. This may be said of all the commanders in the beginning of the war, and notably of Albert Sidney Johnston, whose early fall on the field of Shiloh was irreparable, and mayhap determined the fate of the South. M'Dowell's plan of battle was excellent, and its execution by his mob no worse than might have been confidently expected. The late Governor Andrew of Massachusetts observed that his men thought they were going to a town meeting, and this is exhaustive criticism. With soldiers at his disposal, M'Dowell would have succeeded in turning and overwhelming Beauregard's left, driving him from his rail communications with Richmond, and preventing the junction of Johnston from the valley. It appears that Beauregard was to some extent surprised by the attack, contemplating movements by his own centre and right. His exposed and weak left stubbornly resisted the shock of attacking masses, while he, with coolness and personal daring most inspiriting to his men, brought up assistance from centre and right; and the ground was held until Johnston, who had skilfully eluded Patterson, arrived and began feeding our line, when the affair was soon decided.

There can be little question that with a strong brigade of soldiers Johnston could have gone to Washington and Baltimore. Whether, with his means, he should have advanced, has been too much and angrily discussed already. Napoleon held that, no matter how great the confusion and exhaustion of a victorious army might be, a defeated one 
   first scenes of the war.


must be a hundredfold worse, and action should be based on this. Assuredly, if there be justification in disregarding an axiom of Napoleon, the wild confusion of the Confederates after Manassas afforded it.

The first skirmishes and actions of the war proved that the Southron, untrained, was a better fighter than the Northerner   not because of more courage, but of the social and economic condition by which he was surrounded. Devoted to agriculture in a sparsely populated country, the Southron was self-reliant, a practised horseman, and skilled in the use of arms. The dense population of the North, the habit of association for commercial and manufacturing purposes, weakened individuality of character, and horsemanship and the use of arms were exceptional accomplishments. The rapid development of railways and manufactures in the West had assimilated the people of that region to their eastern neighbours, and the old race of frontier riflemen had wandered to the far interior of the continent. Instruction and discipline soon equalised differences, and battles were decided by generalship and numbers ; and this was the experience of our kinsmen in their great civil war. The country squires who followed the banners of Newcastle and Rupert at first swept the eastern-counties yeomanry and the London train-bands from the field ; but fiery and impetuous valour was at last overmatched by the disciplined purpose and stubborn constancy of Cromwell's Ironsides.

The value of the " initiative" in war cannot be overstated. It surpasses in power mere accession of numbers, as it requires neither transport nor com- 

missariat. Holding it, a commander lays his plans deliberately, and executes them at his own appointed time and in his own way. The "defensive" is weak, lowering the morale of the army reduced to it, enforcing constant watchfulness lest threatened attacks


become real, and keeping commander and troops in a state of anxious tension. These truisms would not deserve mention did not the public mind ignore the fact that their application is limited to trained soldiers, and often become impatient for the employment of proved ability to sustain sieges and hold lines in offensive movements. A collection of untrained men is neither more nor less than a mob, in which individual courage goes for nothing. In movement each person finds his liberty of action merged in a crowd, ignorant and incapable of direction. Every obstacle creates confusion, speedily converted into panic by opposition. The heroic defenders of Saragossa could not for a moment have faced a battalion of French infantry in the open field. Osman's solitary attempt to operate outside of Plevna met with no success; and the recent defeat of Moukhtar may be ascribed to incaution in taking position too far from his line of defence, where, when attacked, manoeuvres of which his people were incapable became necessary. 


After the action at Manassas, the summer and winter of 1S61 wore away without movements of special note in our quarter, excepting the defeat of the Federals at Ball's Bluff, on the Potomac, by a detached brigade of Confederates, commanded by General Evans of South Carolina, a West-Pointer enjoying the sobriquet of " Shanks" from the thinness of his legs.

In the organisation of our army, my regiment was brigaded with the 6th, 7th, and 8th regiments of the Louisiana infantry, and placed under General William H. T. Walker of Georgia. Graduated from West Point in the summer of 1837, this officer joined the 6th United States infantry operating against the Seminoles in Florida. On Christmas-day following was fought the battle of Okeechobee, the severest fight of that Indian war. The savages were posted on a thickly jungled island in the lake, through the waters of which, breast-high, the troops advanced several hundred yards to the attack. The loss on our side was heavy, but the Indians were so com-

   is        destruction and reconstruction.

pletely routed as to break their spirit. Colonel Zachary Taylor commanded, and there won his yellow sash and grade. Walker was desperately wounded, and the medical people gave him up ; but he laughed at their predictions and recovered. In the war with Mexico, assaulting Molino del Rey, he received several wounds, all pronounced fatal, and science thought itself avenged. Again he got well, as he said, to spite the doctors. Always a martyr to asthma, he rarely enjoyed sleep but in a sitting posture ; yet he was as cheerful and full of restless activity as the celebrated Earl of Peterborough. Peace with Mexico established, Walker became commandant of cadets at West Point. His ability as an instructor, and his lofty, martial bearing, deeply impressed his new brigade and prepared it for stern work. Subsequently Walker died on the field near Atlanta, defending the soil of his native State   a death of all others he would have