xt7b8g8fjf28 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7b8g8fjf28/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1944-07 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "The School Lunch Program", vol. XII, no. 5, July 1944 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "The School Lunch Program", vol. XII, no. 5, July 1944 1944 1944-07 2022 true xt7b8g8fjf28 section xt7b8g8fjf28 ~ A44 V‘Agv' 1



O ‘ Commonwealth of Kentucky 0












55th Hanson

lty Of Ke
On, We

SS 11-112




Published by


Superintendent of Public Instruction






Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the Post office at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

Vo|.Xl| 0 July, 1944 0 No.5’



















This bulletin is a revision of The School Lunch Program, Com-
monwealth of Kentucky Educational Bulletin, Volume XI, No. 8,
issued by the Department of Education and has been written for
the purpose of giving help to superintendents, principals, lunch
managers, and others working with the lunch program. Character-
istics of a good school lunch program are set up in this bulletin and
suggestions are given for ways of developing a lunch program that
will meet these characteristics.

Superintendent of Public Instruction




”me—m... 1—" . i









. Page
A Good School Lunch Program .................................................................... 131 .
The School Lunch Provides Many Educational Experiences for the ‘
Pupil ........................................... 132 ;

School Administrators, Teachers, Parents, Pupils, and Others in the
Community Understand the Values of the School Lunch Program 136

School Administrators, Teachers, Pupils, Parents, and Othels Work

Cooperatively on the School Lunch Program _____ .137



The Meals Served are Well Balanced and Attractive _____ 139
Sanitary Practices are Observed in the Storage, Preparation, and I
Serving of Food __________________________________________ 142 ,
The Physical Conditions are Satisfactory for the Preparation and
Serving of Meals ________________________________________________________________________________________ 146
Good Business Procedures a1e Used in Managing the School Lunch
Program ___________________________________________________ 149



A Few Suggested References .......................................................................... 157 i


ram 136


....... 137

_____ 139


....... 142 f

_______ 146

....... 149

....... 157 .


Health is one of the major goals of education. Research has
proven that there is a definite relation of food to health. A child’s
health is affected by the kind and amount of food which he eats.
Recent studies of food practices in the United States reveal that about
one-third of the families had poor diets and that in about one—half of
the cases the poor diets were due to a lack of knowledge of the funda-
mentals of nutrition or failure to apply such knowledge to food selec-
tion, and were not due to an inability to afford suitable food.

A good school lunch program will contribute to the general health
of children by developing good food habits and by providing foods
which are needed for energy, for regulating the body processes, and
for building and repairing body tissues. Now that many mothers
are working away from home, children do not get the carefully
planned and prepared meals even though there may be more money
in the family for the purchase of nutritious food. In some families
the increased cost of food and the rationing of food make it difficult
for mothers of limited background to provide the nutritious meals
that their children need. Even in the homes of families of higher
income, many children are malnourished because of poor food habits.

Lunch programs in various types of schools differ greatly. Some
characteristics of a good school lunch program in any school are:

1. The school lunch program provides many educational exper—
iences for the pupils.

2. School administrators, teachers, parents, pupils, and others in
the community understand the values of the school lunch pro—

3. School administrators, teachers, pupils, parents, and others work
cooperatively on the school lunch program.

4. The meals served are well balanced and attractive.

5. Sanitary practices are observed in the storage, preparation,-and
serving of food.

6. The physical conditions are satisfactory for the preparation and
serving of meals.

7. Good business procedures are used in managing the school
lunch program.

. Some suggestions for ways of having a school lunch program
Which will have the above characteristics are given in this bulletin.














The school lunch should be a vital part of the total school pro.

gram and should not be considered just a feeding program. Indi- .

viduals learn to do by doing. Through the school program an
excellent opportunity is provided for developing good food habits.
Children may learn what foods should be eaten daily, what a good
lunch is, and how to choose the right kind of lunch. They may also
put this information into practice. Many food habits can be improved
because of the opportuniy of eating with other children and because
of the guidance and direction of the teacher. The food habits de-
veloped at school will affect food habits in the home.

The school lunch program will also provide an opportunity for
children to learn and practice good table manners. Eating together
makes possible the practicing of table 111a1’111ers instead of just talking
about them. Habits of cleanliness, such as washing hands before eat-
ing, proper handling of foods, and washing and cleaning dishes, may
also be learned through the school lunch program.

All of the jobs in the operation of the lunch program have edu-
cational values if c111 @1111 guidance is gi1e11 to the pupils 11101111
Many one and t11o 100m schools may have a lunch program with the
meal being prepared by the pupils. Teachers in these schools should



plan definitely to make learing experiences of the different jobs con- .

nected with the planning, preparation, and serving of the lunch.

The classroom teacher has the major responsibility of making
the lunch a part of the education of the child. Only to the extent
that teachers recognize the school lunch as offering learning exper-
iences for pupils, will the lunch program have real educational value
for the children. In the classroom the teacher can guide the learning
that will take place in the lunchroom. The way in which the class-
room teache1 uses the school lunch as a learning experience for the
pupils depends upon the teacher’s vision, the kind of class she is
teaching, and the size of the school.

Suggestions for activities related to the school lunch program
which may be carried out in various classes are listed below. N0
attempt has been made to make this a complete list or to check all the
classes in which such activities may be used.





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Some Activities Related to the School Lunch Program Which May be
Carried on by Pupils in Various Classes:1



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Suggested Activities E ‘ .25 :5: E 1.: 5-; 5;; 5 :05 54 _>}
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1 Determine what one should eat
each day .................. x x x
2. Plans menus to
a. Meet requirements ,,,,,,,,,,, x |
b. Use limited amount of
rationed foods X
3. Plans ways for overcoming
food dislikes ______________________ x
4. Keep individual record, of
food eaten. to see if meet—
ing requirements .. x
5. Select recipes ,. x
6. Change recipes to serve large
numbers ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,. x x
7. Make market orde X x X
8. Assist with buying x x X
9. Compare methods (If buying“
cash, charge, wholesale and
retail ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, . ,,,,,,, x x
10. Assist with prepara 1m of food x
11. Investigate new ways of pre—
paring commonly used food x
12. Set the tables .................... .. x
13. Assist with serving of lunches x
14. Wash and sterilize dishes ........ x
15. Help younger pupils develop I
good eating habits and good
table manners x
16.Set up standards of good he .
havior in the lunch room X
17. Study good table manners to
use ______________________________________________________ x
18. Discuss ways of entertaining
guests at mealtime , ,,,,,,,, , ,,,,,, x
19. Plan What foods can be pro-
duced to supply food needs I
for family and lunch room ..... | X
20. Make food production plan I
for school lunch ............................ I x
21. Make food preservation budget V
22- Help with planting and culti-
vating gardens ........................ ' I
23. Help gather and store foods I
grown . . , . I
24. Plan storag c lities x I
25. Build storage closets, cel ais, I
bits, and window boxes for I I
storing foods I
26. Help can food _ I
27. Find out the causes of food
spellage, and ways different
foods may be preserved .. x
28. Keep records of:
21. Recipes used x x
b. Menus used x x |
e. Income and expenditure x x I
29- Flgure cost of serving of |
Various foods ,,,,,,,,,,,, x X I
30- Figure cost of menus . x x I
31. Figure cost of operating I I
lunChroom W_ x x
32- Make budget for o] I I
IUDChl‘Oom ,, W ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, | x x
33. Plan ways of eliminating |
Waste ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, x X
SW Help keep the lunchroom cleanI x x
35~ Study and evaluate methods | |
11$de to wash dishes, exter— I I
inmate pests, and store food. x
36. Find out diseases that may I I
havlThese activities should be carried on as class activities only as long as they






























e educational value for the pupil-
























i Suggested Activities








w be spread through lunchrooms i
‘ 37. Plan ways of preventing these
diseases ........................................... I l | x | l
38. Type and mimeograph recipes
for pupils to take home ,,,,,,,,,,,, x
3 . Make curtains for serving area x x

40. Bring flowers for tables and
arrange them _______________________________ x
41. Make pictures or murals for l .
the lunchroom _____________________________ 3
42. Select and hang pictures in








43. Paint the walls a -|
44. Decorate the lunchroom for ll |





special occasions
45. Interpret the school






program to community ,,,,,,, ,
46. Secure information on lunch I
,‘l . room problems .......................... l
. . 47. Conduct animal feeding !
l experiments ____________________________________













The ways in which the activities listed above are used as educa-
tional or learning; experiences for pupils will vary in different class-
“ ‘ rooms and in different schools. Some ways in which the suggested
1‘ activity “plan ways of eliminating waste” may be made a learning ‘
experience are: ‘ L

1. Find figures showing the amount of food wasted in the United

1 States.

" - 2. Collect and weigh the amount of food left on plates in lunch-
room for several days. i

3. Decide on ways of making everyone in school conscious of the ‘

, = . amount of food that is wasted. (An effective way to make

people conscious of the amount of food wasted on plates is t0

H , show the same weight or quantity in fresh food.) 1

4. Figure the amount of waste in terms of the number of meals
that could have been provided for a family of five.

5. Estimate the cost of food wasted on plates.

6. Organize a clean plate campaign.

7. Determine other ways food is wasted in lunchroom besides
being left on plates.

‘ . 8. Study ways different kinds of foods should be stored.

= 9: Make a study of ways food wastes may be reduced in com-


.. 10. Present information learned about food wastes by giving talks
at school assembly programs, Parent-Teacher Association and
civic club meetings.

11. Write articles about food wastes for the school paper 01‘ the .
local paper.

The following suggestions for using the activity “planning
menus for the school lunch” as an educational experience for pupils




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are designed primarily for home economics classes but many of the
suggestions can be used in other classes:

1. Determine the foods pupils usually eat for breakfast and sup—
per. Check these foods against those foods which are needed
daily to see what foods should be served at school.

2. Study planned lunch menus to see if they supply foods needed
to be served at school.

. Plan lunch menus that will supply the foods needed.

. Study different menus to determine other characteristics of a
well-planned menu.

. Figure cost of serving certain food dishes.

Try out ways of preparing low cost foods in different ways.

. Make a list of low cost food dishes.

. Plan menus that are well balanced and attractive, which may
be served for the prevailing charge for meals, and which may
be prepared with equipment and labor available in the school.

9. Keep record of menus especially liked by pupils.-

10. Send copies of menus home to parents with a list of the other
foods needed each day to supply the “Basic '7.”

11. Rotate the responsibility of planning menus for a week’s period
among groups of pupils in class after the class has had an oppor-
tunity to learn to plan good menus for the school lunch. This
may be done throughout the entire year by the different groups
even though other units of work are being studied.



A description of how one teacher in a Kentucky rural school

used the school lunch as learning experiences for her pupils follows:

At the beginning of the school year the pupils learned the part
that food contributes to health, the foods needed for the day, and
what is needed for lunch. The pupils then planned what they
could do about lunch at school, which was to prepare one dish each
day. The rest of the lunch was brought from home and supple-
mented this dish. The children who could afford to pay ten cents
a week did so. With this amount of money food, paper towels, nap-
kins, soap, and kerosene were purchased. Some commodities were
available to use in the dish prepared. The children planned the
menus weekly and they also planned what could be brought from
home to supplement the one dish to be served. Each pupil took
the suggestions home.

Committees to do the work were planned by the children and
names were drawn each morning to see who could serve on certain
committees for the day. The children who washed dishes always
cooked the following day. The preparation of the food was done by
the cooking committee before school and the food was put on to cook
at the recess peridd. Any finishing up that was needed was done
a few minutes before the noon hour.

Before eating each child washed his hands in warm water and
with soap. After the hands were washed each child prepared his
desk by spreading a napkin on it. The food prepared was passed
to him on a tray. Each child took twenty minutes for eating, talk—














'ing, and having a good time.

The dirty dishes were then collected .


in the same manner the food was served and each child cleaned .

his own desk. The dishes were washed and put into big buckets
and boiled during the noon hour and dried and put away during the
recess period.

The equipment used consisted of a spoon and bowl or cup f
brought by each child from home, a small two—burner oil stove, ‘
two buckets to heat water for hand washing and for sterilizing ‘

dishes, two dish pans, a large container to cook the food in, a few
pans and small equipment used in preparing the food, and cabinets
and shelves for storage which were planned and built by the

Additional suggestions for making the school lunch an educa- 3

tional experience for the pupils may be found in the bulletin “Making

School Lunches Educational,” Nutrition Education Series, Pamphlet '

No. 2, U. S. Office of Education.




The success of the lunch program will depend to a great extent
011 the understanding which administrators, teachers, parents, and
pupils have of the purposes and values of the lunch program. If
administrators, teachers, parents, and pupils consider the lunch pro-

gram just a feeding program instead of considering it an opportunity
to strengthen existing good eating habits, to develop new ones, and ‘

to provide other educational experiences, the lunch program may
fail. Some purposes and values of a school lunch program are:

1. To improve the health of the child
2. To develop good food habits

3. To develop a liking for foods which are needed for growth and

4. To provide a pleasant social atmosphere where courtesy and
table manners may be practiced

5. To provide learning experiences by making activities, in con-
nection with the operation of the lunch program, educational.

Teachers will need to assume a large share of the responsibility
for interpreting the lunch program to pupils and others in the com-
munity. Before they can do this, the administrator will. need ’60
arrange for the staff to meet together to decide why the school should
have a lunch program, how the lunch program may fit in the total
school program, what should be the objectives of the program, what
should be the teachers’ responsibilities, and how the lunch program
can bring best returns nutritionally and educationally.




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Pupils will more willingly cooperate with the lunch program if
they understand its values. Teachers should make every effort to
interpret the lunch program to pupils. \Vhen pupils understand the
lunch program and see its values they serve as one of the most im-
portant means of interpreting it to the community. Some ways of
developing, with the pupils, an understanding of the values of the
lunch program are:

1. Teach what foods should be eaten daily with reasons for eating

these foods.

2. Lead the pupils to check the foods eaten at breakfast and sup—
per to see what is needed at lunch.

3. Have home rooms survey the eating habits of pupils to deter—
mine which ones need to be improved. Compile the information
obtained for the entire school and make this information avail-
able to the pupils.

4. Present figures to the pupils showing the health status of pupils
as revealed by the health department.

5. Use a check sheet to get such information as the foods which
pupils like and dislike.

6. Have assembly programs showing the values of the school

7. Give pupils an opportunity to serve on lunch committees. (See
the next section for a description of these committees.)

Parents must be informed about the program if they have an
understanding of its purposes and values. One of the best ways of
informing parents about the program is to visit the homes of the
pupils. Another effective way is to have meetings with the parents
for the purpose of discussing the dietary needs of their children and
what the school is trying to accomplish through the school lunch
program. Some other effective ways of interpreting the program
to the community are:

1. Talking to different organizations, as civic clubs and women’s
clubs, at their regular meetings.

2. Writing articles for the local newspaper or the school paper.

3. Asking public health nurse to interpret the lunch program as
she visits the homes.

4. Asking the local nutrition committee to help interpret the lunch
program to the community.

5. Having an advisory committee to plan ways of interpreting the
program to more people in the community. (More information
is given on the use of an advisory committee in next section.)


The combined efforts of many persons are needed if the lunch
program is to serve as an educational program. One person alone
cannot make it a success. When many people work together on a














program there needs to be some organization so that everyone can
make a contribution and so that there will be little duplication 01-
overlapping of responsibilities. The organization of committees, hav-


ing definite responsibilities and having representatives from different ~

groups, is an effective way of securing the cooperation and under-
standing of all groups.

Some responsibilities which may be assumed by school lunch
committees are:

1. Keeping the public informed about values and needs of the

lunch program.

Securing financial assistance for carrying out the program.

Securing equipment.

Locating volunteer workers.

Planning for the production and preservation of food.

Recommending policies governing the operation of the lunch


Acting as a clearing house for suggestions and complaints.

Interpreting the program to pupils and faculty.

9. Planning ways that the lunch program may contribute to the
health of the pupils. '

10. Planning ways of making the lunch room an enjoyable place
in which to eat.

11. Evaluating lunches served to see if foods needed, to round out
the diets of the pupils, are being included.

12. Planning ways in which the lunch program can contribute to
citizenship and social education and to the training in cooking,
food serving, housekeeping, bookkeeeping, and business and
office practices.



The number and types of committees, which any school has, will
vary with the needs of the school and the groups in the community
that are interested in the lunch program. Some schools have found
a coordinating committee desirable, consisting of the administrator
and school lunch manager and representatives of teachers, pupils,
parents, health department, civic clubs, and the nutrition committee.
Smaller sub—committees with members of the coordinating committee
as chairmen may be appointed to work on specific problems. For
example, if a committee is to work on ways of making the operation
of the lunch program an educational activity for pupils, a teacher
or the administrator might be the chairman. Other members on
the sub-committee can be non-members or members of the coordinat-
ing committee. The suggestions made by the sub—committee would,
however, be reported to the coordinating committee. If the problem
is in connection with securing equipment, a sub-committee could be
appointed with the person representing civic clubs or the administra-
tor serving as the chairman.



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Other schools have found a school lunch committee composed of
faculty members and pupils most helpful for their situation. This
committee might be made up of the principal as chairman, home
economics teacher, another high school teacher, an elementary teacher,
a high school boy and girl, and an elementary boy and girl. Many
of the responsibilities of a lunch committee, listed above, may be
assumed by this committee.

Some schools have used a committee made up of teachers in the
school. This committee might consist of the principal and several
teachers, including both high school and elementary teachers, if both
are combined in the same school. Some of the most outstanding
contributions that a committee of this type might make are: to de—
termine policies relative to the lunch program, to plan a division of
responsibilities, and to plan ways for all teachers to work together
to make the lunch program an educational activity.

No one type of committee will serve all schools. More interest
and understanding is secured when many people, instead of just a
few, work with a program. The resources in the community and the
jobs to be done will be factors to consider in organizing committees
for the lunch program.

When planning menus for the school lunch a number of factors
should be considered: amount and kind of food needed by the body,
attractiveness, ease of preparation, foods available, equipment on
hand, and cost.

According to recognized authorities, the minimum food require-
ments for children. each day, or the “Basic 7” foods for children
each day, are:

milk—1V2 pints t0 1 quart

vegetables—2 servings, one green or yellow, 1 serving of potatoes

fruit—2 servings, one citrus or tomatoes and one other

eggs—at least 3 or 4 times a week

meat, fish, dried peas or beans‘once a day

whole-grain or enriched cereals and bread
butter, or margarine fortified with Vitamin A, at every meal.

The 110011 meal should consist of approximately one—third of the
daily foods required. The school- lunch should be an adequate hot
lunch, or a hot dish to supplement the packed lunch, or an adequate
packed lunch. Each meal should contain as many of the “Basic 7”
foods as possible. Meals served at school should be planned to sup-

















ply the foods needed daily and those which are most often lacking
in the meals at home.

A good hot lunch contains:
A glass of milk or a food made with milk, as cream soup
Two vegetables, or a vegetable and a fruit
A main dish, such as eggs, meat, dried beans
Whole wheat bread and butter
A simple dessert, if desired.
A good packed lunch contains:
Milk or milk drink
Meat or meat substitute
Vegetable or fruit or both
A simple dessert, if desired.

When space and equipment do not permit the preparation of a
complete hot meal at school a nutritious dish may be prepared and
served at school to supplement the packed lunch brought from home.
The type of food served should be that which is often lacking at
home. For example, if tomatoes or oranges are seldom used in the
homes, tomato juice or citrus fruits or raw vegetables could be served
at school. During the winter a hot dish is preferable. If milk c011-
sumption is limited in the homes, the hot dish may be a cream soup
or a milk beverage. If the intake of vegetables is low, vegetable soup
or stew may be served.

Attractiveness is another essential factor in meal planning.
Color, texture, flavor, and shape of the food served, all play an im—
portant role in making a meal attractive. Some guides to remember
in making a meal attractive are:

1. Include at least one colorful food in every meal. When several
colorful foods are used in the same meal, foods having colors
that combine harmoniously should be selected. Foods naturally
lacking color may be brightened with garnishes, such as a slice
of tomato, carrot strips, sprigs of parsely, a piece of bright
colorful fruit, or a spoonful of jelly.

2. Have, if possible, at least one hot food in each meal so there will
be a contrast of temperature.

3. Serve foods that have a variety in texture, as soft foods and crisp
foods. Toast or crackers served with soup and mashed potatoes
served with a crisp vegetable salad are examples of variety of
texture in meals.

4. Prepare foods so that all foods do not have the same shape as
all diced, sliced, shredded, or cut in shape of balls or wedges.
If string beans are served with beets, serve beets whole or
sliced instead of shredding them.

5. Avoid serving two or more foods prepared in the same way in
a meal, for example, creamed carrots and creamed potatoes.

6. Combine foods that have contrasting flavors as apples with
bacon, tomatoes with meat loaf, etc. A meal that has all mild-






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flavored foods or too many strong flavored foods will not ap-
peal to the appetite. The same flavor or food should be served
only once in a meal. For example, if escalloped tomatoes is
the vegetable, tomatoes should not be repeated in the soup,

sauce, or salad.
7. Avoid serving too many starchy foods in one meal, as mashed

potatoes and macaroni.

8. Avoid serving the plates or individual portions of food more
than five minutes ahead of time as this allows food to become
contaminated, cool, and unattractive.

9. Serve small portions of food to small children and permit them
to return for second helping if they desire.

10. Serve hot foods hot and cold foods cold.

When planning menus, careful consideration also needs to be
given to the amount of equipment and the help available for the
preparation of the meal. If help is limited, several dishes which
require a lot of preparation should not be included in the same
menu. For example, if a number of vegetables are to be prepared for
soup, the salad or dessert should be the type that requires little time
and preparation. Attention should also be given to the time that
different preparations have to be made. Having too many last
minute preparations in the meal should be avoided. Some foods in
the menu should be the type that can be prepared in advance and
only a few should have to be prepared just before serving. Many
lunch rooms have limited oven space and the preparation of meat
loaf, berry cobbler, and hot bread for the same meal would be im-
possible. When more than one food on the menu is to be baked,
the foods should be ones that can be baked at the same temperature
or at different times without spoiling the finished product .

Cost is another important factor in meal. planning. Foods which
are plentiful should be selected for the meals. The method of prepara-
tion of these foods should be varied so that the meals are not monot-
onous. For example, if carrots are plentiful they may be used one
day as a vegetable, a second day in a loaf as a substitute for meat,
and a third day as a salad in combination with fruit or with other
vegetables. Cost may be reduced by combining foods which are
expensive with less expensive foods. For example, when tomatoes
are high and cabbage is less expensive, they may be combined in a
salad using a large quantity of cabbage. The waste of food is also
a factor which increases the cost of school lunches. Careful use
should be made of any leftovers. Foods which are generally liked
should accompany dishes that are not so well liked so that food will
not be wasted. Another source of waste is the preparation of food.
For example, apples and potatoes are often peeled so that much of