xt7bk35mbd2j https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7bk35mbd2j/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1931 journals kaes_circulars_250 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 250 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 250 1931 2014 true xt7bk35mbd2j section xt7bk35mbd2j ~ ,7 l.i73F¥,iRY @y··]—HE  
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  Extension Division
  THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
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J}  Two Wiimers
ir  Lexington, Ky.
i  November, 1931.
i  Published in vonnectioxi with thu ZlQ,`I‘l('lIl[Lll`Lll uxtvnsinii work <·:irrir>d
  fm by cooperation of Lim College of Ag'I‘lL'Lll[IlI`L5, University of Kentuvky,
I with the U. S. Depzwtnnent, and distributed in furtlierzmce of thc work
A } Dmviclecl for in the Act; OI Congress of May 8, 1914.
/• ·.
   --————-—-* Q ` 

The object of the dairy project is to teach boys and girls approved f
methods of selecting, feeding, breeding and managing dairy cattle. '
The dairy project covers three years and includes work with the ` 
heifer, the cow and the calf. It may begin with any one of these. A _ en?}
certificate will be given for satisfactory work at the end of each Q dau
project year. .
Age. A boy or girl must be at least ten years of age before the t of t
_ close of the project year and under 19 on January 1 of the project and
year. `
Number of Animals. One or more animals may be owned. Am
Ownership. Purebred animals must be owned by the member CTG?
and registered in his or her name. Grade animals must be owned by ._ _
the member, the ownership to be confirmed by the club leader and the · will
county agent.
Care. Animals must be cared for by the owner on the farm I b1`·€<
where the member resides. liki
Practices. Club members must follow the instructions furnished
by the local club leader or the county agent. the
Exhibits. The members are expected to exhibit their animals in ` meg
the county show and, if selected by the county agent, in the district · bm`
_  tra;
. the
Q i or
` tem
V def
in j

 . E  
  Dairy Project, Junior 4-H Clubs
5 Choice of a, breed. There is little or no difference in effici-
” ency in the p1·oduction of human food, between the breeds of
dairy cattle. In choosing a breed it is well to consider:
Y  1. What breed is most common in the community? Use
of the most popular breed makes it easier to get breeding stock
p and sell surplus.
U 2. \Vhat are the market demands for dairy products?
Any dairy breed is satisfactory if the product is to be sold as V
cream or as wholesale milk. If the milk is to be retailed a breed
  which produces fairly rich milk may be preferred.
  3. Wliicli breed does the member? prefer? If several
J  br-eeds are common in the community the member’s personal
liking may be the best guide in choosing a breed. ‘
R Registered or grade. A registration certificate shows that
the animal is registered in a recognized breed association, which
. means that its sire and dam were registered animals of the same
*  breed. Registered animals of good type and capable of high
' production are more valuable than grade animals capable of the
_ same production. Registered animals are more inclined to
. transmit desirable type and production to their offspring;
¥ therefore, since the first heifer purchased may be the foundation
`  f or the future herd, it usually is advisable to purchase a regis-
  tered heifer.
  Age. Usually it is advisable to purchase a heifer between
if six and twelve months of age. Younger animals may develop
defects in type later in life that make the animal undesirable;
l in purchasing older animals there is more dangerof getting one

 4 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 250  
which has recently become infected with contagious abortion.  
However, a heifer eighteen to twenty-four months of age gives   as
the best indication of her future development and the club  iQ 80
member has to wait but a short time for a return on the invest- ·  10(
ment. The age of the heifer should be decided by considering ._ bu1
the heifers and the amount of money available. It is always Y  but
better to buy a good calf than a common yearling. i ani
Pedigree of the animal. A pedigree is a short history of   as
the accomplishments of the animal’s ancestors. The points of ‘·  thc
importance in the pedigree of any animal are:   int
1. Records of half-sisters and full-sisters. ‘   
2. Records of the dam. · bu
3. Records of sisters to the sire and dam.
4. Records of the grand-dams.
. The pedigrees of today are confusing. For example, if the bu
dam of a calf has no production reco1·d the following may appear an
beneath the darn/s name; "Her dam is a sister to Butterfat Us
Queen with 540 pounds of butterfat in 305 days at 3 years." V PO
In this instance the record is on a great-aunt of the calf in ques- »
tion. This tells practically nothing about the dam of the calf. · Q_ j
A red pencil mark should be drawn thru such information to A  {O;
remove the unimportant facts from a pedigree.   he
Popular families and blood lines usually are over-empha- te;
sized. It is much more important to secure a heifer whose at
ancestors have been of good type and have been good producers   tit
than to select one for the popularity of the family to which she i qt
belongs. ty
Indivioluality and production records. A dairy cow having _ pi
a straight back, a deep body and a large, long udder extending p 
well forward, with teats far apart, usually is capable of good A C'
production over a long period of time. Milk and butterfat pro- `
duction is, however, the real measure of a cow’s ability to pro-   pl
duce. A cow that produces 400 pounds of butterfat on twice—a- `  al
day milking, in ten months, is the type which every dairy club ‘ fa
member needs. The following facts are given to assist in com- T  de
paring production records: i m

 . F "
  Dairy Project, Junior 4-H Clubs 5
 `; A two-year-old cow produces approximately 70 per cent
  as much milk and butterfat as a mature cow; a three-year-old,
j  80 per cent; a four-year-old. 90 per cent, and a ive-year-old,
  100 per cent. A two-year-old cow that produces 350 pounds of
  butterfat in a year may be expected to produce 500 pounds of
 4 butterfat when she is Hve years old. A cow milked twice daily
Q_  and given good farm care produces about 60 per cent as much
  as she would if milked three or four times daily, when given all
  the feed she can consume and the best of care. A cow produc-
  ing 420 pounds of butterfat under good farm conditions is
_  capable of producing 650 to 700 pounds of butterfat under the
A;  best conditions. Most cows produce 15 per cent more milk and
 1 butterfat in 365 days than in 305 days.
T VVhen Holstein reco1·ds are given in terms of butter,
`  multiply by 0.8 to get the amount of butterfat. (500 pounds
butter x .8 = 400 pounds of butterfat.) When Jersey records
-  are stated in butter the per cent of butterfat in the butter
y usually is given. (500 pounds of S5 per cent butter equals 425 ~
l pounds of butterfat.)
?  Valuation. The price which a club member should pay for
  a heifer depends on the type of the heifer, her age, her growth
  for age, and the production and type of he1· ancestors. A
i  heifer whose half-sisters are not tested and whose dam is not i
A tested may or may not be a good producer and should be bought
l at a lower price than one whose close relatives have good produc-
I tion records. A high-producing cow will pay for herself more
  quickly than a low producer and the calves from a cow of good
~ type will be more valuable than the calves from a cow of equal
T  producing ability but of poo1· type.
V Feeding. Heifers from 8 months to 2 years of age need
  plenty of good roughage. They do not need grain if given
. abundant pasture. If, however, the pasture is only poor to
  fair, they should be fed two to four pounds of grain a day,
A  depending on their condition. 200 pounds of corn-and-cob
; meal and 100 pounds of bran or oats is a satisfactory mixture.

 6 Kemfu»cZ‘y Erfcrzsiooz Circular N0. 250  
For winter feeding, heifers of this age should receive all the  ;`
legume hay they will clean up, with 10 to 20 pounds of silage.  I: bul
The amount of grain necessary depends on the condition of the  . of I
heifers as well as the quality and kind of the roughage they are i,  an<
receiving. When plenty of legume hay and silage are avail-   wh
able it is not necessary to feed grain except to heifers that are 1  wh
thin in condition. If grass (non—legume) hay is fed with either Q,
silage or fodder, a grain mixture should be used, made of  
200 pounds corn-and-cob meal if 
200 pounds bran »
100 pounds cottonseed meal _  im
The amount of grain required will be from 3 to 5 pounds a day. H‘
After the heifer is bred the grain must be increased so that she   OH
V will be in good condition before freshening. Heifers on good E gr
pasture need a small amount of grain during the 6 weeks pre- I a ?
‘ vious to freshening. Salt should be provided at all times and
if non-legume hay is fed, they should have steamed bone meal
at will. ~ W
Mcmagcmmzyi. Heifers of this age need shade in summer.
In winter they need a shed with dry bedding. Unless the cows I
in the herd are free from contagious abortion it is best to raise _
the heifers separately because they may contract the disease y
any time after they start to come in heat and especially after F
they are bred. 0]
Jerseys, 15 to 18 months, 500 to 575 pounds tl
Holsteins, 19 to 23 months, 700 to 800 pounds 1 hl
Guernseys, 17 to 20 months, 550 to 625 pounds at
Ayrshires, 18 to 21 months, 600 to 675 pounds _
The normal gestation period for a cow is 283 days. Cows A C.
that freshen in the fall, September 1 to December 1, yield the h
highest production and are dry during the busy, hot season. ig
Consequently it usually is best to breed heifers between Novem- tj
be1· 20 and February 20. To breed for the shows, remember i;
that senior yearlings show best when springing. Older c0\\'S - t
show best a week before freshening. i r

 . F ·
  Dairy Project, Junior 4-H Clubs 7
  Choosing a sire. The heifer must be bred to a purebred
  bull. An aged bull which has sired high-producing daughters
  of good type is best. When a good proved bull is not available,
  and few of these are to be found, breed the heifer to the bull
  which has the favorable points as regards type and breeding
 S which were discussed in "Selection of the Heifer."
A.  Feeding. A heifer or cow should be fat at time of freshen-
W  ing, so feeding should be started two months before that time.
j Heifers may need from 2 to 8 pounds of grain a day, depending
on their condition, and cows may need from 2 to 16 pounds of
.  grain. With pasture or with legume hay and silage or fodder
l_ a mixture of
* 200 pounds corn-and-cob meal
100 pounds bran
V With mixed legume and grass hay and silage or fodder use
T  400 pounds corn
; 200 pounds bran
  100 pounds cottonseed meal
For ten days before and a week after calving feed bran alone `
or a mixture of 4 pounds of bran and 1 pound of linseed meal.
Feed from 2 to 6 pounds a day depending on the appetite. If
‘ the animal will eat wet feed, feed a warm bran mash the Hrst
two feeds after freshening. Reduce the allowance of silage one-
p‘ half the first two feeds after freshening; otherwise feed rough-
age at will.
Care. A heifer should be placed in stanchions with the
cows for at least a month previous to freshening and should be
? handled gently. A clean box stall, disinfected and well bedded,
. is the best place for a freshening cow or heifer in the winter. In
j_ the summer a shady lot is most desirable. Even tho the udder
is inflamed do not milk a cow before calving. Be certain that
V the calf is being presented normally and if the presentation is
j normal the cow should calve unaided within one-half hour. If

 *8 Ifeiztueky Extension °C'#i1·c2¢Zm· N0-250  
assistance is needed a pull on the front feet of the calf in a  
downward direction at the time the cow labors is most effective. z 
If the calf is not presented in a normal position call a licensed  
veterinarian or an experienced dairyman. After the calf is {
born remove all phlegm from its mouth and nostrils. If it fails Pnl
to breathe, regular pressure and release of the foreribs may ;;·` 
start breathing. If the cow fails to liek the calf an hour after  
it is born rub it until it is dry. Disinfect the navel with iodine.  
The calf should be helped as soon as it wants to suck because “ 
the colostru1n (Hrst milk) is necessary to its health. The cow T 
should be given as much warm water as she may car-e to drink V 
after calving and may have hay to eat at will.  
Breaking the heifer to mill;. Gentlencss and patience are ‘_ 
necessary in milking a heifer the first few days. Handled  
roughly at this time a heifer may be made permanently nervous ii 
. which will prevent her from yielding her best possible produc-
tion. It is not advisable to milk a cow dry for 48 hours after A
freshening as this lessens the danger of milk fever. Heifers C
freshening the first time, however, rarely have milk fever. If
the udder is badly inflamed milking several times a day will be
helpful. After each milking massage all of the quarters in a
downward direction. Applying mentholated vaseline makes the i
massaging easier and helps to irritate the skin, thus drawing a
larger blood supply to the udder. The massaging of the udder
by the calf when sucking is of some help in removing congestion.
If the inflammation continues to be severe bathe the udder with .
hot water (as hot as the hand will bear) for 30 minutes once or ‘ 
twice daily. Following the hot applications dry the udder,
apply mentholated vaseline and rub it in thoroly. Keep the
udder warm after using hot applications. Regularity in time 1
of milking will do much to eliminate udder troubles and is of p- 
prime importance in securing good production. Get Kentucky < 
Extension Circular N0. 227, "Feeding Dairy Cows for Proiit,"
for instructions on feeding cows in milk. .

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 10 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 250  .
If heifers 6 to 8 months of age are turned on pasture, grain   milk
feeding should be continued until the heifers are 8 months of  Z and S
age. 1 pound of grain a day with good pasture is sufficient.   (
If skimmilk is not available, dried skimmilk may be used i  draft
instead. Mix one pound of dried skimmilk with 9 pounds of   tied -
warm water and feed at blood temperature (100 to 103 degrees 3 This
F). Change from whole milk to remade skimmilk at the same   at a
age and in the same manner that the change is made to skim-   Wash,
milk. Neither skimmilk nor remade skimmilk need be fed in   Shoul
amounts over 14; pounds a day. They may be discontinued at   if ke]
three months. A grain mixture of I  .
·  at ni;
1 pound of cracked corn Q} 
1 pound of ground oats , CO
1 pound of bran X  ___
1 pound of linseed meal ·.  Dis,
` will be most satisfactory for the period from 3 to 6 months of ` §
age when no milk is fed. The mixture recommended in the   Scum
preceding tables will be satisfactory at other times.
General feeding rules. Feed whole milk immediately after j Ringu
milking. Milk from low-testing cows usually is most satis- . __
factory for calves. J Lice
Teaching the calf to clrinlc. After the calf is taken from its
mother (3 or 4 days of age) allow it to go 12 hours without feed.
Then place 2 or 3 pints of milk in a pail, back the calf into a A  
corner and stand stracldle of its neck. Hold the pail with one
hand and let the calf suck the first two fingers of the other hand.
Lower the hand until the ealf’s nose is in the milk. Remove the X
fingers slowly and when the calf raises its head repeat. The V Bmt
calf usually will drink the third feed without assistance. .
Patience is all that is needed. i
Keep brigltt, palatable hay before calves at all times. Mixed    
timothy and clover is most satisfactory while calves are receiving .
milk. NVhen the calf is no longer receiving milk, legume hay is n 
preferable. . M
To teach calves to eat grain at 10 days to two weeks of age, .  *
place a handful of grain in the bucket immediately after feeding ,  

 . `   _r‘ 
  Dairy Project, Junior 4-H Clubs 11
  milk or rub some grain on the calf’s nose. Keep clean water
{  and salt before calves at all times.
  Core. Keep the calf in a clean, well bedded stall, free from
  drafts. If two or more calves are put into a pen, keep them
  tied until their noses are dry, following the feeding of milk.
  This prevents sucking which ruins many udders. Feed calves
*  at a regular time, night and morning, in buckets which are
  washed at least once daily. Calves under 6 months of age
  should not be turned on pasture. They will grow more rapidly
_y if kept in the barn during the day and turned out for exercise
_;  at night.
i **m1w—·——i·······;·j—·
_  Disease { Cause or Symptoms { Treatment
I  I
· ...T-—- 
g Common |é)vterfeelgling,t cold mi{k, { Red1;Ic2e milk one-half. Dreneh
j Scours ir y uc te s, irregu ar wit ozs. castor oi. In sever
‘ {feeding. {cases follow with 1 teaspoonful oef _
‘ Isalol twice daily. Increase milk
{ { slowly.
j Ringworm {Round, hairless spots{Remove scab daily by sponging
{covered with grayish scab. {with a damp _cloth. Paint with
{ { {tincture of iodine .
2  Lice {Calf rubs, _especially the{Summer. Dip or wash with one
{neck and hind quarters. of the cresol solutions on the
’ { {market. Repeat in eight days. ‘
I {YVinter. Use some commercial
{louse powder and disinfect the
, { pens.
Pneumonia {Exposure in wet w¢§ttl}er { Iéeduce feedtand frfech brgn alone.
or in damp pens in ra . ‘ive a axa ive 0 oz. of
· Calf loses appetite, has { castor oil). Blanket the calf,
  high temperatu1‘e,*|keep it from drafts and call a
* breathes rapidly, is con-{veterinarian for further sugges-
  stipated. { tions.
{  Bloat {A rapid accumulation of {Place a stick in the calf's mouth
` {gas in the paunch or first I to keep it open, using it as a bit,
stomach. {and walk the calf. If this treat-
° {ment fails give a calf 2 ozs. of
mineral oil; a yearling 1,Q pint, or
. a cow 1 pint.
E  Yllhite {Caused by disease germs{Use regular scours treatment.
  Scours {which are in the calf’s I Then clean and disinfect all stalls
  body at birth or enter soon {and pens to avoid a recurrence of
' {after birth. Indicated by { the trouble. If the disease recurs
'j a white dysentery soon { in other calves see a veterinarian.
` after birth, and extremel
’  weakness. {
{ * The normal temperature of a cow is about 101 degrees   The normal
V pulse is 40 to 50 beats per minute and the normal respiration is from 10
 Q to 20 breaths per minute.

 12 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 250  
I I   sire,
Disease I Cause or Symptoms I Treatment  fi
I   3;  dang
Removing I ITh1‘ow the calf, clip the teat as   Eilld
Extra I Iclosely as possible with scissors .; .
Teats I Iand paint the wound with tincture EZ W€1g
| lof iodine. i-
  if HIDD-
Removing I IC1ip the hair and apply vaseline "
Horns I Iaround the horn button. Dampen . 3.S 3.
(Age 4-10 I Ithe end of a piece of caustic and . _
days) | Irub the button until it bleeds. _ 133011
I |Jerseys and Guernseys to be _{
I Ishown should not be dehorned. -: mon
  for I
A dairy cow may be compared to a machine which produces .;§ hojf.
milk and butterfat. If one machine is much more efficient or ‘
can perforin more service than another the less efficient one is  
discarded. So it is with dairy cows that fail to produce enough f 
to be profitable. Vilith butterfat selling at 35 cents the cow   mon
_ producing 125 pounds of butterfat (the average cow in the bkm
state) does not pay for her feed. The cow producing 400 past
pounds of butterfat can give her owner a nice return at this bpm
price. Since a cow is more or less a machine the materials taken nig};
into her body must fu1·nish her with enough food to nourish
her body and provide for production. Club members need · (mm
records of production each year to determine the ability of their in t
cows as producers, and thus to be able to feed them for the best fol-
and most economical production and to know their value as . For
foundation cows. A production record combined with proper
information on feeding will indicate the amount of feed a cow
should receive per day. A record of both daily and monthly
production will also indicate whether a cow is maintaining good `
production. Club members need records to show them which For
feeding practices give the best and most economical results.
Occasionally a club member may select a heifer which is not a _
profitable producer. If a cow is unprofitable one cannot afford _
to keep her, whether she be registered or grade, regardless of
her type. Over a period of years production records are needed yea;
to find those cows whose daughters are high producers and to tim;]
find whether daughters of certain herd sires produce more or Thi;
less than the cows to which those bulls were mated. A herd . mil]

 . `F 
  Dairy Project, Junior 4-H Clubs 13
  sire, which when mated to high-producing cows will sire
 f daughters that produce more than their dams, is very valuable
 V and should be kept in service as long as possible. Daily milk
  weights may be kept, the milk may be weighed three times a
  month, or it may be weighed once a month and this weight used
  as a measure of the milk production for the month. The milk
  from both milkings should be tested for butterfat once each
  month. The dairy record book for club members affords space
  for both production and feed cost records. See your club leader
`  and county agent in regard to keeping such records when your
  heifer freshens.
  Time. The fitting period should be from six weeks to two
TY  months in length and during this time calves should be kept
  blanketed in the barn. Yearlings and cows may be allowed on
I pasture during the night but should be kept in the barn under
blankets during the day. They should be kept in the barn -
night and day for three weeks before the show.
Feeding. An animal must be well-grown and must carry
Q enough flesh to be smooth, if it is to be given any consideration
Q in the show ring. The following grain mixtures are suitable
for use during the fitting period: i
V For thin animals
400 pounds ground corn
200 pounds bran
_; 100 pounds linseed meal or cottonseed meal
Q For animals in good flesh
» 300 pounds ground corn
l 300 pounds bran
* 100 pounds linseed meal or cottonseed meal
’? Amounts. Heifers under one year, 4 to 6 pounds daily;
  yearling heifers, 6 to 10 pounds daily, depending on their condi-
— tion and appetite; cows, enough to put them in good condition.
Q  This may vary from 4 to 15 pounds for dry cows, while cows
I;  milking heavily may need 10 to 18 pounds of grain per day.

 14 Kentucky Extension Circular N 0. 250  
Rate of increase. Start with 1 to 1% pounds per day for  
calves and increase the daily feed 1 pound the first day of each  
week. Start with 2 to 3 pounds per day for yearlings and  
increase at the rate of one pound a week. These are general  
rules and may not fit individual cases. Feed twice daily at ‘‘_-
regular hours and if an animal fails to eat all its feed, in 15 ,_
minutes remove that which is left and reduce the next feed. _
Weigh the feed or use a small measure that holds not more than if
2 pounds of feed. it
Roughcge. Clover or mixed timothy and clover hay is pref— ;  
erable for fitting animals of all ages, altho alfalfa and soybean I    c
hay will do. If one of the latter hays is used one may use lf   
timothy or some other grass hay every third feed. It is neces-    
sary that animals consume a large amount of hay if they are to    
develop a large "middle." After animals are put into the V?  
’ barn for fitting, silage or dried beet pulp is a valuable addition ·1  
as a roughage. Soak the beet pulp for 12 hours before feeding. ,  
It will take up about 3 times its weight of water. Feed calves i
4 to 6 pounds a day of the soaked beet pulp, yearlings 6 to 10 an .
pounds and cows 10 to 14 pounds.
Water. Animals being fitted for show should be watered bja
twice daily. It is best to water animals out of a bucket for tial
several days before they leave the farm. Loose salt may be fed S (B?
at will in a small box. (EB.
Blcnketing. A blanket may be made from burlap sacks. bjé
Split the sacks and lay them on the animal. The front edge of OH,
the blanket should just cover the lower point of the shoulder i fm
(a); the back edge should extend to the point where the tail im
joins to the tail head (b). The sides should hang almost even _ bg
With the belly or about 2 inches above the lowest point of the be
underline (c). After the sacks have been thus arranged, pin   ng
them together with safety pins. Then mark with safety pins St;
the places where straps will be fastened to the blanket. The _ fo;
straps which go under the neck should be sewed to the blanket c tg
4 inches above the point of each shoulder (d). One strap may _ Sh
be used, fastened at one end and the other end sewed to the   us

 Dairy Project, Junior 4-H Clubs 15
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  A serviceable tho inexpensive blanket made from burlap sacks and over-
},  all suspenders, plus a needle and heavy thread.
  blanket as in the illustration, or two straps may be used, to be
  tied together. Two straps hold the blanket from shifting to
  either side, one to pass on the inside of each hind leg. One end ‘
  of each should be sewed to the inside of the blanket at the flank
  (e), the other end snapped or tied to the rear edge of the
  blanket (f), 8 inches below the pin bones. Tho not necessary,
  one strap may be extended underneath the body back of the
E  front legs (g), and be fastened on the inside of the blanket 6
  inches from the lower edge on either side. After a pin has
  been placed at each of the positions mentioned the blanket may
Q  be removed, other sacks added to make the blanket of two thick-
  nesses and the sewing done. Old overall suspenders make good
  straps. Note in the illustration at (f) that buttons may be used
j  for easy removal of the blanket. At each place where a strap is
5  to be sewed to the blanket a piece of denim 6 inches square
  should be sewed to the burlap (d) and the strap sewed to both,
using harness thread or other extra heavy thread. If a sweat

 . _ 
16 Kentucky Extension Circular No. ,250  
blanket is desired a piece of old bed blanket placed under the   1
sack blanket will do very well. When the blanket is put on it   l
should be placed 2 or 3 inches too far forward and pulled to the   (
rear. A heavy canvas blanket may be purchased. Most herds-   E
men prefer the type without lining, using a piece of bed blanket {
when a sweat blanket is desired.   l
Washing. The animal should be washed at the time blanket- 1
ing is started. Use tar soap. If the weather is warm, cold
water is satisfactory. Pour water over the animal, then rub the ; ·
soap on one side until a thick lather is formed. Scrub with a _ 1
coarse brush, then rinse thoroly. Wash the other side in the U I
same manner and wash the switch. Jerseys and Guernseys M ,
should not be washed after the first washing. Holsteins may be —:‘ ‘
washed two or three times during the fitting period and must  
be washed the day before they are to be shown. After washing ‘_ `
put a clean sweat blanket under the regular blanket. Manure g
stains on the thighs and switch may be removed by adding a A
chlorine bleach to the rinse water. Bluing is satisfactory but
must be used carefully. lf the switch is white it should be
washed often enough to remove the stains.
Grooming. The animal must be groomed every day with a
soft brush. Use the curryco1nb only on the legs and flanks. A
After a thoro brushing, stroke the hair rapidly with the hands.
This is most impo1·tant because it gives a gloss to the hair and
removes the dead hair. If the hair is very long when fitting is
begun use coarse sandpaper twice a week to remove it.
Core of the hoofs. An animal must stand on its toes if it
is to show to advantage. Animals that have been on rough
grazing probably will not need their hoofs trimmed. Calves or
cows that have been long in the barn, perhaps will need their
hoofs trimmed to the proper shape. Calves and some yearlings
may be left standing when trimming their feet. It will be neces- i
sary to throw older catt