xt7bk35md295 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7bk35md295/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1933-09 volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Summary of Findings and Recommendations of the Kentucky Educational Commission", vol. I, no. 7, September 1933 text Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Summary of Findings and Recommendations of the Kentucky Educational Commission", vol. I, no. 7, September 1933 1933 1933-09 2021 true xt7bk35md295 section xt7bk35md295 a Commonwealth of Kentucky 0






Summary of

of the


Published By I ~ 9


Superlntendent of Public Instruction






Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post offlce at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

Vol.1 0 September, 1933 0 No.7












The Report of the Kentucky

Educational Commission

The complete report of the Kentucky Educational Com—
mission is now in the hands of the printer. It will be ready for
distribution sometime during the month of October. This issue
of the Educational Bulletin of the State Department of Educa-
tion contains a summary of the findings and recommendations
of the Educational Commission and the Commission’s platform.
statement. This platform statement sets out certain proposed
changes which the Commission feels are vitally necessary if our
schools are to be operated effectively and if the taxpayers are to
be assured maximum returns from educational expenditures.
This statement does not contain all of the recommendations of.
the Commission, but rather, it sets forth‘ certain changes which
can be effected withoutzadditidnal:éostffor the operation of the
schools and which will4i1i11‘f7rbv‘ei the state’siprogram of public
education. In additim-this: statement contains “a” recommenda-
tion that the Corig‘moiif Ssliodl Fund ~be,iricreased; This recom-
rvéimendation can be carriedth withoutC increasing the total ex-
" "penditures for public édilca‘tizin. in Kentucky, though it is my
belief that eventually the state must spend more money on its
schools if it is to provide for its future citizens the measure of
J‘ citizenship training to which they are entitled.

In addition to the complete report of the Commission, which
will be submitted to the members of the General Assembly at the
opening of the 1934 session, there is being prepared for the
approval of the Commission a revision of the school laws. This
revised school code will be submitted also to the members of the
General Assembly at the opening of the 1934 session.

It is the opinion of the Commission that the adoption of the
revised body of school laws by the General Assembly will do
much toward improving the educational situation in Kentucky.
This action, however, will not of itself insure equitable educa-
tional opportunities for all of our children. This can be brought
about only by the realization on the part of our people, includ-
ing the school people, of the fact that the schools are for the
children and that they constitute the chief means for the train-
ing of the future citizens of the state.

Superintendent of Public Instruction, and .
Chairman, Kentucky Educational Commisswn



.7. 7— a









Platform Statement. of the Kentucky Educational Com-


Aims and Functions of the Public Schools .......................................
Administrative Organization of the Public Schools ..................

Factors Affecting the Organization of the Public School
Curricula -



Employed Personnel
School Building and Grounds
The Education of Negroes ............................................................................
Adult Education
The Education of Handicapped Children .....................
School Costs

Financial Support of Education ...............................................................



Financial Administration of Kentucky School. Districts ......

Committee Organization for the Work of the Kentucky
Educational Commission


UNWEHCWV "A 1~ r , a "
















Members of the, Kentucky
Educational Commission

Superintendent of Public Instruction

State Department of Education

Frankfort, Kentucky

DR. FRANK L. MCVEY, President
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky

DR. H. H. CHERRY, President
'Western Kentucky State Teachers College
Bowling Green, Kentucky

Superintendent City Schools
Middlesboro, Kentucky

MR. H. W. PETERS, Superintendent
Christian County Schools
Hopkinsville, Kentucky

Mayfield, Kentucky

Wholesale Grocer

515 West Main Street
Louisville, Kentucky

Kentucky Congress for Parents and Teachers
Danville, Kentucky

Former United States Senator
Ashland, Kentucky

Secretary: JAMES W“. CAMMACK, JR.
Director of Research
State Department of Education
Frankfort, Kentucky

Frankfort, Kentucky



 Platform Statement of the
Kentucky Educational Commission

The report of the Kentucky Educational Commission deals
with (1) a philosophy of public education in Kentucky; (2) the
plan of organization and administration of Kentucky’s public
schools with accompanying recommendations for a more effective
and efficient plan of school organization and administration for
the state; and (3) school costs, support of public education, and
financial administration of the public schools with accompany-
ing recommendations for an improved plan of financing public
education in the state.

Many of these recommendations may be effected immedi-
ately without any additional outlay of funds. Indeed, many of
them will afford at a reduced cost the same measure of school
service which the state has been realizing. Other recommenda-
tions look toward the improvement of the state’s program of
school service from, alongztimehpointr of view. Taken together,
the two sets :01: Eebénlniendations; constitute a proposed course
for the state to follow in making’a‘vallable to all of its children
an acceptable m‘inimurvfn' {yogi-am bilediiéational opportunities,
both from an-’iii1meiiiaté,ésf vaall‘as; {along-time point of view.

The responsibility. for .improying the educational opportuni-
ties of the children 6f§§311t1icky rests with the citizens of the
state. They, thro”iigh"théif representatives in the General As-
sembly, have full authority to determine the level of educational
opportunities to which they feel their children are entitled. This
report represents an attempt on the part of the Kentucky Edu—
cational Commission, vested with authority by the citizens of
Kentucky through their representatives in the General Assem-
bly, to propose a program for a more acceptable plan of educa-
tional opportunities for all Kentucky children.

The signed statement, set out below, is the Commission’s
platform. This platform suggests the first steps to be taken by
the General Assembly in making an improved program of public
education available to the childhood of Kentucky.


The Kentucky Educational Commission was authorized by
the last General Assembly to make a study of public education
in Kentucky. Through the volunteer services of nearly one'hun-
dred Kentuckyedncators who know and understand our school
problems, this work has been completed. Our findings are being






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published in a volume of approacimately 350 pages which will be
available in October, .7933. W'e are making many recommenda-
tions for the improvement of public education in Kentucky.
These will be submitted to the General Assembly in the form
of a new body of school laws, as well as in our report. We be-
lieve that certain changes are vitally necessary if our schools are
to be efl'ectively operated and the taxpayers assured of maximum
returns from educational expenditures. These changes are as

1. The school laws should be revised and simplified. These
laws affect the everyday lives of the people and, therefore,
should be in a form understandable to them.

2. There should be created a. State Board of Education com-
posed of the Superintendent of Public Instruct-ion as chair-
man and seven representative laymen of the state appointed
by the Governor. This Board should have direction and
supervision of elementary and secondary education.
Through such a board we can be assured of a continuous

, and progressive policy inthe operationpf our elementary
and secondary schools: ' " : ' ‘

3. The elimination ofsmall‘. school districts and consolidation
of schools should beefiécted; This action will assure more
efiicient school service atless cost

4. The boards of education of all school. districts should be
elected at large and should have complete control of the
schools of their respective districts. The people in the rural
areas of Kentucky can never hope to get the same educa-
tional service as the people in the cities as long as the school
teachers are selected by people who are not competent to
pass on their qualifications. The sale of school positions,
nepotism, and favoritism in securing teachers will mean the
wrecking of the school system of the state. The people of
Kentucky will never have a satisfactory public school system
until they recognize the fact that the schools are for the
children of the commonwealth.

5. The minimum qualification for teachers should be raised
from one year to two years of special college training.
Teachers in the service should be given ample opportunity
and time to meet this standard. For years the more pro-
gressive school districts in Kentucky have voluntarily main-
tained qualifications of two years of college work or higher
for their teachers. The other school districts can never hope
to improve their schools unless they employ teachers .with
proper qualifications.


 l be p 6. The creation of a council on public higher education, com-
de ; posed of representatives of the University of Kentucky and
cky. the four teachers’ colleges and the State Board of Educa-
orm ‘ tion, is proposed in order to correlate the work of these in—
be- stitutions and give a unified program of higher education
are and also to coordinate the program of higher education with
tum the common school program.
3 as _ 7. The schools would welcome a reorganization of the state


government providing for a modernized state budget which

hese ‘ would enable school support to receive proper consideration
ore, 'in the whole structure of government.

8. School boards should guard carefully their funds and should
operate their schools within their respective incomes. Better





., _
:59: protection for school funds in the hands of local school
ited boards and stricter budgetary control of expenditures will
and make this possible. The floating school debt is a serious
gm. problem in many districts.
,‘01‘3 .3 9. The Common School Fund should be increased. There. are
"ary r 720,000 children of school age in the state. We recognize the
financial situation in Kentucky, but even with that in mind,
“‘0” the children of school age must be educated today. There-
tore l fore, provision must be made to meet this situation. The
3 Common School Fund must provide for a larger per capita
: ‘ distribution ; otherwise, thousands of children will never
be ‘ have the advantage of an acceptable minimum program of
the = education, nor can vast numbers of teachers be paid a living
[Ural Iwaga
ll] -
5/321 10. A satisfactory program of equalization can never be accom-
5 to . plished until a constitutional amendment is passed provid-
ans, 1 ing for a special equalization fund.
jig; (Signed) JAMES H. RICHMOND, Chairman
the H. H. CHERRY
1" ' J. W. BRADNER
Esed W. J. WEBB
slin- ‘
— . . —7— .










Aims and Functions of the Public Schools


Education is a state function. From the time of George
Washington to Franklin D. Roosevelt, America’s eminent states-
men and leaders have committed themselves in unmistakable
language to the effect that education is the instrument by which
popular government is maintained.

The makers of the State Constitution did not want any
doubt left in the mind of the public, and particularly the mind
of the General Assembly, with respect to the importance of edu-
cation in Kentucky. In Section 183 of the Constitution, they
charged the lawmakers of the state in these words: “The general
assembly shall by appropriate legislation provide for an efficient
system of common schools throughout the state.” Through the
decades of the state’s history, many decisions of the Court of
Appeals have emphasized the fact that public education is a fun—
damental and indisputable function of the state. Pages could
be quoted from the decisions of this Court upholding legislation
designed to promote public education. The primary reSponsi.
bility in providing for an adequate system of schools for the
children of Kentucky belongs to the state.

Schools are established and maintained for the education
of children. When buildings are erected to improve real estate
values, when large taxpayers seek membership on school boards
in order to keep down school taxes, and when teachers are ap—
pointed because they are related to trustees, school officials, or
influential citizens, schools are being maintained for the benefit
of adults and not for the benefit of the children who are sup-
posed to be educated in them. There are literally hundreds of
cases in Kentucky where trustees and board members have
secured their election primarily for the purpose of appointing
a near relative as teacher in the local school. Such a practice
cannot be permitted to prevail indefinitely Without undermining
the ideals of the citizenship of a state. This Commission calls
upon the citizenry of Kentucky to accept the philosophy that
schools are maintained for the benefit of children and not for the
promotion of the interests of adults.

Although education in Kentucky has advanced in some
ways, its progress has simply paralleled, though on a much lower
plane, the advances made in education throughout the nation.
Free public education has been relatively slow in gaining a foot-






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hold in Kentucky. For more than forty years there were no
public schools within the state. Few public high schools were
authorized until after the opening of the twentieth century.
Finally, after nearly a century of struggle and effort, a free
public school system from the primary grades through the uni-
versity has been accepted by Kentucky in principle at least.

Tuition for instruction at any level is inimical to the best
interest of the state. It is undemocratic. General education
supported by the state must be open to all, free, and non-sec-
tarian fromthe primary school through the university. This
ideal Kentucky has already accepted and to a degree achieved.
It remains for the state to strengthen the weak points, eliminate
waste, and provide better facilities for the attainment of these


The general aims of education that with varying emphasis
run through the whole school system from the kindergarten to
the graduate school, may be included in four statements. These
aims are:

1. To promote citizenship through the development of indi-
vidual character and social leadership.

2. To make possible the development of knowledge through the

mastery of the tools of learning and the promotion of re-


To provide a cultural basis for enriched living. -

To render vocational guidance and to provide opportunity

for education in professional fields.


This statement of objectives serves to emphasize the unity
of educational purpose and to bind together the separately
listed aims for the three levels of education, elementary, second-
ary, and higher education.

Aims and objectives of the elementary schools.—The old
conception of elementary education, where classes were con-
ducted in a humdrum way inside the bleakwalls of a school, is
fast giving way to a newer conception, where the program is eX<
pended in keeping with a better understanding of child nature
and through the development of those activities that make school
days a romantic adventure. In other words, the objectives of
elementary education find their highest expressions in the life
objectives of the children. For this reason only those things
should be offered in the elementary schools which are equally de-
sirable for all. Opportunity must then be provided in these
early days of school life to cultivate habits, skills, and attitudes
that are essential to the well being of all children.









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The aims of elementary education may be grouped under
the four general objectives as follows:

1. To develop a healthy body and wholesome mental attitudes.

2. To develop an understanding of social relationships.

3. To gain control of the fundamental subjects which are
equally desirable for all.

4. To form the habit of thinking clearly by developing a proper
sense of values.

I 5. To develop an appreciation of and a desire for worth while

6. To discover and develop the individual ’s own aptitudes.

Aims and objectives of the secondary schools—The second-
ary school should continue the training of the elementary school,
but at the same time should recognize the demand for the ex-
ploration of individual abilities and interests and the necessity
for beginning educational and vocational specialization. The
secondary school, therefore, cannot set up objectives wholly in-
dependent of the objectives of the elementary school. However,
the ability of the children to use the tool subjects for the pur-
pose of study, the physical and mental growth of the children
and the new subject—matter introduced in the secondary school
program, will tend to shift the emphasis from the acquisition of
special abilities in the elementary school to that of attitudes to-
Ward conduct. ideals, standards, and habits in the secondary

The aims of secondary education are largely to be found in
the major activities of life in which people are expected to en-
gage. These activities may be grouped as: (1) those related to
social and political welfare; (2) those related to recreation and
use of leisure time; and ( 3) those related to vocations.

The aims of secondary education may be classified also in
terms of the four broad objectives as follows:

1'. To develop ideals and habits of health and of conduct.

2. To develop an understanding of the important civic and
social institutions and activities within the local community,
the state, and the nation.

3. To develOp skill in language expression.

4. To develop skills in the techniques of science and the
manipulation of data.

5. To develop an appreciation of the aesthetic values of litera-
ture, music, and art.

6. To develop ideals, habits, and standards of beauty in home

7. To develop an understanding of the vocations.







8. To reveal and develop special interests and aptitudes' for
vocational pursuits.

Desirable public school ideals and, standards.—~To secure for
every child the opportunity to attend progressive modern public
schools, certain specific ideals and standards will have to be at-
tained in the organization and administration of the public
schools, both elementary and secondary. Among these are the

1. For each child an intelligent, alert, and vigorous teacher
trained specifically for the level of school work in which she
is engaged.

2. An effective organization for professional supervision, both
by the state and the local administrative unit.

3. A school environment for every school child that is safe,
sanitary, and educationally effective.

4. Courses of study set up in terms of the aims of education
and in terms of pupil and teacher activities.

5. A rapid reduction in the number of small schools and small
school districts with a View both of educational efficiency
and financial economy.

6. The limitation of the elementary school period to the first
six grades and the extension of the secondary school down-
ward to include grades seven and eight as rapidly as this
reorganization becomes feasible.

7. A plan of state support that will provide for the child a
defensible minimum educational program, in terms of the
teacher, buildings and equipment, materials of instruction,
administration and supervision, and length of school term.

8. The provision for each elementary and for each high school
of the state of an intelligent and professionally trained ad-

In addition, for the elementary school, attendance laws and
an organization for thg enforcement of compulsory attendance
which Will insure that every child is enrolled in some school and
attends every day that he and the school Will profit more from
his presence than from his absence.

In addition, for the secondary school:

1. Greater ability to retain pupils in the secondary schools
through a more efficient general program and curricula bet-
ter adapted to community and individual needs.

2. The centralization of all authority for the standardization,
classification, and accrediting of secondary schools in the
State Department of Education.

' 11











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Aims and objectives of higher education—It is a philosophy
of higher education generally accepted that the state should pro-
vide educational opportunities for its potential citizens who are
capable of profiting from these opportunities by giving them
such training that they will be able to become leaders, and to
make real contributions to the state, which contributions Will
have a far greater material value than the money expended by
the state in giving the training. That the state’s obligation does
not stop with the elementary and secondary fields, but also in-
cludes higher education, because of its rich cultural and voca-
tional content, is a democratic ideal which states have already

As a result of the state’s obligation to furnish preparation of
a vocational nature, it has undertaken the preparation of teach—
ers and of its future citizens in agriculture, in commerce, in
engineering, in law, in medicine, in industry, in home economics,
in fine arts, and in liberal culture.

The state has accepted also the obligation of preparing its
citizens to extend the boundaries of human knowledge through
graduate school facilities.

The aims of higher education may be classified also in terms

' of the four main objectives, as follows:

1. To preserve, interpret, disseminate, apply, and advance


2. To develop the power to make personal and social adjust-

. ments.

3. To create intelligent and active citizenship.

4. To furnish a philosophic and religious background for
ethical and spiritual interpretations.

5. To prepare for economic and vocational competency.

6. To give a cultural background for satisfactory living.


The University of Kentucky has been created by the people
to render specific services and to teach and instruct students 011
the campus of the institution. The purpose is to provide voca-
tional and professional opportunity for cultural advancement
and knowledge. To this end seven colleges have been established
in the organization of the University.

The second function is to carry on research and investiga-
tion. Every university worthy of the name must engage in
investigation and the collection of information on sociological,
economic, governmental and the conservation problems of the
state. To that purpose the Agricultural Experiment Station,
the Public Service Laboratories, Inspection Service, and Bureaus









iar." (DJ—i3



of Business Research, Government Research, and School Service
have been established.

The rural interests of the state are being advanced through
the work of the Experiment Station and Division of Agricultural
Extension under the provisions of federal and state laws. The
University Extension Department ofifers to citizens who cannot
attend the University opportunities to study at home or in
classes organized in groups away from the University.

Another function of the University is the maintenance of
libraries and museums. These are important to state develop-
ment and to the preservation of relics, materials, and facts of
the past. .

The fundamental purpose of the University is to associate
itself with the life of the state, and through such agencies as it
possesses, preparei the youth of the state to enter into the larger
activities of life. To study constantly the problems and difficul-
ties facing the state in order that it may proceed into a larger
and more effective economic and social life.


The primary function of the teachers' college is the prepara-
tion of teachers, supervisors, and administrators for all types of
teaching positions in the public, rural, and urban elementary
and secondary schools of the state. The student of the teachers’
college must acquire a mastery of such subject matter as the race
should preserve, for the teacher is the chief agent for the trans-
mission of our racial heritage. No college should place greater
emphasis on culture and superior scholarship than the teachers’
college. Through courses in content and theory, the observation
of teaching, and practice in the training school, the student of
the teachers’ college acquires a professional training that equips
him for the difficult and humanly important art of teaching.
The attainment of scholarship and a mastery of the art of teach-
ing constitute the companionate purposes of the teachers’ college
in the education of teachers.

Other subsidary functions of the teachers’ college that are
indispensable in the building of the state’s educational system
are the operation of a training school, field service, research, and
the development of ethical and professional standards or ideals.

The teachers’ college is primarily interested in preparing
young people to share their education with the children of all
the people. It is in this way that this college serves all the
people in a very vital and direct manner.


. 13








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Administrative Organization of the Public Schools

1. The State Board of Education is an ex officio board
composed of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Attor-
ney General, and the Secretary of State. These three ofiicers
have been members of this Board by legislative enactment since
1838. For a short period late in the nineteenth century these
three members selected two professional schoolmen to serve with
them on the State Board of Education.

2. a) The Superintendent of Public Instruction is, by Vir-
tue of the Constitution, a politically elected officer elected for a
four-year term and may not succeed himself in office. No specific
educational qualifications are required of him.

b) Though there are many conflicting and vague pro-
visions in the school laws concerning his powers and duties, the
Superintendent of Public Instruction is the executive officer of
the State Board of Education with an advisory relationship with
city and independent graded school districts, and with both
advisory and directory relationships with county school districts.

3. The State Department of Education does not exist, as it
should, as an agency of the State Board of Education, but rather
as a division of government under the control of the Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction. '

4. a) The General Assembly has seen fit to create the fol-
lowing types of school districts, namely: (1) city school districts
of the first, second, third, and fourth classes; (2) independent
graded common school districts; and (_ 3) county school districts.

There are 371 school units (May, 1933), 68 of which are
city school districts; 188, graded school districts; and 120, county
school districts, 12 of which are complete county units. The
county districts are divided into approximately 7,000 subdis-
tricts. The people elect 3 subdistrict trustees in each subdistrict.
More than 23,500 school officials direct the activities of slightly
more than 17,000 teachers. Each type of district has its own
body of school laws. While there is much in common in the
various school codes, there exist significant differences among
all of them. No valid reason exists for these differences except
in a very few cases.

b) There are variances in (1) size of districts—from one
hundred census pupils in a few small independent graded dis-
tricts to almost sixty thousand census pupils in the Louisville
City District; (2) type of control—from three executive officers
for a city of the first class to one executive officer in all other
districts save cities of the second class which may have two execu-
tive officers; (3) number and time of election of board members











——eities of the third class have nine board members, cities of the
fourth class have six, and all others have five members; (4)
school tax rates may vary by law from a minimum of $0.25 on
each $100 of annual valuation of property in certain types of dis-
tricts to $1.50 maximum rate for certain types of districts; (5)
some boards levy their own taxes, others do not; (6) county dis-
tricts have three subdistrict trustees in each subdistrict or attend-
ance area—others have neither subdistricts nor subdistrict trus-
tees; (7) costs of administration are considerably higher in some
types of districts than in others, and all school administrative
costs are higher in Kentucky than in the nation, due largely to
the number of small districts; and (8) the percentages of non-
enrollment and retardation are enormous, especially for county
districts. One child in six is not enrolled in the public schools,
and approximately one child in three in school is retarded.

5. Kentucky maintains five institutions of college rank for
white persons, namely, the University of Kentucky and the four
teachers’ colleges at Bowling Green, Richmond, Murray, and
Morehead. It maintains also two collegiate institutions for
Negroes. Eight per cent of the total population of the state is
colored. Each of the seven institutions has its own board of
control. There exists a Normal Executive Council, two councils
in fact, composed of the presidents of the four teachers’ colleges
and the Superintendent of Public Institution. This Council is
the only coordinating agency for the institutions of higher learn-
ing. Its powers extend only to entrance requirements and curri-
cular ofierings, there being no coordinating agency in so far as
business and financial matters are concerned.

6. There yet' remains a State Board of Examiners com--

posed of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Director
of Certification of the State Department of Education, and an
educator appointed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction.
This is a “hold over” board from the time when most teachers
were certificated by examination instead of upon credentials as
is the case today. The Board has outlived its usefulness.

7. A State Textbook Commission composed of nine mem-
bers, including the Superintendent of Public Instruction, who is
ex officio secretary of the Commission, adopts the basal texts in
all fields of the common schools except for school districts embrac-
ing cities of the first four classes