xt7bvq2s5t8n https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7bvq2s5t8n/data/mets.xml The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. 1972 bulletins  English The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Frontier Nursing Service Quarterly Bulletins Frontier Nursing Service Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 3, Winter 1972 text Frontier Nursing Service Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 3, Winter 1972 1972 2014 true xt7bvq2s5t8n section xt7bvq2s5t8n jfmnticr jfiurzing $£I’hi£B
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Published at the end of each Quarter by the Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.
Lexington, Ky.
Subscription Price $1.00 a. Year ,_
Edit0r’s Office: Weudover, Kentucky 41775 }
Second class postage paid at Lexington, Ky. 40507 `, I
Send Form 3579 to Frontier Nursing Service, Wendover, Ky. 41775
Copyright, 1972, Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.

 7 F
_ / A "Family Nurse" of the Last Century A Photograph Inside Back
g X Cover
i`  American College of Nurse—Midwives _ _
J Workshop Elsie Maier 26
I An International Evening Louise Knight Clement 9
E Field Notes 43
E Frontier Nursing Service
E Annual Meeting 25
  Hog Killing Ethel Nolan 18
`   Mary Breckinridge Hospital (Illus.) 11
  · Old Courier News 13
3 Old Staff News 27
{   Our Mail Bag 8
~ in Rancher Wife in the Wilds The Countryman 21
  Rebirth of the Midwife (Illus.) Dife 3
T   The Family Nurse Program 39
l iz The Master Word William Osler, M .D. 2
    Devonshire Woman . . . 47
  Double Preoaution Modern Maturity 12
` Hard Times For Women The Colonial Crier 12
    Least Said The Countryman 41
    Lester City 40
— ` Readers' Motoring Tales-148 The Countryman 17
J S Those Work Fanatics . . . The Colonial Crier 41
{ v t White Elephant 42
T Wife Explaining . . . Modern Maturity 25

Though liTTle, The masTer word looms large in
meaning. IT is The "open sesame" To every porTal,
The greaT equalizer, The philosopher`s sTone which .
TransmuTes all base meTal oT humaniTy inTo gold. f
The sTupid iT will make brighT, The brighT brillianT,  
and The brillianT sTeady. To youTh iT brings hope,  
To The middle—aged conTidence, To The agecl re- T
pose. lT is direcTly responsible Tor all advances in y
medicine during The pasT 25 years. i\IoT only has ly
iT been The TouchsTone oT progress, buT iT is The  
measure oT success in everyday liTe. And The  
masTer word is work.  
——William Osler. M.D.  

5 © 1971 Time nm.
y Reprinted with permission from LIFE Magazine
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1 ` Michael Mauney-LIFE Magazine © Time Inc.
i After staying almost continuously with her patient through six hours of Iabor, student
g nurse-midwife Judy Friend . . . retrieves the crying baby from the incubator and presents
{ ii to ·l·he wai+ing mother.
3 Judy Friend 1S 26 years old, a brisk, amiable Canadian-and
  . a midwife. To most people the term midwife conjures an image
§ of a stooped and competent granny, apron stuffed with herbal
  remedies, who comes to help with the birthing because nobody
  else is around. Except for the competence, Judy Friend is nothing
  like that. She is a fairly typical example of a new class of medi-
`l cal specialists whose abilities help fill the gap left by the nation-
\ K wide—and worldwide-doctor shortage. Trained at a remarkable
l_ institution in Kentucky, the Frontier Nursing Service, Judy re-
{ cently became a qualified nurse-midwife, equipped to give expec-
    tant women prenatal care, to deliver the baby, and then to offer
» ‘ follow-u counselin for mother and child.
lz p . . . .
  Nurse-midwives hke Judy Friend have been graduating from

FNS since 1939, and from seven other schools in the U. S., includ- p
ing Yale, Columbia and Johns Hopkins. But the medical pro-  ·
fession and the public have been slow to accept them. Not until
this year did the American College of Obstetricians and Gyne-
cologists Hnally extend its oificial recognition. There are still l
fewer than 1,200 nurse-midwives in the country, but the demand i
is growing rapidly, particularly in doctor-poor inner-city areas. *‘
Ten jobs await every graduate. Sixteen new training facilities Q
are expected to open in the next few years. p
What draws women into nurse-midwifery today is, at least _
in part, the challenge of responsibility. "You’ve really got to give .
of yourself/’ says Judy Friend. "You’ve got to be willing to go
on call and be up at all hours and be disappointed. You can have i
one terrific delivery, and the next time it can go haywire, which —
can just crush you. But you’ve got to get up and say you’ve
learned." ‘
Judy Friend first heard of the FNS midwifery program in »
India, where she was working as a nurse in Canada’s equivalent
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Michael Mauney-—LIFE Magazine © Time Inc. l

- QUARTERLY BUi.1..m*1N 5
, of the Peace Corps. When her term of service ended, she headed
’ for Kentucky. What she found was. an odd combination of rural
isolation and academic excellence. Located in Hyden (population
800) , 19 miles from the nearest public transportation, the school
is part of a unique health-care system that includes a 16-bed hos-
i pital, six auxiliary clinics and a staff of 34.
" To see whether a student can cope with the diihcult condi-
1 tions of life in the mountains, and to train her in a special degree
of self-reliance, incoming nurse-midwife candidates—who have
, already finished their training as R.N.s—are first required to
· spend six months working in the FNS hospital. Then the 12-
month midwifery course begins. Life quickly iills with the kind
of pressures students will face as midwives. Lectures and study
are interspersed with practical application in maternity wards,
‘ in prenatal and family planning clinics. Students are frequently
routed out of bed in the middle of the night to watch doctors
deliver complicated cases.
L Classes are kept small in order to afford strong individual
instruction. Only after she was some seven months into the
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, Michael Mauney——LIFE Magazine © Time Inc.
  Above. midwitery classes hear a lecture on birth control devices trom Dr. Rogers Beasley,
l FNS medical director. Occasionally, when one ot their patients arrives in labor, students
 y are called from class and make the 60-second dash to the maternity ward.

course and after observing 20 deliveries with instruction did Judy
begin to make deliveries herself with a supervisor at her side.
For fear of making a mistake the very first time, she got her
supervisor out of bed and down to the delivery room eight hours ~
early, even though, she confesses, "On your first delivery your  
biggest problem is to make it seem as though it’s not your iirs.t." `
Judy had to master more than just the physical technique of »
bringing a baby into the world. She also had to understand and ·
learn to cope with all the emotional anxieties of a woman faced
with giving birth. This, she says, can be "a real art. Every
atient is different and ou have to find out what works to make
her lose her own special fears."
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Michael Mauney—LIFE Magazine © Time Inc. t
Atter delivering a baby, Judy makes a home visit to check the progress ot mother and
child in their own environment .... Noticing that Beatrice Karen, 2, has been especially
withdrawn since the new baby's arrival, Judy asks it she wouldn't like to hug her baby
brother. For a tee ot $IOO FNS provides a "maternity package" that includes prenatal
care tor the mother, delivery in the home or hospital and tive home visits. F
The satisfactions of midwifery lie in the personal contact. {
"In nurse’s training, when I was doing my obstetrics work," Judy ·y»
recalls, "it was so impersonal. We’d be working in a ward with ·
maybe ten women in labor, trying to keep an eye on all of them. T

When their time came, off they would go and someone else would
deliver them. It was like a conveyor belt—you know, here comes
. another baby. But here we work on a one-to-one basis. We learn
to assess a patient’s needs and then to fuliill them. And this
I fulfills my needs."
’, "Nurse—1nidwives are equipped for many things. They can
5 do much more than just deliver babies," says Medical Director
, Beasley. Last year FNS began giving its students additional
l instruction in childhood diseases, common adult ailments and
geriatric problems. This program has attracted the attention of
' nursing schools across the country, as a means not only of mak-
ing general health care more available but also of making modern
medicine more personal.
Over the last ten years FNS has led a family planning pro-
gram in its local county, which had one of the highest birth rates
in the nation. The rate has dropped 50%, an accomplishment
Beasley attributes to the close relationship that develops between
[ midwives and their patients.
i Because of the satisfactions of working with FNS’s approach
R to patient care some students stay on after their training is com-
Y pleted, and Judy Friend is one of these. She wants to return to
  Canada eventually, but she worries about being unable to get a
C job there. "Midwifery isn’t accepted in Canada," she says, "and
‘ it’s a shame. The U. S. and Canada have infant mortality rates
l that are among the highest in all the developed countries. That’s
wrong. They both need midwives." .

 s 1¤1>.oN·:1m12 Nunsms smnvicm
From A11 Ex-Staff Member: I like what you are doing there!
From A Friend in North Carolina: Anyone who becomes ac- 4
quainted with the activities of the Frontier Nursing Service can- *
not help but have admiration for what they are doing and a wish y
that more people were doing the same.
From A Former Medical Staff Member: Now that we have been
gone for six months, and I’ve had time to adjust to the realities
of the medical world outside the mountains, I’m more convinced
than ever before that the Family Nurse program is a great pro-
gram. I’m glad I had a small part in it, and I’m very glad it is
From A Guest From the Public Health Service, Washington: A
Professionally, I was tremendously impressed with the dimen- i
sions and quality of the services you are providing for the people
in Leslie County. In view of the elements with whic`h you have
to contend, it is amazing that the original high standards of care
have been maintained. · L
From A Guest From North Carolina: I admire the commitment
as well as the skilled nursing care provided by the nurses we
visited. The Frontier Nursing Service has truly provided me with
added insight and respect for the role that nursing has to play "
in the delivery of health services in rural areas. `
From A Friend In Washington, D. C.: We both were very im-
pressed with the great strides FNS has made since our last visit.
It is especially gratifying that with all the progress that has been e
made and the entrance of the Federal Government on the scene,
the special quality of FNS has not changed. V
From A Former Nursing Stai Member: So many needed changes i
have been accomplished at FNS. We were thrilled to see such
progress being made. The new school for the Family Nurse and ‘
Aunt Hattie’s Barn are remarkable. We want to continue our " 
support of such a fine and dear organization, even if it has to  i
be in a small way for the time being. p

Former Courier, summer of 1964, spring of 1966
Q Member, Washington Wellesley Club Experiment in Mutual Understanding
_ The dimensions of knowledge about the important work of
the Frontier Nursing Service were expanded in a new direction
on a recent Sunday this past January. In response to an invi-
tation from the Wellesley Club of Washington, D. C., Mrs. Jef-
ferson Patterson, the FNS National Chairman, generously gave
over the evening of January 9 in order to share with a special
audience her knowledge of the FNS and of the people of Appa-
lachia, and to show the award-winning motion picture about
the FNS, THE ROAD. Gathered to hear Mrs. Patterson were
~ a large number of foreign students who are studying in the
I Washington area and who form a unique group organized by
the Washington Wellesley Club, designed to foster better mutual
understanding between Americans and students from abroad
studying in the United States. The students, who come from a
_ , wide variety of foreign countries, including Germany, Japan,
P Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Spain, Mexico, South Vietnam,
and the Philippines, gather one Sunday a month with the Ameri-
can members of the group at the home of one of the Wellesley
alumnae to have dinner and to hear a special speaker discuss
J a selected aspect of American life. It seemed to all of us in the
‘ foreign student group that the chance for the students to be
exposed to a view of Americans in Appalachia and of the efforts
of the FNS would be an important contribution towards gener-
ating the type of mutual understanding we were seeking to
E create. We little realized how totally effective Mrs. Patterson’s
presentation would be in promoting our goal.
j The impact of Mrs. Patterson’s introductory remarks and
  of the motion picture itself was best dramatized by the ques-
tions posed by the students once the nlm was over. Many of
‘ them found it hard to realize that there existed in this country
"  an area such as Appalachia; nor could they believe it was
 J located no more than one day’s drive from where we all were.
  No doubt the general impression of many of the students had

 10 1=·RoN¤;·nm NURs1NG smnvzciz
been that Americans as a whole carry on existences of relative
material comfort, in reasonably good health, and in cities of
one size or another. It was a major revelation for them to see T
and hear about a highly rural segment of America where for
some families the most elementary needs of life still struggle g ·
to be satisfied. The significance of the FNS’ presence in Appa- l
lachia was keenly felt by the students; they were perhaps most L
impressed with the fact that maternal deaths for the area under E
FNS care have been totally eliminated. The most touching  
demonstration of regard for the work of the FNS was con-
tained in a Filipino girl’s request to Mrs. Patterson—she wanted
to know whether she could be of any help to the FNS as a vol- T
unteer worker over her two—week spring vacation. When told
that the period was too short to be truly useful, she asked Mrs.
Patterson how she could send some money to help the FNS with
its important activities. An additional effect of Mrs. Patterson’s
informed and compassionate discussion of the dilemmas of
Appalachia and of the FNS’ involvement with those dilemmas
was that the students from underdeveloped countries were given
an entirely new and more favorable impression of American .
(and, of course, British) attitudes and motivations in dealing  
with the less privileged. V
In retrospect the experience of the Wellesley Experiment Y
in Mutual Understanding with Mrs. Patterson and with the .
story of the FNS she offered was highly significant from the
perspective of the goals behind our foreign student group; we ·
had been able to share another side of our country and of our-
selves with individuals who had only recently become ac-
quainted with us. But our FNS Sunday had yet another impor-
tant result. The occasion represented one more example of the
continuously expanding circle of people aware of the problems
in Appalachia and magnificently impressed with the Frontier
Nursing Service’s response to those problems. ,

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The National Chairman, Mrs. Jefferson Patterson, signs the contract for construction ot
ge newHhospitaI, witnessed by Mrs. Robert W. Estill, Chairman of the FNS Washington
Omml EG.
We think it rather unlikely that there are many friends of
the FNS who do not know that work began on the Frontier Nurs-
ing Clinical Training Center in late December, but, in case you
haven’t heard, CONSTRUCTION HAS BEGUN! And even if
you already know, we are sure you won’t mind hearing the good
news all over again!
The construction contract was awarded to the Ernest Simp-
‘ son Cons.truction Company of Glasgow, Kentucky. It was an
exciting day for all of us when the bulldozers moved in and
started leveling the site and digging the foundations. We were
pleased that the earth that had to be moved from the site could
¤ be put to good use. It is being used as till for a much—needed
parking lot for the City of Hyden and we hope our friends who
live between the hospital site and the parking lot will excuse the
mud which seems to be everywhere!
The weather has been relatively kind to us but there have
still been days when the ground was too wet, or too frozen, for
work to continue. However, we are glad to report that earth-
y moving is almost completed and it will soon be time for the forms
, and the steel that is accumulating on the site to be put to use.
J Within the past week, Mr. Wayne Johnson, the resident inspector
Ii from the firm of Watkins, Burrows & Associates, our architect,
\   i has moved to Hyden to oversee construction.
Undoubtedly our slogan for the coming months will be "up-
ward and onward".

Fathers who nowadays are struggling to pay tuition and `
other college costs for daughters bent on acquiring Bachelors,
Masters and perhaps Ph.D. degrees may reflect with nostalgia on ‘
those Colonial days when education for women was virtually
taboo, save for the arts. in cooking and sewing. p_
The clergy, taking their lead from St. Paul, pushed hard 1
for the second class status of women. She was to wear modest p
raiment, to obey her husband’s superior judgment . . . she was
not to be seen nor heard very much.  ·
Later history shows that these admonitions were some- .
times disregarded by spirited females. Of all the cautions, the
counsel to silence was perhaps the one most often broken, as this
inscription on an ancient New England tombstone indicates:
Here lies as silent clay 4
Miss Arabella Young
Who on the 21st of May, 1771, —
Began to hold her tongue. P
—-—The Colonial Crier, Nov.-Dec. 1971  i
Colonial Hospital Supply Company
Chicago, Illinois
Boss: "Did you write ‘Fragile-this side up' on the carton
before shipping it out ?"
New Clerk: "Yes, sir. And to make sure that everyone saw
it, I marked it on both sides." ·*
—Modem Maturity  L
December-January 1966-67

j Edited by
· From Nancy Dammami, The Philippines-—Christmas, 1971
I’ve just finished a field trip to the Sulu Archepelago in S.
p_ Philippines which reminded me of the FNS. We visited a Medical
— Missionary Hospital operated by nuns (two doctors and four
nurses) on a small island called Bongao which can be reached
» only by a combination of boat and small plane. The hospital
 y services, the sea gypsies and the doctors take week-long trips
. to neighboring islands where they live in village huts. It always
. makes me feel good to see work such as the Medical Missionaries
or that of FNS.
From Candace Dornblaser Steele, Palo Alto, California
I —Christmas, 1971
Chuck continues to be absorbed in his work at Ampex, thor-
~ oughly enjoying it and its demands. He regularly bikes the
_ thirteen mile round-trip to Ampex, and finds himself fidgety if
 , he misses the exercise. Chuck’s happiest times have been spent
in his woodworking shop, concentrating on all sorts of projects
from bowls and candlesticks to dog jumps to furniture finishing.
· I am working less this year. I started on "relief", which
 y means that I am called when needed; but, I can say "no"; and,
  for the first time in seven years, I’m having weekends and eve-
i‘ nings at home with the family.
Danae is 13, and has had two big events this year. Vasal,
the black labrador she raised for Guide Dogs for the Blind, gradu-
ated last spring and went to live with a young man. And this
October she finished our family’s golden retriever, Flicka, in her
first AKC obedience title.
~ Heidi is 11%, and is busy with many interests and close
 i friendships. Her biggest love is her Guide Dog puppy, a golden
retriever. Her packrat spirit centers around her beautiful shell
1 collection, which she has carefully labeled and organized by types
for display.
Heather is 10, and reads voraciously, especially horse books;

 14 mourinn Nnnsmo smnvrcn
dreams about having riding lessons, and avidly collects spoons.  `
In 4-H she is working on macrame and weaving, and has started
begixming cooking.
Last summer the girls and I went to Camp Unalayee, the
girls as campers, and I as camp nurse. The girls all had good V
hiking fun.
From Theresa Nantz Walton, Paducah, Kentucky A4
—Christmas, 1971
Our new home is only about five blocks from our old one. ,
We were not even in the market for one but when Dan found .
this was for sale, he jumped at the chance to buy it. The reason, · ‘
a perfectly fantastic back yard that the former owner’s wife S
put together, doing all the labor herself. The backyard is com- ·
pletely fenced with about a six foot high brick wall. j
T'he kids are actively involved in everything that comes
along. Our big plan for Christmas is a trip to Disney World for -
about iive days. I am still working on my Master’s. I’ve also A
been working with a professor at Murray on the development of `
a new social studies program for the Paducah city schools and
other schools interested in purchasing it. In the process I’ve ,
taught a few workshops which I enjoy. A
From Selby Brown Ehrlich, Bedford, New York 1
—Christmas, 1971 5
Janet Brown called me most enthusiastically a few weeks .-
ago about her stay with you. For the past three years I have  I
been quite busy teaching at Rippowam School mornings plus the
day to day activities of a house and four boys. Peter is now at
Taft, Jamie at Harvey, Tim and John with me at Rippowam.
They all play ice hockey which means five months of endless I
driving to games.
From Amy Stevens Putnam, Wayland, Massachusetts  
—Christmas, 1971 .
We are amazed at our children; their size and stature. Their  
lives are increasingly their own, not just ours. In the fall Carol I
entered 7th grade at Beaver Country Day School in Chestnut

~ Hill. She loves it. Dick is in 5th grade, and Debbie in 4th at
Meadowbrook, where Dale joins them in Kindergarten.
The children and I spent the summer at Sunapee with mostly
weekend commuting for Bruce. We all plunged into swimming,
» tennis, and sailing over at the Yacht Club and on our beach-
we also rode horseback a little, and climbed Mt. Kearsarge.
From Patrice Lihatsh, Etna, New Hampshire
—Christmas, 1971
I I’m now working in a Day Care Center caring and cooking
{ for children three to five years old. I was supposed mainly to
` ` work with the kids; but, what with limited funds, we can’t afford
S a cook so I’m it. I serve at least 17 children and around 7 adults,
` snacks and lunch, five days a week. In a way it probably makes
. me enjoy the time I do spend with the children more than I would
if I were with them the full eight hours. It’s a nice place.
t From Sabra Dunham, Cedar Rapids, Iowa——Christmas, 1971
I hope things are going well there. I think of you often and
with many happy memories. I’m in my second year as a fifth
V grade teacher and I feel much happier with it—although I some-
 ; times wish I were working with horses instead! Please give my
  best to everyone.
{ From Dede Trefts, Shaker Heights, 0hio——Christmas, 1971
Q  Thank you so much for your letter! It’s so great to get news
from Wendover! I just got home from school on Friday. I really
am enjoying it a lot. Thursday night, walking down Massachu-
setts Avenue in Cambridge, I ran into Judy Scott! It was a
j surprise! She’s at Northeastern Law School and is really busy,
but enjoying it. I hope you 'have a wonderful Christmas. Give
my love to everyone at Wendover.
pl ....
4 From Rebecca S. Simons, of Lanham, Maryland
i —Christmas, 1971
· School is great! I’m right in the middle of finals. I have
i just finished Pediatric and Obstetrical Nursing and loved them
both. Next semester I go into Medical Surgical Nursing.

 is Faowrxmn Nuasmc smzvicm
From Jane Clark, Dover, Massacl1usetts—Christmas, 1971 ‘
Think of you so often as I speed through the mountains late
for North or South. Wish I could stop. Perhaps I will one day.
From Janet Brown, Mt. Kisco, New York——January, 1972
We spent New Year’s day birding, and guess what We saw  
—a snow goosell At present am deep in Wide Neighborhoods, ,
and lapping it up. Every chapter gets better and of course »
familiar names bring back memories of two of the shortest
months in my life. The works of the FNS reach so far beyond its
mountains——for to each of us it brings a new meaning to life
and its mysteries. Thank you for the Bulletin. It will be read
thoroughly and with intense interest.  »
We extend our loving sympathy to the family of Mia McIl-
‘ vaine Merle—Smitl1 who drowned November 9, 1971, when the
yacht she and her husband, Van Santvoord Merle-Smith 3rd,
were sailing to the Canary Islands, sank in a storm off the coast
of Spain.
Bits of Courier News
Our congratulations to Louise Ireland Humphrey who was
selected by the Women’s City Club of Cleveland to receive the
1971 Margaret A. Ireland Award. The Margaret A. Ireland Award
was established in 1963 to give public recognition to Cleveland
area women who make outstanding contributions to the commu- :_ 
nity. Mrs. Ireland, who was our FNS Cleveland Committee Chair- »
man for many years, was a dedicated community leader of such p
stature that the Women’s City Club elected to perpetuate her i
memory with this yearly award. It is significant that in this ~
10th anniversary year after her death, Mrs. Ireland’s daughter,
Louise, was the one selected, on her own merit, as worthy of {
this award. ,
Anne Kilham DeMaria and her husband, John, of Rockport, 1
Maine, are busy transforming a former church into their new  ~,
home. We understand the major operation by the DeMarias will
include a graphic arts gallery on the iirst floor with separate

 QUARTERLY Rornrxriu 17
· workshops for husband and wife, and a hall reaching to the very
rafters of the roof. Surrounding the hall will be a library and
dining area, kitchen and living room. The second and third floors
will be bedrooms. The old steeple will include a small weather
W Martha Rockwell of Putney, Vermont, was a participant in
"· the women’s five-kilometer cross country race at the Olympics
{ in Sapparo, Japan.
Sarah Stiles is living in Boston and working for the Harvard
School of Public Health.
_ Weddings
` Miss Jean Woodruff and Mr. John Charles Metcalf on De-
cember 4, 1971, in Preston City, Connecticut.
Miss Carlotta Sinclair Creevey and Mr. Thomas Colin Corl
on December 22, 1971, in Troy, New York.
We wish for them every happiness.
A professional man, on his Way back to his Yorkshire market
:_  town, offered a lift to an old lady standing at a country bus stop;
. and it was readily accepted. On alighting, his passenger thanked
him profusely. ‘Don’t mention it’, protested the driver. ‘You
  can trust me, sir,’ the old lady assured him: ‘I shan’t say a word'.
l -—FZorence Hopper
—The Countryman, Spring 1971, Edited by
Crispin Gill, Burford, Oxfordshire, England

[Editm·’s Note: The author is one of our neighbors. She wrote
this excellent description of hog killing in her childhood for a
former FNS courier, Dottie Newman Chase. Mrs. Nolan has  
given us permission to print her article for our Bulleti.n readers.] {
This is my memory of raising and killing and curing hogs
almost thirty years ago. *
My father always kept around twenty-five hogs, shoats
and pigs. There was no stock law back then where we lived, so
they ran loose or wild in the mountains. He would pick out `
eight to ten good-sized hogs and put them in pens to fatten to
kill during the long winter months. ·
The wild hogs would come in about once a week for corn
but they would eat their till on acorns and beech mast. My
father said a hog fattened on beech mast was the best tasting
meat. I remember well when the hogs and pigs would come in
for corn. There was a paling fence around the old house and
out in front ran a creek and road. There was a big wide gate. `
My sister, brother and I would get up on the gate as high as we  
could, so the hogs couldn’t reach us, and sit where we could `
watch them eat. We would get big ears of corn to throw them.  
While they were busy eating my father, older brother, brothers- .
in-law and Uncle Felix would catch the pigs to mark them. This  
I didn’t like because the pigs would squeal so loudly. My father`s `
mark was three slits or cuts in the right ear at the tip. This ~
helped to tell his hogs from the neighbors. Each neighbor had
a different mark so if the hogs strayed to the neighbor’s feed- I
ing grounds, they would send word to come and get them. i
Everyone had plenty of hogs and, as far as I know, no one tried 5
to steal the other man’s hogs.  
The hogs in the pen got fed warm dishwater mixed with
table scraps (no bones) and plenty of corn. Two weeks before ‘
time for slaughtering they were fed only corn and clear water.  
Their last meal was plenty of clear water.
We just loved hog killing, a.s it was called, because the .

neighbors gathered in, and always brought their children. We
. played games and had lots of fun.
My Uncle Felix usually killed the hog. He would hit it