xt7c599z128s https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7c599z128s/data/mets.xml Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station 1943  journals  English Lexington, Ky Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky fruit notes, vol. 2, No. 4, July 1943 text Kentucky fruit notes, vol. 2, No. 4, July 1943 1943 2012 true xt7c599z128s section xt7c599z128s il Vol.2 JULY, 1943 ' No.4
W. D. ARMSTRONG, Horticulturist, Editor
HORMONE SPRAYS from dealers and should be used
_· as recommended by the manufac-
  The use of the hormone sprays to turer, or summer oil may be used
  prevent preharvcst drop of apples for this purpose, at the rate of one
? has proved to be profitable on _va- quart to 100 gallons of spray. Tests
  rieties that have this fault. Delicious show savings of as much as 5 bushels
T  is especially subject to early drop. per tree.
-_i  The spray is not recommended on Growers should give special at-
  varieties not subject to drop. tention to the need for hormone
 T The spray should be applied about Sprays thrs year; Smee they reduee
2  10 days or 2 weeks before the nor- the hazard or drcppmg and wil
 · mal harvest date. Hormone spray SWE 3 l0¤g€1‘ period to safely pick
 y marenais are nandied by all me the frwt when 1¤b¤r is apt to be
§  leading dealers in spray materials Scarce-
  and should be used at the rate ....1.--
  recommended by the manufacturer.
·L Usually, one spray is sufficient. The BITTER ROT OF APP]-ES
  spray should be thorough and with
  good pressure' W. D. VALLEAU
 . The effectiveness of the spray de- Bitter rot occurs during periods
 __ pends on adequate coverage of spray, of high temperature and high hu-
 Q proper timing (too early or too late midity at any time during the grow-
—— ~· may be ineffective), and the season ing season after about the fifteenth
 j (severity of dropping varies with of June. Experienced growers are
 Q the weather). The use of a spreader familiar with the numerous pin-
-· and sticker also helps to improve point brown spots on_the surface
 1 the effectiveness. These are available of the fruit which rapidly develop
l and ;_
wd   . 5 V . J ` aa,. ‘..¤·j‘   ·    
eners   `*»  1 I   .“ TQ ( V. ° .3* ?‘
1se of  _ T.:< , , ‘ _   - ' `· —.   _    
 · ·  U ·. » *\ . .   V ` " —~ r .. Z  ,   ~` -=?Ci
L _, _‘~·:,— . ., Zvi .·*· , {.r·_ _   ; . ·_.' · J   j~ _  ;r;.r .,, ·:‘· L;
-   ~?` Y I ' ‘» Ni ‘*" ·‘ Y   je ~< ·.;`2YI»}‘?`
ud bc Y   i D . Q' ' " Y ‘ i "Q   .,"`Q ~.‘“` r      
¤t can   i 5%-24 `. A —r       \‘ py kx or 2 »   Q';  
essen- { *€%;_,;'1` · · "   "Z`*?*   ** fs.`Z'j·§r?`i' e-‘°— I  "   ii? i
·  .’;f.;•w5i . ’ .· ` " Q. »`·,···;—`.`;rg§_:·;._ ·   `   _4" ·: ag
’ the li · . ‘ .- 1· . ;~e;w,2r¤.~.#\*·;¤•   
es in- · _ ·_— _ S.  .;~._;.~·_-i ` --=»~.;,=
Salad r · ` t     ' *3a%'*i$‘i‘eii`°;e'i§ei
 ` . ` ~   · »   ·.    A Y1
de to » . , .* ·,· - _ er i- · ` "§%`· , _- 
=¢» Ht-   Ying?   Y   ‘°§%`&t:%’ - »  
r; ._..-:,• •p$` * _» __ I       · . _ -‘ .
cm ··+?»x·4|»*Y ·?‘*.¢€r`   , .     -. `·*· 8*%* $§.__»."> 
Should ·"e‘¤e¥?®'   Ir`,   h r-   aL? i  rrr e  ·`—..    
} and ('f ___  `   "Drops" iindjr hor- §;1'°{§_. _»  "` ¤ 1”" `e  "` QA  i   "Dr¤p§‘ rundfr are; not; A;. -*+.23
*‘ NY. "‘°"¤·$ F G We `a~` yr ,';~.`_`T—‘f—*r·—.iéiejl`]‘    w`t ormone _   ·‘-jf¤.j
MA`*¥9Y:‘SY’*`-{ "   " `?l ~ ‘Y·;='y* 2)  ·      `7 <$§#r`¥"*~ `·
ey b° ¥ `Y`:`Q**-   * ‘<< C      'i'— J ·;"?,¢?*   nie   . 
.1%;. N

 ’ l
E  I
X I if the fruit is green but which may growers and workers as to the most ’
develop very slowly on ripe fruits. profitable methods of handling the  
As the spots enlarge the tissues col- second-year strawberry field. There  ,
lapse slightly leaving the surface was so much interest and demand  l
· of the decayed portion flat. for this information that Held tests  .
Tng fungus gvgyyvintgys in bgyk \V€1`€ started lll the SUITIIIIOY of 1942.  
infections, mummied fruits on the Thi! Pl0lS W€l'0 lQ€¤l€d_ lll two lllll·  
trees and in fruit stems left on the f0l`m Bl?lk€m0l`Q llclds lll the Peoln  -
tree when mummieg are ]·QmOv€d_ C8h-B€Ylt0f1 S€·Cl1OI1, OIIC OI1 {IIC l8l`I`l1  
During damp periods these sources of M1`. L€Si€1‘ H¤1`l`1S, K€\’1l. Kyo  -,
produce spores that are scattered to and one on the farm of Mr. J. L. ;4  'l
the fruits by dripping rainwater B1`1€¤,B€lll0¤, K)/·   I
and insects. After thlts the spread  `
from fruit to fruit is rought about · . · ·,  j
rapidly by rain, flies and other in- 'lhc Pulls t k   I
sects. Following up some recen wor·   ,
In orchards where bitter rot has by the U. S. D. A. showing the bene-  
not been a factor a 6-8-100 Bor- ficial effects of heavy mowing of jg .
deaux spray should be applied each strawberry foliage just after    
year as a precautionary measure vest this was included in the trials.   .
about the first of July. In orchards At each location four plots were  
where losses have been heavy, mowed very close immediately after 5
spraying with a 4-6-100 Bordeaux harvest. Two of these were then t
mixture should be commenced about raked clean of mowed leaves and j
June 15 and repeated every two mulch and the middles were culti- j_
weeks until 4 to 7 sprays have been vated with one-horse scratching type _.
applied. For best control it appears cultivation on through the summer. ;
necessary to build up a coating of The other two mowed plots were left ’
copper on the fruits by successive without any cultivation or mulch re-
applications. If you have been moval. Four more plots had all j
troubled by bitter rot in the past weeds mowed off above the straw-
and have not yet sprayed with Bor- berry foliage and two of these were
deaux, begin spraying immediately cultivated as above and two left un-
. and repeat at two-week intervals. cultivated through the season.
‘ It is better to prevent the disease Four moto plots were Sglggtgd and
frpm getting el Start tnen to Wall two of these were barred-off and
until it appears and then try the Worked out oh Juno 2, jmmgdj.
almost impossible job of stopping it. otoly attol. ho,.VoSt_ and tho other
The latter practice usually results two Woro bo,-I-od-og and WO,-kpd Out =
in heavy losses. If you find that the oho mohth latot-_ This was to Com-
disease has gotten e Stert ep one pare early and late working-out and
tree befpre You neve Starred to consisted of barring off each row to
Spray with B<¤<» apply H 6-8- 3 pppipch strip spd then chopping
100 pr 8'10'100 Bprdeapx innneoe out six-inch chunks of this row cvcrv
ately to the entire orchard and then toot or So_ Fo,-tihzor was thoh at}-
pick all infected fruits and remove phod to tho oo,.,.od_otf rows ooo ‘
them fmm the ¤r¤lR¤r¤l· They will the miaaipp then cultivated pm
be ¤ total less e¤yW=¤v» ml if left dpwp at ppcp. pppmizpp wps pp-
1n the orchard will be a source from phod to ah of thoso plots when mp
which Other fruits. Wm becpme in' treatments were started, at the rate
fected Spray ·RpR1R In _=Rl¤¤¤t one of   pounds per acre, using a 4-16-4
week, using a 4-6-100 Boideaux and fortlhzoh
tee? tiprey Rl tWe`W€€k l¤~¤~alR June and July of 1942 were very
wlt 6 4`6`100 mixture hot and dry in this section. New,
...*7 crisp, clean, green foliage gugkly
grew on the plots that ha een
STUDIES IN SECOND-YEAR mowed close and cultivated. Thcso
were the thriftiest looking plants al
STAWBERRY FIELD CARE summer. In the non-cultivated plots
RR R ARMSTRONG ;‘;0;;m‘2a;ms;hh;¥l%;;2 zzpiilai;
For some seasons now in the inthe unmowed plots. When weeds
strawberry sections of Kentucky and grass crowded in later in the
there has been considerable doubt summer, a number of the plants in
and confusion among strawberry these plots died.

 most 1943 Harvest Records-24-quart 1943 STRAW/BERRY MULCH
g the . crates per acre (Average of sim-
l`herc  _ ilar treatments at the two fields) TRIALS
  . I; Another liiittiry for Early
1942. r · u c in
uni- j 3 E? W A g
padu_ Z Te ee 6 B1 . D. RMSTRONG
fir? A 8*2 Zi rollowingl lep the outstatelding re-
· ‘* ` ci GJ su ts of mu c ing uring e winter
J- L- T""*‘*“‘·‘*“‘S gte gg ds was-·4o, additional mulch plots
Foliage mOwed___ were staked out ln the fall of 1942
— middles cultivated 1.75 121 in the Paducah section of Western
Feriege mOwed_ Kentucky. The results were again
We e middres not cultivated 139 145 outstanding ln favor of early winter
I" mulching.
- w d 1 , m ci- . . . .
imngf xisdijeg imt gxiiivmed 142 13Q Earlier trials had included differ-
ghm, ‘ Weeds only, mowed- Ent plots treated with 1, 2, or 3 tons
mere - middles cumvated 159 ]2Q of mulch per aere. Part of these were
were   Barred Om eariy June 135 122 mulched ln mid-December, part ln
Hire   Barred off, early July 122 123 @8YlY F€bY¤81`Yi and Daft H1 1803
th r   March, with several plots left un-
, egg  * NOTE:These figures were :§sembled mulchgd. Olne tore per acre haieil
` »   quickly for this edition an may be prove too lttle; t ree tons seeme
Fillue   subject to certain adjustments, but too much for Western Kentucky con-
exggr  _ in ggngra] Shggv the tr€·nd_ dltlons. The February application
e led t  was dropped _because the records
,h re  " D, _ showed that ln most years severe
‘ ' |B¢‘¤BB\0¤ winter temperatures were ha e-
1 all i
lI`Z·l\\’- . In addition id the tdidi yield, ind g¤‘,gm¤¤¤tt¤f lgbnr accompanied by high winds. In early
n ap-  ..   lie linnglna W?5 nig On nndnn March a severe_ cold spell went to
and i eeii ;1_e(;;"‘e?1u?§e 1;'§e;§’nen‘;,V€‘i)t;1‘e§_ about zero. This wezis gollowedl  
back » two hard frosts on pri 15 an , .
. lots · . ·
€*D· p ‘ and a light flost on April 22.
li the These fresultse bshreeavingleheé-ivy 1943 R d
2 rate m0Wmg, 0 owe y e cu 1V8·1OI'l econ- S
4-16-4 of the middles, to be more fruitful
than barring on, are in line with Averaged together, /tho Decem-
Very . Some_recent work done in North ber mulcned plots (liz and 2 tons
N W Carolina. If these trends hold true €0mb1¤€¢$) D1`0d¤€€ 124 crates PH
C i . .
rickly in Other years, 11 will bg ei means of acre, wlllle the March mulched plots
bm t’i€°d“°“‘gd‘“§“ ~i*“‘W‘°"""y ylildsi °“ £°J§’S;‘§€§}iC?2dS°$`%¥’id*i‘i`~2i§;’§§"di» {E5?
, e secon rul ln ear, W1 ess _ _ .
  labor outlay thanghgs been neces- IH favor of December mulchlng. In a
l°t sary in the past, using the barring- Sl118llt(3§t Qll TQDHGSSEE Sl`1lpp€I` I1€81`
eieoeg off system. There is undougtedly} by, a Sllll1l31` lilceease fof 50 egraees
. considerable seasonal effect an loca D6? a€1`€ Was la m QVC? O 8
`clany reactions to these various treat- D€€€mb€1‘ mulch-
Nccds ments; hence it is planned to carry In both varieties and for both the
n tng this work on for several years to December and the March Z}Dpl1C3·
nts 111 collect more information on the tions, the plots_ mulched with 1*/;
methods of renovation. tons per acre yielded slightly more
.. I V. V I Jfili, ll

` i than the plots where 2 tons were ap- There they do a good job of early  
plied. This adds further evidence winter mulching and also use 2 to 3  .
that over-wintering mulch in the lat- tons or more per acre. j 
itude of Western Kentucky should j
be heavy enough to give reasonable ,
protCection,_tl;>1u§1not toobheavy.tFor A CASE OF BORON  t
win ers wi eavy su -zero em-  ·
peratures, the heavier mulches DEFICIENCY IN WESTERN  . }
would likely be justified, as in KENTUCKY  ;
1939"‘*°· vv. D. Aruvrsraono   i
Commercial 0bB€l‘V3ll0HS Considerable mention has been { E
made in several sections of the %
Over the whole Paducah`E€nt0n` United States regarding boron de- Z
Mayfield Secmm many ulsbyear ficienc s m toms ina les To date V (
i strawberry fields were not mulched H main? gf this wggk has been §
early, chiefly because provisions had done Jin $(3 East in the Far West 1
not been made for straw. The rainy and to Some cxteht in the Midwest g l
Weather in November and D€C€m` Ordinaril soils contain enou li   I
b€"· and Subsequent f“’°?€$ md boron oneyof the minor rare ei- is '
u‘aWS· made Straw hauung and ments, that is needed onl in small = l
Spreading during winter Very dim` uantities for satisfactory tree and O (
cult' Straw was Scarce and Sold llruit growth It has been fydund how- ` {
from $12 t° $15 per mu MOFQOVEXY ever that when boron is lacking in l i
Some growers are not yet convinced the soil the fruits of the a le often ’ 4
¤f the Med f¤¤‘ early wma mulch- become bum have nna»£‘§i brown l =
ing and others do not mulch for fear areas and Egiemal and external
of the great amount of wheat and Cork Spots The surface Of such V
Cheat that Often comes up when fruit; is also often badly russeted
poorly thljeshed Straw IS used for with an external corky area that ·
mulch. This last object1_on can be got- Often cracks AS for the tree twigs
ten arpund by hauling Straw to are often caused to be rough, and a `
fields m October and St¤·¤k¤¤g m certain amount of dieback of twi s
small piles or breaking bales so that ma be resent These Condmogs
the fall rains will sprout the seeds ,,12,,% beer}? couécted by the addi_
b°f°r€ the suuw _1S Spr€au· tion of small quantities of boron in
Over the district most unmulched the form of Borax or boric acid.
first-year fields contained many Following the severe winter of .
plants that showed internal brown- 1940, slight dieback was noticed in
mg and root injury from the cold. Some Yellow Transparent trees on
Also many plants failed to bloom the grounds of the Western Ken-
and these started vigorous growth tucky Experiment Substation at
and early runner formation. While Princeton. There was also noticed
not as numerous as in Some Y€a¥`$· some slight disorder in the fruit on
these are the _same so-called "he" certain of these trees. In 1941, this
plants that fail to bloom because disorder of internal and external
their fruit buds are injured by the cork of the fruit was more pro-
cold. nounced on certain trees and in 1942,
It is now thought that strawberry the fruit from some trees had so
Prices will be good f01` S€V€·1‘81 YBHFS much internal cork and browning
Bild B1‘0W€1`S BFG 111`g€d to USG all that their entire crop had to be dis-
the best methods to get heavy yields. carded. The trouble was definitely
While there is a chance to gain 40 identified as being typical of severe
to 50 crates per acre of $5 to $8 boron deficiency. Experimental
berries by getting the mulch to- treatments of these trees known to
gether and applying it in mid-De- be suffering from boron deficiency,
cember instead of delaying until were made this season but at this
March, it seems like bad business time it is too early to check the re-
not to get this done. sults.
The above discussion refers en- It is suggested that others examine
tirely to southern and western Ken- their fruit and if any of these symp-
tucky, where mulching practices and tons are observed, to communicate
times vary. In central and northern with the Horticulture Department of
Kentucky growers have long since the Kentucky Experiment Station, as
found they could not afford to tempt the extent of this trouble is not gen-
fate by leaving fields unmulched. erally known.

 grail; 4 ORCHARD VITALITY tivetnless of frult trees and a decrease
1n_ e propor ion of nitrogen in a
Q THREATENED I`l:llX€d fertilizer decreases its effec-
9 A_ J_ QLNEY tiverless for oriharcli pulposes. Mixed
2 er 1 12ers are ene cia to the cover
  Many orchards have not received cl`0p·
{N j the usual treatment with nitrogen No gahafal }`€€Omm€1'1datiOn can
 A fertilizers this year. Since continued be made to Suit all orchard condi-
, mductjon is dg endent on a Sum- tions. The procedure to be followed
P P . .
l;  cient supply of nitrogen to the trees, W1ll dapahd Oh tb? growth and V1gO1‘
Ll growers should give the matter spe- of l.l'l€ l.1'€€S. F31lL11‘€ to fL1I`I1lSh 8
noon   cial attention at this time. Supply haaded to P1`OV1€-la adaqllata
gw   During the period when commer- growth Wlll 5hOW up in reduced
da;  ·  cial nitrogen fertilizers are short, grolps no}? yoaruino. the Years to
Deen tg some other means should be found o ow·th.€n°€¤ o ninportonoo .of
Nest   if possible. lf available, manure may ggvvbng is matter Serious attention
  be used to supply this need. It should ‘
    be recognized that the action of the Fct·ti];z€t· For 1944
€l€_   nitrogen in manure is slow and ap- _ _ _ _
mall   plication should be made in the fall , lt 15 hOp€d that tha f€ft1l1Z€1` Sltua-
and   or early winter to give the desired t1Oh maY Clear up SO that h'1O1`€ HOF-
1OW_ E. effect. Usually at least 200 pounds mal $1·1ppll€$ may be available f01'
_g in   a1`€_ hfadad to fugnish nitrogen 1934. t_t_ f f t_l_ _u b
men   equiva ent to 5 poun s of nitrate of duah 1 l€S O er 1 1Z€1‘ W1 _€
Own : soda. ma e ava1lable_ to different states in
_ V A l · accordance with the1r_ needs. In
  * mealsegllftidéllgr tirjthés ¤ii`$’$?€l 3;;*%;2§‘;‘;t“i‘;£lfrzllotainteiii
ated . supp y. _ e in of egume to be .. . . .
that { grown will _vary with the situation gorilllzokgllllslotn   thotF$`oohPro'
wigs » and experience of the grower. uc lon ollms ro lon a as mg'
jd 8 Usually one of the Clover family OI, ton will have to be_sent an estimate
Wigs a Euxtlire of clover; gives best re- O Vnnnl yealko roqolgomonts t d
j SU S. n many orc ards lespedeza €a1`€aS 1¤g€aC g1`OW€1‘ 0S€1”l
ttlodlf has proved most satisfactory. Where in a POSt Card with tha following
rl in needed, lime and phosphate should information:
V Be used to stimulate the growth of i_ An estimate of kind and
r of 9 COVE? Cmp- amount of nitrogen fertilizer
d in i An orchard that has a heavy sod needed between January 1,
; on . has Z goodd supply of nitrogen that 1944 and July 1, 1944.
{en- can e_ma e available to the trees 2_ Th b ft ees
i at gll§¤;gm;q¤.ug¤e 0§tW0thO1`O¤€l to %§“§§?&‘ii§’§dT““’“   " i
; ce in e ear y spring pro - · · ·
t on ~ ably would take the place of a mod- 3`   ggxgggllgg iilglggr Whlch
this erate application of sulfate of am- `
»rnal moma. S dth` ` f · at`o t· ·
PTO- This should be followed by re- en ls m mm I n O "
l942, seeding to a legume cover cro . Department of Horticulture
i so l p
. _ t should be pointed out that cul- University of Kentucky
  txvation_over a considerable_ period Lexington, Kentucky
.t I is undesirable because of erosion and
Q/gr; should be avoided. _
l t Qn rough land or where erosion is — Y
I? gg Serlous and the land must be culti- HINTb AND 0BSER\A`
mc}, vated, strip cultivation and cover TIONS
thlé Cl`0DDlHg should be practiced. By W_ W_ MAGILL `
e re- _ In old orchards where the shade Field Agent lll Hcrtlcultme
is heavy, legumes will not succeed
nine as well as grasses.
f1hp· The use of low-nitrogen mixed · ·
gate? feritilizeg may be recommended to Blum. Rot _u t
1 o a_ imite extent to supplement the The alert apple grower NW1 no "
h, 35 Hltrogen supply, However, in most get "too busy" to examine the QFOP
S€h· Kentucky orchards nitrogen is the at least twice each week for Bitter
only element that limits the produc- Rot appearance through late July
. SEE;. or

z l
and1Augr1s§. Hand gickingtof infected NEW STRAWBERRY VARIETY
app es 0 owe y spo spraying ,, . _
l with Bordeaux may give you a cash -lENNE$$EE SUIPPF-R
saving of $100 p€l` day. W_ Dr ARMSTRONG   l
Dried Apples In commercial trials over the en- ` 5
Ingugncg your neighbor and tire state this spring the Tennessee r  r
friends to _d1‘y 8 llb€‘1`8l Supply of Shipper Strawberry has shown un-  ` 1
Summer Wmd falls They will heed usual promise. This berry developed  g .
them before another crop of fruit 1S h h _ _.   -
produced y t e Tennessee Expelimcnt Sta-   r
tion has been tested here in the state  L.
New Sprayers for four years by the Kentucky Ex-  E ,
State your needs and demand rm. periment Station at Lexington and r l
new spray equipment for producing Prmeeton. In these tests the berry { I
tl`1€ 1944 CI`Op Bl. 0l'lC€.   \Vlll give Shggvgd great ppgynlgg in Cgnlpgrl- l
ggrlglekgfgir dealer a better chance to son with such varieties as Premier, rl
' Blakemore, and Aroma. ln 1942 the  
Save Contrnnors llrst plants for commercial testing Y
Fruit baskets and other containers becaml almlable aml wclc Sl cullll .
for 1943 crops are becoming almost by W.· W. Maglll, Extension Hoiti- L.
un0btall·lgblg_ TO   Over   Situ;}- CllllLll`lSl. These l)l8Y`llS \VCl`C sent lt`!
tion, all used containers should be Lexington and were fumigated with
saved and repaired, if necessary. Methyl Bromlrle rm. Crown bowl. _
A recent survey indicates that most t_ 1 h D_ P O R. _h _ r
Kentucky growers in the shipping coll l0 y l· · · lh el Ol lle
areas have a fair stock of baskets on Elll0¤'l0l0§Y _D€l>il1`lm€¤l- TUC l>l¤lllS
hand. In other areas the require- were then distributed over the state ~
ments are uncertain. Growers who and placed with a few cooperative
sell on local or roadside markets growers who agreed to give the
probably will depend on used con- plants a fair test with good com- (
lZ3l1'l€I`S OI` Ol') l)Lly€I`S to f\1I‘I'llSll th€lI` I`[`iC[`Qi{]l Cayo and [O ygpgrt lllgly rg- ’·
‘ ownhcontainers. Paper bags suitable gulls, .
for andling local sales are avail- . . · ,- . V
able ml will be used l0 me ex- ooS;3£“aio§‘?2”§$Ero$l aL3%$G£i-°yi‘éiS
telgonsult your local bottling plants glllellrllrrlrglrldngrgirscll illlrpplllh lllllll lrllllll
for empty, heavy paper 100 lb. sugar heavier ’CrO rh, rr lhlllhd l _ mil {rf;
bags. They have no use for them. chscs rhcpr. d· 8 0m0lC' ll _“ _
- 1u1t has been laigl
You will find they make an excellent through the Season Ver bri hr md
apple package lol your local lalm attractive in color: anld hal; stbod
Sales- They are ylellly l¤¤ell» ll¤lll aaroorog uoao- ice. ln a test aan-
a bushel or more of apples, are easy mem rrom Paduc   r Ch. _ hlr
to load into a motor car and the Varlet We t th? hl b liagonll
customers likes them. A 5c bag will Blhkcgm, ll d lrollg C· Cl lag
therefore replace a basket. ·lC all lomlll plckcd ml
prncked in the same crate. In season,
,_..?.— lS variety ripens between Blake-
more and Aroma. It blooms late and
Spray Lime this year avoided a late frost that
I The hhst hydrated hmh for Spray injured Blakemole blossoms. r
lng purposos rs the forrn known os In a mulch trial at Paducah this
"chemical hydrated lime." Most of Year TChh€_$$€€ ShlDPCl` Showcd
tho so_oallod agricultural l-rydrotos average hardmess. Plots that were
and those used in making mortar and mulchhd lh D0€€l'hh€l` Plhdllccd ill
plostor sro too ooor-so to be sous? the rate ol 50 crates per acre more
lactory. These coarse limes contain than Plots that had l`l0 0V€l`·Wll`ll°l`
small ilinty particles that are very mulch-
distructive to valve seats, pressure Another new variety of the Aroma
regulators, and spray nozzles. Ex- season, Tennessee Beauty, was also
penses for repairs can be reduced commercially tested in a limited
hy using the fine chemical hydrated way and is also showing great prom-
1me. 1se.

 TY Plum Curculio Trends rainy summer seasons encouraged
In recent years the plum curculio me   mg Summer brood
has caused considerable damage to coma Cd U; dll? try séaécms en`
commercial peach production in in thg_ cadu bsfo remam longer
En` Western Kentucky. In most seasons . L gmun . time €m€rg€nc€‘
Sscc the chief Couccm has been with This fact was strikingly brought out
un- the carry brood that appcms just at the Princeton emergence cage
)pgd · after thc peach petals full in the this year where only 4 to 6 adults
Sm' A. spring. In 1941 a heavy second   Cm§rg;1ng_ each da? hgweveln
Mtn   brood also appeared that caused ( a ar lan? on t E mgm of
Ex‘   serious loss to the crop at harvest June 24’ twenty-SIX adults emerged
and   Since that time the Special Horti; g;;thg;ll;;;?§g_ .:ay' thrfhegs was
CNY  E cultural Program has spent much lax On. Q 8 Ernoon
°n*`1'  · time on this insect through the spray gircihid Zgjh nan? cslghtegp adurits
"§‘{‘“  ’ S€f~ ‘ ice and he mivcd Valuable time gCmQi—gZncZxhaSaEg€¤ LZ$Sp§rZt
. `lC  i · . _ i ‘
mg ~~  zsgyogingcizijgzft j;rjrmr;g§ra§i;;_ tively   All of this lends wi-
urcd `  mmorogists ‘ dence to the fact that late curculio
Orri_  »r ’ , _ __ damage is apt to be much worse in
it to  I K;iuc‘;;SF;°u(1n§G?gtCS°L;ty gr *1/gpg] summers where there is heavy rain-
wirh   Rrrcher there was a Scccmcr bxjoéé fall during late June and early July.
’O*";`l`   of curculio adults that appeared in In jarring for Summer adults On
{ the  T late June and early July 1942. These June 28 and 29, large numbers were
ijiiis C started egg laying and a month-be- found In Orchnrds near Paducah
géivg ~ f0r€_har\,cSr Spray was recommend that have received a heavy early
the ` ed in Western Kentucky. Most dmscm Sprny and dust program' AS
COm_ 2 peach growers having a crop 8p_ in the spring, the greatest number
r re-  _ plied this spray and had very little Of adults time {Gun? mt_th€ Oulilde
Q injury from these late worms. rows in e same oca ions w ere
and j the most early adults had been
yild l , fud. As v'dn tht l `
ffrgiig 1943 work and T¤··i·i¤ octitlience-coi·iiei·sGaiii€s in ionirilrldlni
Brcau  i In Mgyr curculio emergence cagcs grower cleaned out and burned lofi
largr. were Sgt up and Stocked \Vith all shrubs and rubbish on one side
t and wormy peach drops at Mayfield, of his <>i‘¤ii¤i`d but did ridi clean vii
SEQOQ . Paducah, princeton, H€ndO1~s0n_ Bed- a like location on the other side.
DS rigs ` f0rd and Lexington. Mature worms Iii SPNUS jarring, CUYCUHO W€Y€ _
imag igartcilr/Iiezgving the drops by May =i}>¤¤di1¤it_§¤ ii;¢1ti·€·est;¤ the ¤_¤;— -
an at ay gld d P d } d b c cane si e w ie on e opposi e
Basoni June 3 at Lexington in   irdntrabl Sidd they Could SC€n`C€lY be found-
  Kentucky_ Likewise, in late June jarring, sec-
; that In appmximateiy one month may Grid brood curculio were dbwddnt
the first worms entered the soil to nnxt to lng uncleancd fence mw
1 this pupgtgr the first adults Of the Second while they were still very scarce on
wwnn brood began to emerge. This was nic OPPOSYLC Sid€·
cg/Cgi true from Mayfield where the first, In another location near Mayfield, V
mom S€C0nd brood curculios emerged on one grower had allowed a great
vinter June 17 to Lexington where the first number of pigs to range in his or-
Ones came out on July 2. Heavy chard and eat drop peaches during
5*l`;n;g 1`8inS 0VG1` Western Kentucky about the early drop period. A few heavy
S . mid-June speeded up the emergence fruiting trees in his yard corner
prom- of many of these second brood were fenced out of the pig range.
adults. It has been known that Many wormy drops could be found

 · 1
| .
Agricultural Experiment  `
Station Penalty for prlvntc use to nvold »
cf the payment of postage $300 A
Thomas Cooper, Director  = ·
¤ 1
Q_ 1
’ i
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under these few trees in mid-May, arsenical spray about one month
while they were scarce in the reg- before Elberta harvest is scheduled
ular orchard. On June 29, jarring to start.
in this orchard showed that curculio Additional developments in this
adults were plentiful on the 3 or 4 curculio study will be reported
trees outside the pig range but they later.
were very difficult to find in the _?._._.
large orchard, even on nearby trees. _ _ _
This is a splendid example of how Ar¤<=¤·¢=»¤l Inlury t0 Folmgc
the distruction of early season Many fruit growers have ycmaykpd
WOYHIY dI‘0PS Can cut down '¤h€ that they have an unusual amouui
amount of late brood curculio. of yellow and dropping foliage on
Since a period of 3 to 4 weeks their peaches and to some extent
is generally required for eggs to de- on apples and are wondering why.
velop in the summer brood curculio, In most cases this is due to arsenical
no mature eggs have yet been found injury from the spray schedule. On
in the recently emerged adults. It very wet and rainy seasons like
is expected that egg laying will this year to date more of the arsenic
start during the second week in July becomes soluble and has a burning
in Western Kentucky and growers effect that causes many leaves to
have been advised to apply another drop after turning yellow.