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MISSISSIPPI  
A   A GUIDE TO THE MAGNOLIA STATE  
J  f Compiled and Written [pr the Federal Writers’ Przyleot  
I  V gr the Works Progress Administration  
i AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES  
  ILLUSTRATED  
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I   FIRST PUBLISHED IN MAY   féi 9
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  FOURTH PRINTING JUNE    
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·I  COPYRIGHT   BY MISSISSIPPI AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL BOARD  
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  PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AINIERICA  
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  Foreword  
  HERE is a book which takes us vividly into the South in the first period  
AY of its greatness and brings us by natural steps up to the contemporary scene  
Q where a new South is in the making. To the visitor Mississippi offers mod-  
  ern methods of agriculture in the northern Delta region, a playground on  
  g the Gulf Coast, and some of the finest examples of old plantation archi-  
  tecture in Natchez and its other historic towns. This Guide, with its charm,  
  its occasional irony, and its comprehensiveness, could have been written  
2% only from self-knowledge and from a knowledge of modern America. It  
  is the modest yet proud statement of their accomplishments by the people  
  of this Gulf State.  
gg This volume is one of the American Guide Series, which, when com-  
_. plete, will cover the forty-eight States and several hundred communities, as  
. 33:
  well as Alaska, Puerto Rico, and Havraii. With each new volume that  
`¤ leaves the press a new trait is added to the portrait of America today. -  
, i . Adminirlmtar  
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  WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION _  
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gg HARRY L. HOPKINS, Administrator   P
  ELLEN S. WOODWARD, Assistant Administrator   L
  HENRY G. ALSBERG, Director if Federal Writers’ Project   L
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   <—<—<-<· {§   I
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.s Contents  
*  
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  FOREWORD, By Harry L. Hopkins, Administrator  
,  
  PREFACE, By the State Director and State Editor V  
  =§s§
  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xi  
  LIST OF MAPS xv  
  NOTATIONS ON THE USE OF THE BOOK xvii  
L; ES
I GENERAL INFORMATION xix  
  CALENDAR OF EVENTS xxiii  
y , I. Afzsszsszppzs The General Background  
»w MISSISSIPPI PAST AND PRESENT  
A What Is Mississippi? 5  
‘ . HIE
White Folkways 8  
fg!
a Negro Folkways 22  
1 *i=§;
BEFORE THE \`>(’HITE MAN CAME  
Ei?
Natural Setting 31  
A Archeology and Indians 45  
‘ THE STATE IN THE MAKING  
  An Outline of Four Centuries 60  
  Transportation 79  
[ . Agriculture 92  
` {Qi?
· Industry and Commerce 106  
Religion 1 12 g.
. T1
Education 113  
The Press 138  
I THE CREATIVE EFFORT  
r s an et ers 134 gi
A r d I. r ··i
·a
y Architecture 143  
I Music 157 f

   viii LONTENTS  
  g ·
A   11. Main Street and Courthouse Square [3
  (CITY AND T0wN DESCRIPTIONS AND CITY TOURS)  
lei .4
fi  Biloxi 165 E;]
    Columbus 179 gl
  Greenwood 1 89  
  Gulfport 194  
  Holly Springs 200  
fr-   ]ackson 208  
  Laurel 222  
  Meridian 227  
‘  Natchez 2 3 3  
  Oxford 254  
°   Tupelo . 26}  
4   Vicksburg 266  
   
  III. Tours  
  TOUR 1 (Mobile, Ala.)-Biloxi—Gulfport-  
g (New Orleans, La.). [U.S. 90] 285  
Q 1A Gulfport to Ship Island 303  
  2 (Livingston, Ala.)-Meridian—]ackson—  
  Vicksburg—(Monroe, La.), [U.S. 80] 304  
    3 (Memphis, Tenn.)—Clarksdale—Vicksburg—  
    Natchez—(Baton Rouge, La.), [U.S. 61]  
  Section a. Tennessee Line to Vicksburg 315  
    Section b. Vicksburg to Louisiana Line 324  
    BA Clarksdale—Greenville—Rolling Fork. [STATE 1] 346  
  BB Woodville—Fort Adams, Fort Adams Road 358  
;l * r_>v
  4 (]ackson, Tenn.)—Corinth-Tupel0—Colurnbus-  
  Meridian—\Waynesboro—(Mobile, Ala.), [U.S. 45] 361  
  4A Shannon-West Point—Macon. [STATE 23, STATE 25] 373  
  4B Shuqualak—Meridian. [STATE 59] 377  
   
ha ii?

 I? coNr12Nrs ix F P
Q Mem his, Tenn. -Grenada- ackson—Br0okhaven- = Z
e 5 P X
  McComb-(New Orleans, La.). [U.S. 51]  
  Section a. Tennessee Line to ]ackson 380  
  Section b. ]ackson to Louisiana Line 391  
  6 (Tuscaloosa, Ala.)—Columbus—\X/inona—Greenwood—  
  Greenville—(Lake Village, Ark,). [U.S. 82] 397  
  7 Clarksdale—Indianola-Yazoo City—]ackson-  
  Hattiesburg—Gulfport. [us. 49, U.s. 49w]  
  Section a. Clarksdale to ]ackson 406  
  Section b. ]ackson to Gulfport 414  
  7A Tutwiler-Greenwood-Lexington—  
  Pickens. {us. 4912, s·rATE I2] 420  
  8 (Livingston, Ala.)—Meridian-Laurel—Hattiesburg—  
  Picayune—Santa Rosa—(New Orleans, La,). [U.S. 11] 423  
  9 (Hamilton, Ala.)—Tupelo-New Albany-  
{ Holly Springs—(Memphis, Tenn,). [U.S. 78] 434-  
  10 (Florence, Ala.)—Iuka—Corinth—Walnut—  
  Slayclen—(Mernphis, Tenn.), [U.S. 72] 441  
  1 1 W/aynesboro—Laurel—Brookhaven—  
  \Washington—(Ferraclay, La.), [U.s. 84] 447  
_l~ 12 (Bolivar, Tenn.)—Pontotoc-Bay Springs—Laurel—  
7 IQ Lucedale-(Mobile, Ala.). [STATE 15] 456  
  12A Springville—Calhoun City—Ackerman. [snare 9] 471  
L   13 junction with STATE 63—Hattiesburg—-Columbia-  
  McComb—\Y/oodville. {sure 24] 475  
r JE
  14 (\Y7infield, Ala.)—Amory-Tupelo—Oxford—  
  Clarksdale. [sure 6] 484  
i   15 Waynesboro—Leakesville—Lucedale—  
I gf Moss Point. [sure 63] 490  
5   1 6 Vaiden—Kosciusko-Carth a ge—Ralei gh-  
A ‘ ]unction with U.s. 84. [s·rATE 55] 493 ;_
3   17 (Pickwick, Tenn.)-Iuka—Fulton—Amory-  
‘ junction with u.s. 45. [STATE 25] 500  
l   CHRONOLOGY 509  
3   BIBLIOGRAPHY 523  
7   INDEX 531  

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  MISSISSIPPI RIVER FROM NATcHEz BLuEEs PAGE 4~—5  
  Photograph hy Earl M. Norman  
  GATHERING 1*011 A POLITICAL RALLY 9  
V; Photograph hy Eudora IVelty  
  A C0UNT1E1< 23 gg.
  Photograph hy Willa johrzxorz ·  
r. HOLT C0LL1E11 25  
Y Photograph hy IVilla johnmn  
g MAGNOLIA G11AND1EL01xA; THE STATE FLOWER 32  
Photograph hy E. E. johnson  
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YUccA PLANT, OR USPANISH BAYONETH 41  
Photograph hy IV. Lincoln Highton  
P0RTER’s FLEET PASSING THE CONFEDERATE BATTERIES AT  
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  xii ILLUSTRATIONS  
  MELROSE, NEAR NATc1~1Ez 150   1;
  Photograph hy R. I. Bostwick g f
·E STAIRWAY AT COTTAGE GARDEN, NATCHEZ 154 1 } IN
.   Photograph by Earl M. Norman E 
  OYSTER FLEET, B1L0x1 167 E — V
  Photograph hy Anthony V. Raguyin , ‘
_1:`   BENAcm AVENUE, BILOXI 171 Q I D
  I Photograph by IV. A. Ruxxell '  
jj? LIGHTHOUSE, BILOXI 174   E
  Photograph by Gene Holcomh  
  A SOUTHERN PLANTER HOME, BILOXI 177   C
  Photograph from Pictorial Archive: of Early American Architecture w
·   Library of Congrexs  
    CLOCK TOWER, MISSISSIPPI STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, . ;,; E
`   COLUMBUS 185 jg
  Photograph by O. N. Pruitt   ]¥
  WOODWARD I-IOUsE, COLUMBUS 188 fi
.   Photograph hy O. N. Pruitt  
;   LOADING BALES OF COTTON, GULFPORT 195   I
  Photograph hy Ed Lipxcomb  
  MUNICIPAL GARDEN AND Civic CENTER, JACKSON 210   I
  Photograph hy H. R. Hiatt  
  NEW CAPITOL, JACKSON 212   Fl
§ Photograph hy H. R. Hiatt  
  V
  OLD CAPITOL, JACKSON 215   I
§Q Photograph by H. R. Hiatt  
  MANSHIP HOME, JACKSON 219   I
.   Photograph hy Gene Holcomb  
;   GOVERNORIS MANSION, JACKSON 221 il ’]
    Photograph hy H. R. Hiatt ji
,h   PUL1¤w00D READY FOR PROCESSING, LAUREL »224   1*
{ ; Photograph by IV. Lincoln Highton  
I   ART MUSEUM AND LIBRARY, LAUREL 226   'J
    Photograph by IV. Lincoln Highton  
  TEXTILE MILL, MERLDIAN 229 it T
I`   Photograph by jamex A. Butter;  
  CONTI H0UsE, NATCHEZ 242   T
1   Photograph hy Mary Ethel Dixmuhes  
  CONNELLY,S TAVERN, NATCHEZ 245   T
‘   _ Photograph by Earl M. Norman  
  ARLINGTON, NATCHEZ 251   I
.   Photograph hy Earl M. Norman  
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 4 * . .
_;  ILLUSTRATIONS xiii  
 :· HOME OF WILLIAM FAULKNER, OXFORD 257 I ;
·  ` Photograph by Willa ]ohn.von ; 
{   
I  MISSISSIPPI MONUMENT, VICKSBURG NATIONAL MILITARY PARK 270  
  Photograph from National Park Service  
*  WARREN COUNTY COURTHOUSE, VICKSBURG 274  
  Photograph hy ]ame1 A. Butter:  
  MGNUTT HOME, VICKSBURG 278  
  Photograph hy ]ameJ A. Butter:  
  BOAT BUILDING, PASCAGOULA 288  
  Photograph by Anthony V. Raguxin  
  OLD SPANISH FORT, PASCAGOULA 289  
  Photograph from Micxiuippi Atlvertixing _Cornmi.r;ion  
_   BEAUVOIR, HOME OF JEFFERSON DAVIS, NEAR BILOXI 293  
  Photograph hy IV. Lincoln Highton  
  PIRATE’S HOUsE, WAVELAND 301  
  Photograph from Pictorial Archive; of Early American Architecture  
  Library of Congrexx  
  HIGHWAY THROUGH LOESS BLUFFS TO VICKSBURG 314  
  Photograph hy IV. A. Ruuell  
ip RUINS OF WINDSOR, NEAR PORT GIBSON 329  
f Photograph hy Earl M. Norman  
  THE BURR OAKS, JEFFERSON COLLEGE CAMPUS, WASHINGTON 334  
  Photograph by Earl M. Norman  
  DYEVEREUX, NEAR NATCHEZ 337  
’, Photograph by Earl M. Norman  
  LINDEN, NEAR NATCHEZ 339  
  Photograph by Earl M. Norman  
E; TAKING COTTON TO THE GIN 347  
  Photograph from Roxe Seed Company, Clarhxdale  
:   MOONLIGHT ON LAKE WASHINGTON, ELKLAND 355  
  Photograph by IVilla fohnxon  
I fl
; gy TAKING THE QUEEN BEE 376  
  Photograph by Ed Lipxcomh  
Ii ..1
> 4 THE COUNTY AGENT VISITS 387  
  Photograph from U. S. Department of Agriculture §
g   TOMBIGBEE RIVER BRIDGE, COLUMBUS 398  
9, Photograph hy O. N. Pruitt G  
5   Tw1N TOWERS, MISSISSIPPI STATE COLLEGE, STARKVILLE 399  
  Photograph by ]. M. Pruitt  
1   MALMAISON, NORTH CARROLLTON 404  
42 Photograph from National Park Service gg

       oooo    ‘·      
  xiv ILLUSTRATIONS  
  CULTIVATING A FIELD OF YOUNG COTTON 411 e  <
  Photograph from Cate Tractor Company  `,·
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  LONGLEAF P1NEs 415 _  _
  Photograph hy IV. Lincoln Highton  QI
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  SECOND-GROWTH PINES 424  
  Photograph by IV. Lincoln Highton  
  GATHERING PECANS 420  
  Photograph hy Gene Holcomb   P
  A CABIN IN THE COTTON 445   (
  Photograph hy IV. Lincoln Highton  
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  A ONE-MULE-POWER CANE PRESS 449  
is   Photograph hy Entlora IVelty   F
  COVERED GRAVES IN A COUNTRY CHURCHYARD 451   .1
    Photograph hy IV. Lincoln Highton  
  A HARDWOOD SAWMILL 457   I
  Photograph hy IV. Lincoln Highton   P
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  CHOCTAW HANDIcRAET, INDIAN AGENCY, PHILADELPHIA 465  
IA   Photograph hy IVilla _/ohnxon   (
I   HMZISSISSIPPI CH0cTAw" 466   j
  Photograph hy A. C. Hector  
  A YOUNG CHOCTAW 467   A
  Photograph hy A. C. Hector   (
  BUILDING A TERRACE TO CONTROL EROSION 489  
  Photograph from U. S. Department of Agriculture   I
g LONGLEAF PINE TAPPED FOR TURPENTINE 491   I
’   Photograph hy IV. Lincoln Highton  
5; THE CARDER 501   I
  Photograph hy Mary Ethel Ditmtthet   ‘ _
X   BOY, BRDDM, AND BUTTERBEANS 504 I.
  Photograph hy IV. Lincoln Highton   ‘
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  GI;0I.0GIGAI. 1"ORMATIONS, MINERAL DEI¤0sITs, AND  
  TILIBER RESOURCES Page 36  
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3; RECREATION AREAS 44  
gz THE INDIANS IN MISSISSIPPI 48  
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6; TERRITORIAI. AcQUIsITI0Ns: 1801-1832 62  
  A/IISSISSIPPI IN 1817 68  
‘; COUNTIES OF MISSISSIPPI 78  
  TRANsp0RTAII0N 83  
85
  AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES 97  
 
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’ l COLUMBUS 180 and 181 gg;
—:T HOI.I.Y SPRINGS 202  
4E NATCHEZ 234 and 235  
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  General Inforrnauon  
  Railroads: Illinois Central System (Illinois Central, Gulf & Ship Island,  
  Yazoo & Mississippi Valley) ; Southern Railway System (New Orleans &  
  Northeastern, Southern, Alabama & Great Southern); Mobile & Ohio;  
IQ Gulf, Mobile & Northern; St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco); Mississippi  
  Central; Columbus & Greenville. Lines of the IC System run N. and S.,  
  E. and W. The GM&N and the M&O run N. and S. The Southern System  
  runs diagonally across the State from Alabama to Louisiana. Other lines  
  form connections with the trunk lines.  
l   Higbzvay.r.· Network of paved roads and many roads in process of paving.  
  No border inspection.  
Qt Bu; Liner: Tri—State Transit; Teche-Greyhound and affiliated lines; Mag-  
  nolia; Dixie Coaches; Oliver Coach Lines; Delta Transportation Co.;  
  Varnado; White Eagle; Bracy; Dunlap; Dixie Greyhound; Gulf Trans-  
  port Co.  
  IWa!erwayr.· Inland Waterways Corporation; Mississippi Valley Barge  
  Lines; New Orleans & Vicksburg Packet Co.; Valley Line. Steam ferry  
  service at Dundee, Friar Point, Greenville, Vicksburg, and Natchez. Port  
'   of Gulfport on the Gulf of Mexico.  
Yi Airlixzers Chicago & Southern (New Orleans to Chicago) stops at ]ackson. '
  Delta Line (Charleston to Dallas) stops at ]ackson and Meridian. V
  Trafr Regzzlatiaizrs No parking on bridges or roadways; speed limit on  
  highways 50 m.p.h., ro m.p.h. when passing schools and churches, in  
  cities 20-50 m.p.h. No racing or shooting on highways, no sirens, cutouts  
  must be muffled within certain limits. School busses not to be passed when  
  halted. 3
  Armzymzodationx In cities most hostelries built or renovated since 1928,  
Q ample facilities. ]ackson crowded during conventions and State Fair Week  
, in October, Natchez during spring Pilgrimage, and Gulf Coast during  
.t winter and summer seasons. In the rural sections tourist camps, new for  
if the most part since new concrete highways have been constructed, are at {5
  strategic points near towns. Camping facilities in national forests and  
State parks. _,

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  I xx GENERAL INFORMATION  j 
  Climate and Equipment: ln summer, which comes early and lingers late, l y m
  light clothing is necessary, though nights in Delta and Coastal Plain will J ] T
  be cool in early summer and latter part of August. Topcoat usually sufli-   rc
  cient in winter, with coatless Christmas not uncommon. For the hiker,   7
  hunter, swimmer, or picknicker, equipment may be obtained near most   U
  recreational centers. .  8}
  Fish and Game Laws: Game fish, bass, trout, crappie, pike, and sunfish    
  may be taken at any season. Limit of 25 of any species per day; bass not   N
  under 10 in.; sunfish not under 5 in. Illegal to sell game fish or to take by   tz
  explosives, chemicals, or to handgrab. Non-resident annual license, $5.25; X ; tl
  10-day license, $1.50; 3-day license, $1.25; obtained at sheriifs office or   O
  from State game wardens. f; IN
  Hunting Regzzlatimzs: Open season for squirrels, Oct. 1 to Dec. 31; opos-   b
  sum, Oct. 1 to ]an. 31; rabbits (gun) Nov. 20 to jan. 31, without gun,   f.
  all year; fox, open year round, may be taken with hounds only. Deer,   C
.   closed in most counties, limited in others (obtain bulletin from State com-   d
_   mission); bear, closed; quail, Dec. IO to Feb. 22; turkey, April 1 to   fl
  April 20, closed in northern Supreme Court district; ducks, geese, and   1
  brant, Nov. 27 to Dec. 26; rails (except coot), Sept. 1 to Nov. 30; wood-   2
  cock, Dec. 1 to Dec. 31; coot and snipe, Nov. 27 to Dec. 26; doves, Sept.  
  I5 to Oct. 1 and Nov. 20 to ]an. 15. No open season on wood-duck, buf-  
  flehead duck, ruddy duck, snow geese, and swan. Licenses: Non-resident  
  $25.25 (State), $10.25 (county). Federal "duck stamp" for taking migra-  
  tory waterfowl, $1. License issued by county wardens and sheriffs. Duck  
i   stamps at post office. Limits: Bag limit: Quail, 12; ducks, IO in aggregate  
  of all kinds; geese and brant, 5 in aggregate; rails, I5 in aggregate; Q;
  woodcock, 4; coot, 25; snipe, 15; doves, 15; squirrels, 8; rabbits, 10.  
  One deer (buck) and one turkey (gobbler) per season. General Laws:  
  Unlawful to procure license under assumed name, false address, or to  
  lend, transfer, or borrow and use license. Tags and badges must be dis-  
    played conspicuously on clothing.  
    Recreational Areas: Leaf River Forest, off US 49 near Brooklyn; Biloxi  
  Forest, SE. of Saucier on US 49; Chickasawhay Forest, local road between  
Y  Richton and Waynesboro; Homochitto Forest, off US 84 on Forest Service  
  road near Meadville; Bienville Forest, 18 m. SW. of the town of Forest,  
  State 35; Holly Springs Forest; Delta Purchase Unit, between Rolling  
  Fork and Yazoo City.  
    State Parks: LeRoy Percy State Park, 4 m. W. of Hollandale, US 61;  
i   Tombigbee Park, 7% m. E. of Tupelo, US 78; Clarkco Park, near Quit-  
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Z GENERAL INFORMATION xxi  .
  man in Clarke County; Legion State Park, V2 m. E. of Louisville, State 15;  
  Tishomingo Park, 5 m. SE. of Tishomingo, 2 m. off State 25 on local  
  road; Holmes County Park, 5 m. S. of Durant, US 51; Spring Lake Park,  
if 7 m. S. of Holly Springs, State 7; Roosevelt Park, 5 m. SW. of Morton,  
  US 80; Percy Quin Park, near McComb. State parks cover a total of  
  8,565 acres.  
  Preramimzr for T0m·irt.· Avoid zmnmrked spring;. Mosquitoes in Coastal  
  Meadow and in Delta regions, except in municipalities; campers should  
  take netting. Pairmzaur Plmztr, Reptiler, Dauzgeram Azzimalr, [merit: Rat-  
t   tlesnakes, moccasins, coral snakes. Poisonous plants include the ivies and  
i   other vines. Berries should not be eaten unless true identity is known.  
  Mosquitoes, black widow spiders generally distributed. Few bear, wildcats,  
·   bobcats in dense canebrakes in south and west Mississippi. Alligators in  
,   few Delta lakes and in swamplands of south Mississippi.  
’   General Tourirt 5`er1»ice.· Traiiic regulations bulletin from State highway  
` ; department information service; general laws from Secretary of State, in-  
3   formation service; fish and game laws from game and fish commission;  
  chambers of commerce and hotels furnish general information; Mississippi  
_`   Advertising Commission, ]ackson.  
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